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Full text of "Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society"

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v. 2 

1888-95 
1770806 



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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PROCEEDINGS 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

L 

VOLUME II. 



JTZ2V32, 1888, TO JUNE, 1895 



Published by the Society. 



CONCORD : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1S95. 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofnewv2newh 



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1770806 



TO THE MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY: 

This volume consists of four parts, printed respectively in 
1889, 1S91, 1S94, and IS95. 

In binding the volume the title pages to the several parts 
should be omitted. 

PUBLISHING COMMITTEES. 

f Charles H. Bell, 
Part /, pages 1-64. < Isaac W. Hammond, 

(Albert S. Batchellor. 



(C, 



Charles H. Bell, 
Part 2, pages 65-205. -^ Charles L. Tappan. 

George L. Balcom. 



C Charles L. Tappan, 
PartJ, pages 206-3 49- ] J OHN L. Farwell, 
(Albert S. Wait. 

C Charles L. Tappan, 
Part 4, pages 350-4Q8.1 John C. Ordway, 
(Albert S. Wait. 



10 4 7 9 4 



CONTENTS. 



Records of the Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting, June 13, 1888, 

Records of the 1st Adjourned Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting, 

June 21, 1888 .... 

Annual Report of the Recording Secretary 
44 , ^ 44 Treasurer . 

«* Librarian . 
4 * * 4 Publishing Committee 

Centennial Anniversary of the Ratification of the Con 
stitution of the United States by New Hampshire 
Address, by Hon. James W. Patterson, Hanover 
Poem, by Allen Eastman Cross, Manchester 
Addresses after the Banquet, by, — 

Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, Concord 
Gov. Chafes H. Sawyer, Dover . 
President Bartlett, D. D., Hanover 
Rev. Edward Everett Hale, D. D., Boston, Mass. 
Hon. Hampton L. Carson, Philadelphia, Pa 
Hon. Mellen Chamberlain 
Hon. James W. Patterson, Hanover 
Allen Eastman Cross, Manchester . 
Hon. Frank B. Sanborn, Concord, Mass 
Hon. George B. Loring, Salem, Mass. 
Letters received from, — 

Rev. Henry A. Hazen, Boston, Mass. (Washing 
ton's letter) ...... 

Hon. Henry \V. Blair, Washington, D. C. 

Hon. C. W. Darling, Utica, N. Y. 

Hon. John A. Kasson, Iowa 

Hon. J. Wyman Jones, Englevvood, New Jersey 

Josiah L. Pickard, Pres't State Hist. Society, Iowa 

William Sellers, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Page 
3 

3-61 
3 
5 
,6 

9 

12-61 
13 
37 

40 
40 
43 
44 
44 
44 
45 
45 
45 
46 



46 
49 
50 
52 
52 
53 
54 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



Letters received from, — 

C. H. Reeve, Plymouth, Indiana . 

Samuel E. Pingree, Hartford, Vermont . 

Walbridge A. Field, Boston, Mass. 

William A. Preston, New Ipswich 

John Ward Dean, Boston, Mass. . 

John A. King, Pres't of the New York Historical 

Society 

Brinton Coxe, Pres't of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania ...... 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting 

Sept. s, 188S 

Records of the 3d Adjourned Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting 

Nov. 15, 1888 

Records of the 4th Adjourned Sixty-Sixth Annual Meeting 

Dec. 20, 1888 

Address of Edmund F. Slafter, D. D., " Northmen, 1 

Apr. 24, 1888 

Records of the Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, June 12, 1889, 
Annual Report of the Recording Secretary . 

** " Treasurer .... 

*« " Librarian .... 

*« " Publishing Committee 

Annual Address, by Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, "The 
Offering of Lunenburg, Mass., to Cheshire County," 
Paper, by Isaac W. Hammond, Esq., "New Hamp- 
shire under the Federal Constitution " . 
Records of 1st Adjourned Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, 

Sept. 16, 18S9 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting 
and Annual Field Day at Durham, October 10. 

1889 

Records of 3d Adjourned Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, 

February 25, 1888 

Records of 4th Adjourned Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, 

March 3, 1890 

Address, by Hon. Charles R. Corning, "An Exploit in 

King William's War, 1697 : Hannah Dustan' 1 . 

Records of 5th Adjourned Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting, 

March 18, 1890 

Address, by Harry G. Sargent, Esq., "The Bradley 
Massacre' 1 ....... 



55 
56 
57 
57 
58 

59 

59 

61-62 

63 
63-64 

65 
85-119 

85 
86 

87 
89 

92 

107 

120 

121 

122 

. 1 22-1 5 1 

1 22 

52-175 
152 



CONTENTS. 



Records of the Sixty-Eighth Annual Meeting, June II, 1890 

Annual Report of the Recording Secretary . 

M '* Treasurer .... 

44 ** Librarian .... 

Resolutions in regard to the Gen. John Sullivan Mss. 

How the John Sullivan Mss. are to be kept . 

Annual Address, by Hon. John J. Bell 
Records of the 1st Adjourned Sixty-Eighth Annual Meeting 
and Annual Field Day, at Hampton, Sept. 12 
1890 

Life Members ....... 

Resident Members ...... 

Portrait and Sketch of Hon. Charles H. Bell 
Records of the Sixty-Ninth Annual Meeting, June 10, 1891 

Presentation of the Bust of Lafayette, by B. A 
Kimball 

Annual Report of the Treasurer . . . 

" *•« Librarian .... 

44 " Publishing Committee . 

Annual Address, by Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, "Ten- 
dencies towards Socialism, " . 
Records of the 1st Adjourned Sixty-Ninth Annual Meeting 
and Annual Field Day at Claremont and Charles- 
town, Sept. 30, 1 891 .... 

Address, by Maj. Otis F. R. Waite, "The Early His 
tory of the Town of Claremont " 
Records of the Seventieth Annual Meeting, June 8, 1892 

Annual Report of the Treasurer .... 
44 44 Librarian .... 

Presentation of a Copy of General Dix's Immortal Order 
"Annual Address, by Rev. Henry A. Hazen, D. D. 
44 New Hampshire and Vermont : An Historical 

Study" 

Records of the 1st Adjourned Seventieth Annual Meeting 
and Annual Field Day at Plymouth, October 13 

1892 

Records of the Seventy-First Annual Meeting, June 14, 1893 

Report of the Treasurer — new members qualified . 

Annual Report of the Treasurer .... 
44 44 Librarian .... 



175" 



.198 

175 
177 

178 
178 
182 
182 



198-199 
200 
201 
207 

213-233 

213 
215 
216 
218 



223 



233-257 

234 

257-277 

258 

259 
262 



265 



278-279 

280-331 

280 

281 

282 



VI CONTENTS. 

Records of the Seventy-First Annual Meeting, June 14, 1893 : 
Report of the Special Committee, "On Procuring a 

Naval History of New Hampshire " . . . 284 

Annual Address, by Hon. Chester B. Jordan (read by 

A. S. Batchellor), "Sketch of Col. Joseph 

Whipple" 289 

Address, by Hon. John J. Bell (not delivered on account 

of illness) ....... 321 

Portrait and Sketch of Hon. John J. Bell . . . 331 

Records of the 1st Adjourned Seventy-First Annual Meeting 

and Annual Field Day at Hillsborough, Oct. 3, 

1893 332-348 

Address, by Hon. Amos Hadley, "History of Hills- 
borough" 333 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Seventy-First Annual Meeting, 348-349 
Records of the Seventy-Second Annual Meeting, June 13, 

1884, 351-361 

Annual Report of the Treasurer ..... 351 

" " Librarian ..... 352 

" " Standing Committee . . . 355 

1. On the Bounds of this Society's Lot . . 355 

2. On the Library of Mr. Sabine . . . 355 

3. In regard to quarterly meetings . . . 356 
Annual Report of the Publishing Committee . . . 357 
Presentation of the County Maps of New Hampshire, by 

Hon. Henry M. Baker 35% 

Records of the 1st Adjourned Seventy-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Sept. 12, 1894 361-400 

Report of the Committee on the Sabine Library, with 

Letters to and from Mrs. Sabine . . 362 

Paper of Hon. S. C. Eastman, in regard to the Plumer 

Memoirs ......-• 3°4 

Annual Address, by Judge Edgar Aldrich, " The Indian 

Stream Controversy" ..... 366 

Records of the 2d Adjourned Seventy-Second Annual Meet- 
ing and Annual Field Day, at Franklin, Oct. 4, 
1894 400-404 

Address, by Hon. Amos Hadley 402 

Records of the 3d Adjourned Seventy-Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Dec. 13, 1S94 405-407 

Report of the Committee on Mr. Eastman's paper on 

Plumer Memoirs 4°5 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



Records of the 3d Adjourned Seventy- Second Annual Meet- 
ing, Dec. 13, 1894: 
Address, by Hon. Roswell Farnham of Bradford, Vt., 
«• The Life and Public Services of Gen. Israel 
Morey" (the address has not been received) 
Records of the 4th Adjourned Seventy-Second Annual Meet 
ing, March 20, 1895 .... 

Address, by Rev. Samuel C. Bartlett, D. D., " Dr. John 
Wheelock" .... 
Memoir of Isaac K. Gage, with portrait 
Memoir of Daniel F. Secomb 
Memoir of Benjamin F. Prescott, with portrait 
Officers of the Society from 1823 to 1895 . 
Honorary Members from 1874 to 1895 
Corresponding Members from 1874 to 1895 
Resident Members who qualified from 1874 to 1895 
Active Resident Members June 12, 1895 
Acts and Resolves of the Legislature of N. H., in favor of the 
Society : 
Fifty copies of the State Papers .... 
One copy of the Index to the laws of the state 
One copy of the Index to the journals of the senate 
Five copies of the history of each regiment published 
Five copies of the history of the naval contingent, etc. 
Five hundred dollars to keep the library open 
One copy of the Public Statutes, 1891 . 
One copy of the printed laws of each session 
Two copies of each printed catalogue of every college, 
academy, seminary, or other institution of learning, 
Two reports from each town in the state 
Deed of Bradley Monument Lot, — Abner Colby to Richard 

Bradley 

Deed of Bradley Monument Lot, — Richard Bradley to N. H 

Historical Society ..... 
Deed — Merrimack County Bank to Nathaniel Bouton .• 
• " " "Mrs. Emily Chadwick 

<< Edward H. Rollins 
Deed— Edward H. Rollins to N. H. Historical Society 
Agreement with Edward H. Rollins to purchase the Merri 
mack County Bank building for the N. H. Histor 
ical Society ...... 



407 

407-426 

408 
427 
430 
431 
433 
440 

442 
445 
453 



459 
459 
460 
460 
461 
462 
462 
462 

463 
462 

464 

466 
468 
47i 
473 
476 



47S 



V1U CONTENTS. 

Subscriptions for the purchase of Bank building . . . 479 
Letter of Hon- Charles H. Bell, commending Dr. Bouton . 481 
Subscriptions for making the library building fire proof . 482 
Expenses of Dr. Bouton in soliciting the same . . . 483 
Subscriptions for purchasing the portrait of Dudley Leavitt . 483 
Agreement of Lorenzo Sabine's heirs to carry into effect the 
codicil to his last will in favor of the N. H. His- 
torical Society ....... 484 

General Index . . . . - ■ • ■ . . . 487 

Index of Names . . . . . . . . 492 






PI^OGEEDIKGS 

OF THE 

N, H. Historical Society, 



Concord, Wednesday, June 13, 1888. 

The sixty-sixth annual meeting of the N. H. Historical Society 
was held at the Society's rooms, this day at 1 1 o'clock a. m., the 
president in the chair. 

Mr. Hammond, from the committee on new members, made a 
report nominating the following-named persons, who, upon ballot, 
were unanimously elected, by the constitutional majority, members 
of the Society. 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Mrs. Annette M. Cressey, James W". Flavin, Concord; Ira 
Colby, Charles B. Spofford, Claremont; Walter M. Parker, 
Manchester. 

The Society adjourned to meet at the Society's rooms, on 
Thursday, June 21, 1888, at 9 o'clock a. m. 



Concord, Thursday, June 21, 1888. 

The adjourned sixty-sixth annual meeting of the N. H. Histori- 
cal Society was held at the Society's rooms, this day at 9.30 
o'clock a. m., the president in the chair. 

The reading of the records of adjourned sixty-fifth annual 
meetings, already printed in the Proceedings, was dispensed with ; 
the record of the sixty-sixth annual meeting was read and 
approved. 

The report of the recording secretary was read and accepted. 

It stated that the following persons had accepted membership 
for the year ending June 12, 1888 : 



,,k,->-.,.. m^mmM 



4 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Henry M. Baker, Bow ; Howard L. Porter, Mrs. Alice Rosalie 
Porter, Edson C. Eastman, Rev. Charles L. Tappan, Mrs. Almira 
Rice Tappan, Rev. Cephas B. Crane, d. d., John A. White, Mrs. 
Frances C. Stevens, Myron J. Pratt, Arthur W. Silsby, Henry W. 
Stevens, Mrs. Ellen Tuck Stevens, Mrs. Martha W. Hammond, 
Mrs. Louisa J. Sargent, Alonzo P. Carpenter, Mrs. Julia R. Car- 
penter, Mrs. Lydia F. Lund, Mrs. Pauline L. Bowen, John P. 
Nutter, A. J. Prescott, Edson J. Hill, Paul R. Holden, Mrs. Myra 
Tilton Kimball, Rev. Bradley Gilman, Frank W. Rollins, Francis 
L. Abbott, Rev. John E. Barry, v. c, Concord ; John C. Line- 
han, Charles H. Amsden, Penacook ; Warren F. Daniell, Frank- 
lin ; Isaac B. Dodge, Amherst ; Charles A. Farr, Littleton ; Mor- 
tier L. Morrison, Peterboro' ; Rev. James E. Odlin, GorTstown ; 
Francis C. Faulkner, Keene ; Ezra S. Stearns, Rindge ; Chester 
B. Jordan, Lancaster ; W. H. H. Allen, Claremont ; John B. 
Smith, Hillsboro'; J. P. Kimball, m. d., Suncook ; John C. 
French, Manchester ; Rev. E. G. Parsons, Derry. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Gen. Harrison C. Hobart, Milwaukee, Wis. ; Major G. A. 
Raikes, London, England. 

HONORARY MEMBER. 

Mellen Chamberlain, Boston. 

It was also reported that, since the sixty-sixth annual meeting. 
Ira Colby and C. B. Spofford, of Claremont, had accepted resident 
membership. 

Messrs. Joseph B. Walker, Isaac K. Gage, and Howard L. 
Porter were appointed a committee to nominate officers. 

Messrs. Isaac W. Hammond, Sylvester Dana, and J. E. Pecker 
were appointed a committee on new members. 

Mr. S. C. Eastman made report from the committee on the 
Centennial Celebration of the Ratification of the Constitution of 
the United States by New Hampshire ; also from the committee 
on calendar of historical papers in London, accompanied by a com- 
munication from Mr. B. F. Stev:ns. The report was accepted, 
and the committee continued. 

Mr. W. P. Fiske, treasurer, submitted his annual report, which 
was accepted and ordered on hie. 



treasurer's report. 5 

To the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

The treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures from June 8, 1887, to June 20, 1888 : 

RECEIPTS. 

By balance June 8, 1887, $9,420.11 

" cash received for Life memberships, 100.00 

" " " from initiation fees, 220.00 

" " " " assessments, 340.00 

" " interest received, 546.44 

" " books and pamphlets sold, ' 41.10 
" u received from State to purchase copies 

of papers in London, 1,000.00 

$11,667.65 







EXPENDITURES. 


h 


To 


paid for care of rooms, 


$ 2445 


u 


a 


" insurance. 


66.50 


it 


tt 


S. C. Eastman, sundry expenses, 


4.05 


tt 


tt 


postage, 


5 -4o 


a 


tt 


B. F. Stevens, London, for copies of 








papers, 


500.00 


it 


tt 


VV. M. Darrah, repairs, 


6.84 


(i 


tt 


I. VV. Hammond, salary, 


250.00 


tt 


a 


" " sundry expenses, 


I7-I3 


it 


a 


Andrew Bunker, 


1.50 


tt 


a 


Crawford & Stockbridge, 


15.00 


ii 


tt 


for repairs, 


8.15 


ft 


a 


" use of G. A. R. hall, 


8.00 


ii 


tt 


" advertising meetings, 


11.25 


ii 


tt 


J. E. Sargent, 


4.00 


it 


tt 


Republican Press Association, 


35-38 



#957-65 

$10,710.00 
Permanant fund, #3,947-4 2 

Publication fund, 600.00 

Fund to procure calendar of papers in 

the Public Record office in London, r, 000.00 
Current funds, 5» l62 -5 8 

£10,710.00 

Increase the past year, $789.89 

Wm. P. Fiske, Treasurer. 



6 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

This is to certify that I have examined the books and accounts 
of Mr. VVm. P. Fiske, treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society for the year ending June 20, 1888. I find the same cor- 
rectly cast and well vouched. The balance on hand I find to be 
^10,710.00, and all in good, reliable funds. 

W. Odlin, Auditor. 

Concord, June 20, 1888. 

Mr. Isaac \V. Hammond, librarian, submitted his annual report, 
which was accepted and ordered on file. 

librarian's report. 
Ladies and Gentlemen of the N. H. Historical Society : 

As librarian of this Society, I have the honor to submit the fol- 
lowing report : 

During the past year the rooms of the Society have been open 
to the public as follows : Every secular day during the session of 
the legislature and on Tuesdays and Thursdays of each week 
during the remainder of the year. They have also been open the 
other four days in each week, with few exceptions, for the accom- 
modation of the members and other historical students ; and, in 
fact, all who have called on any day of the week have been cour- 
teously received, and their wants attended to so far as the ability 
of your librarian would admit. Hundreds of our citizens, resident 
in various parts of the state, and many from out the state, have 
availed themselves of these privileges by visiting the rooms, con- 
sulting the volumes, examining the paintings and other collections, 
and expressed their satisfaction at finding the institution open and 
many their surprise at finding so large and valuable a collection of 
books, pamphlets, and manuscripts. The number of visitors has 
been as many as 25 on some of the open days, and hardly a day 
has passed without some. Your librarian has endeavored to inter- 
est all callers, with a view of promoting a favorable opinion in the 
minds of the people towards the institution, believing that it would 
result in an increase of donations of books, money, and other val- 
uable materials, an increase in membership and in public senti- 
ment favoring an appropriation from the state towards the pur- 
chase of historical works and the support of a permanent 
librarian. 

The additions to the library during the past year have been 217 
bound volumes, 1,243 pamphlets, 10 maps, 2 portraits, and 23 
volumes of manuscript sermons of the late Rev. Timothy Upham. 
All of these were gifts to the Society, except three volumes which 
were received of a member of the Society in part payment for 
annual dues. 

The portraits are : one of the late Frank W. Miller, presented 
by Mrs. Miller, and the other of Mrs. Chandler E. Potter, pre- 



librarian's REPORT. 7 

sented by herself. The maps were presented by Rev. N. L. 
Upham and Mrs. Joseph B. Walker. Some of them are val- 
uable, one being a copy of Carrigain's map of New Hampshire, 
in excellent condition. Care has been taken to forward letters of 
acknowledgment in [all cases, except when the same was 
waived. 

The Society has also received from the publishers the following 
weekly newspapers : Mirror and Farmer^ People and Patriot, 
Veteran's Advocate, Great Falls Free Press, Exeter Gazette and 
Plymouth Record ; also the Hamptonia amd Shaker Manifesto, 
and from Mr. Joseph B. Walker the Boston Daily Advertiser. 
They are all properly filed and reserved for future disposition. 

During the past winter, with the advice of the standing com- 
mittee, your librarian spent a portion of the time belonging to the 
library, which was available for such work after attending to vis- 
itors and entering and acknowledging the receipts of donations, in 
examining and arranging the manuscripts In the vault, it being 
impossible to work in the library room, as there is no way of 
warming it. A special appropriation of $150 was voted for this 
work by the Society at its annual meeting in 1886. The result 
will be shown by the report of the committee. 

By the advice of the same committee he has used a consider- 
able portion of the time belonging to the library, and some of his 
own, in collecting and arranging the material, reading the proof, 
and superintending the publication of the fourth part of the first 
volume of the Society's proceedings and in compiling an exhaust- 
ive index to the volume. The result of this work will be shown 
by the report of the publishing committee. Very many letters, 
addressed to the librarian and requiring research among the 
archives of the Society, have been attended to by him. 

A beginning has been made in the work of assorting and classi- 
fying the pamphlets, of which the Society has a large and valuable 
collection. A considerable portion of them are in a heterogeneous 
mass, and' considerable time will be required to make them avail- 
able for consultation and use. Your librarian deems it advisable 
and almost imperative that this work be doee in the near future, 
and that the valuable historical, biographical, genealogical, and 
other rare pamphlets should be placed in some kind of paper 
boxes, made for that purpose, with a blank upon the back of 
each upon which to index its contents, and so constructed as to 
exclude the dust. I would recommend the purchase of a suitable 
number of such boxes for that purpose. 

The Society has a valuable collection of the publications of other 
similar institutions, issued in parts, portions of which have been 
bound, and the remainder should be if the funds available for 
that purpose will admit of it. These have been acquired by ex- 



8 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



change or gift, and some of them will require the purchase of a 
few numbers to complete volumes. 

We have on hand a considerable number of volumes of this 
Society's, published collections, with the exception of volumes 4 
and 6, and quite a large number of the several volumes of the 
Province and State papers. Very few calls for them are being 
received, doubtless, in part, for the reason that few persons are 
aware that we have them for sale. 

I would suggest the propriety of instructing the library and stand- 
ing committees to take the matter into consideration, with a view of 
disposing of a portion of the surplus, and using the proceeds for the 
purchase of historical works much needed by the Society ; and 
that said committee be authorized to fix a special reduced price 
for the same to the members of the Society and to dealers in 
books, if they deem it for the best interest of the institution so to 
do. It will be seen that no books are being acquired, except such 
as can be obtained by gift or exchange. Some historical works 
are being published, which are unquestionably desirable, that can 
not be thus obtained, and it seems that some way should be 
devised, if practicable, to procure copies of works needed and 
which are likely to advance in price in the near future. 

The state and general public have not given this Society in the 
past that support which it deserved and ought to have received. 
Very few of our citizens are acquainted with its history, or aware 
of the amount of time spent and labor performed by some of the 
older members of the institution to make it a success. Those 
men, many of whom are still earnest working members, not only 
gave generously of their time and talents, but to a large extent 
furnished from their own resources the means to carry on the 
good work ; and knowing, as I have recently come to know, 
something of the time and money given by those gentlemen, I 
realize that those of us who have come into the Society later 
cannot accord them too much credit for their unselfish exertions, 
which have resulted in the accumulation of this large and valuable 
collection and the acquisition of this substantial old building for 
its home. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Isaac VV. Hammond, 

Librarian. 



Mr. Howard L. Porter, from the committee to nominate offi- 
cers, reported as follows : 

For President—]. Everett Sargent; Vice-Presidents — Samuel 
C. Eastman, George L. Balcom ; Corresponding Secretary— 'Rev. 
C. L. Tappan ; Recording Secretary-Amos Hadley ; Treasurer — 



REPORT OF PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. g 

William P. Fiske ; Librarian — Isaac W. Hammond ; Necrolo- 
gist— -Irving A. Watson; Auditor— -Isaac K. Gage; Standing 
Committee — Joseph B. Walker, J. C. A. Hill, Howard L. Porter ; 
Publishing Committee — Charles H. Bell, Isaac W. Hammond, 
A. S. Batchellor; Library Committee — J. E. Pecker, John C. Ord- 
way, Edson C. Eastman. 

The report was accepted and adopted, and the above-named 
gentlemen were elected officers of the Society for the ensuing- 
year. 

The report of the publishing committee, presented by Mr. 
Hammond, was accepted : 

REPORT OF PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 

The committee on publication respecfully present the follow- 
ing report : 

Part 4 and last of volume i,of the Proceedings of the Society, 
has been printed, and will be ready for distribution next week. 
Its contents are as follows : 

i. List of officers elected in 1887. 

2. List of resident members, 18S8. 

3. Proceedings of the Society from July 16, 1884, t0 the pres- 
ent time. 

4-6. Addresses of Messrs. Charles W. Tuttle, Samuel T. Wor- 
cester and John Albee, delivered before the Society before July 
16, 1884. 

7. Papers read before the Society at the quarterly meeting held 
at Penacook, October 27, 1887. 

8. Complete index to the live volumes of manuscript biogra- 
phies compiled by the late Gov. Plumer. 

9. Exhaustive index to the volume of Proceedings. 

Two hundred copies of part 4 are to be bound in paper covers 
to supply members who have had the three preceding parts. One 
hundred copies of the entire volume of Proceedings are to be 
bound in paper covers, and one hundred copies in muslin, to 
supply members who have not received the preceding parts ; those 
bound in muslin costing fifty cents each. 

By reason of the engagements of the other members of the 
committee, the principal part of the work of issuing this part has 
fallen upon Mr. Hammond, who, by the advice of the standing 
committee, has taken a part of the time for which he was em- 
ployed as librarian for this purpose. He has also spent about six 
days of his own time in preparing the index. 

The committee congratulate the Society upon the issue of this 
volume. Its contents are of much interest and value, and its 



10 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

appearance is the best possible evidence of the vitality and effi- 
ciency of the Society. 

Charles H. Bell, 
For the Committee on Publication. 

The report of Mr. Hammond, from committee on papers in the 
vault of the Society, was accepted. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WORK IN THE VAULT. 

The four volumes of manuscripts called the Hibbard Collec- 
tion have been indexed. 

All of the loose manuscripts belonging to the Society have been 
examined, piece by piece, classified to some extent, and about 
2,000 of the most ancient and valuable have been pasted by one 
margin into five large folio volumes purchased for that purpose at 
at an expense of 315. Another portion has been arranged in 
various packages, labelled and indexed. 

The manuscripts in the drawers have been arranged in classes and 
catalogued. The vault also contains many valuable ancient record 
books, a large quantity of correspondence between Governor Belcher 
and Secretary Waldron, which has been chronologically arranged and 
ought to be printed. Sixteen large volumes and one draw full of 
the manuscript correspondence and other documents of the late 
Daniel Webster, several volumes and many loose papers of the 
late John Farmer in a drawer by themselves, and a variety of 
other interesting and valuable material, which will soon be accesi- 
ble by use of the index. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Isaac W. Hammond, 

For the Committee. 

Mr. John Kimball, from the committee appointed April 24, 
1888, to consider the subject of warming the library room, made 
a report as on file, and the committee was continued. 

Mr. Hammond, from the committee on new members, made a 
report, which was accepted, and the persons therein named were, 
on ballot, elected, by the constitutional majority, members of the 
Society : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Hon. Frederick Smyth, Mrs. Marion Smyth, Manchester; 
George E. Todd, Mrs. Caroline B. Bartlett, Mrs. Laura Garland 
Carr, Mrs. M. A. Pratt, Charles C. Danforth, Concord ; John J. 
Ciliey, South Deerfield. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 

John Edwin Mason, M. v., Washington, D. C. 



PROCEEDINGS — ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING II 

| 

The president presented a communication, from the Canadian 
French Institute, accompanied by a letter from Hon. C. H. Bell, 
both of which were read and referred to the standing committee. 

A communication from Mrs Maria E. Brown, concerning the 
discovery of America by the Northmen, was presented by the 
president, but no action thereon was taken by the Society. 

The president presented a communication from the American 
Philosophical Society, at Philadelphia, respecting Volapiik, which 
was referred to a committee consisting of Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
Amos Hadley aad Joseph B. Walker. 

Messrs. Isaac \V. Hammond, S. C. Eastman and J. E. Pecker 
were appointed a committee to select the orator for the next 
I annual meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Hammond, 

Resolved, That a tax of three dollars be assessed upon each 
resident member, who has been such for one year or more. 

On motion of the same gentleman, 

Resolved, That when the Society shall finally adjourn this day, 
it do so to meet again on the first Wednesday of September next, 
at eleven o'clock a. m. 

On motion of Mr. J. E. Pecker, the president was requested to 
appoint, at his convenience, a committee, of such number as he 
may see fit, to attend the celebration of the 250th anniversary 
of the settlement of Hampton, to occur on the 15th day of 
August, 1888.* 

On motion of Mr. D. F. Secomb, a sum not exceeding twenty 
dollars was appropriated for the purpose of procuring town re- 
ports. 

The Society then voted to take a recess till 12 o'clock, noon, 
and at that time to meet at White's Opera House. 

After recess, the Society met at the time and place aforesaid. 

The commemorative exercises of the Centennial Anniversary of 
the Ratification of the Constitution of the United States by New 
Hampshire then took place, the details of which herewith follow. 



* The following named members of the Society, designated by the president, attended the 
celebration: Rev. C. L. Tappan, Mr. Joseph B. Walker, Mr. Sylvester Dana, Mr. and Mrs. 
Isaac W. Hammond. They were assigned honorable positions in the procession and at the 
table. Rev. Mr. Tappan responded for the Society, and the occasion was one of much 
interest and enjoyment. — Eo. 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY 

OF THE 

RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 

BY NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



It being deemed desirable that the New Hampshire Historical 
Society should celebrate, on the 21st of June, 1888, the centen- 
nial anniversary of the Ratification of the Constitution of the 
United States by New Hampshire, the matter of making prelimi- 
nary arrangements therefor was, on the 24th of April, referred to 
the committee on orator and the standing committee, to act con- 
jointly, and to report to the next adjourned annual meeting of the 
Society, to be held on the 9th of May. On that day, the afore- 
said committees, by Mr. S. C. Eastman, made a report recom- 
mending the appointment of a committee to ascertain, by circular, 
the feasibility of providing a dinner, and defraying other necessary 
expenses for the occasion, and such feasibility being ascertained, 
to make the necessary arrangements for the proper observance of 
the day. Whereupon, a committee of three, with authority to add 
others, was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Samuel C. Eastman. 
Amos Hadley, and Joseph C. A. Hill. This committee subse- 
quently added Messrs. B. A. Kimball, Joseph B. Walker, Isaac \V. 
Hammond, and Charles R. Corning. 

Hon. James W. Patterson, of Hanover, had previously accepted 
an invitation to deliver the oration, and Mr. Allen Eastman Cross, 
Manchester, to read a poem. 

It was ascertained, by circular issued to the resident members, 
that a sufficient number would attend the dinner, and a sufficient 
sum would be subscribed to meet the necessary expenses, and 
render the occasion a success. Invitations were sent to the gov- 
ernors of the thirteen original states, to the president of the 
United States and members of the cabinet, to many other persons 



mr. Patterson's address. 



'3 



of distinction, and to historical societies. Other arrangements 
were made for the day's exercises, including an elaborate banquet, 
with Dooling, of Boston, as caterer, and for after-dinner speeches 
by men distinguished in public and private life, in politics and 
letters. 

The regular sixty-sixth annual meeting of the Society occurring 
on the 13th of June was adjourned to the morning of Tuesday, 
the 21st. At that time the Society met, and, having transacted 
the usual business of an annual meeting, adjourned to meet again 
at noon, at White's Opera House, to listen to the oration and 
poem. President Sargent occupied the chair, and with him, upon 
the stage, were Gov. Sawyer, George L. Balcom, vice-president, 
and Amos Hadley, recording secretary of the Society, together 
with the orator and poet of the day. A fair-sized audience of 
strangers and citizens of Concord were in attendance. 

Judge Sargent made a brief introductory address, and intro- 
duced as orator Hon. James W. Patterson, of Hauover, who 
spoke as follows : 

mr. Patterson's address. 

Article seven of the Constitution of the United States provided 
that the ratification of nine states " should be sufficient for the estab- 
lishment of the Constitution, so ratifying the same." Providen- 
tially it happened that New Hampshire was the ninth state to 
record its vote in favor of that immortal instrument. In an essen- 
tial act, therefore, it may be said that our state established the 
republic, and started a train of political events than which nothing 
recorded in history has been or will be more potential on human 
welfare. In that fact is the significance of this day. 

To realize in any measure the intense interest that focalized in 
the transaction that occurred in the old North church in this town 
a hundred years ago to-day, and to catch any inspiration from the 
joy and the rejoicing that thrilled the whole country as the issue 
transpired and crept slowly from New Hampshire to Georgia, we 
must see the political importance of the event so far as we can 
trace it in the brief hour allotted us. 

It is difficult, perhaps impossible, for any of us to so divest our 
minds of the unconscious inheritance of ideas that constitute the 



14 N EW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

vested intellectual progress of a century, as to do full and exact 
justice to the men who laid the foundations of the republic. 

The reflection and experience of more than three generations 
have made clear and certain to us principles that were then 
obscure and doubtful We have tested and established what they 
embodied in law and government for the first time as contested 
theories. Political problems and expedients that had their birth 
in the necessities of the time, or in the fruitful genius of extraor- 
dinary statesmanship, have in the progress of knowledge become 
axiomatic truths in the science of government. 

We may demand what, in their day and condition, was impossi- 
ble. By the consensus of the wisest, the Constitution framed by 
the convention of 1787 stands as the supreme masterpiece of 
organic legislation, but it was an unavoidable compromise with 
ineradicable evils, the full potency of which only the sacrifices of 
blood and treasure by posterity could measure. 

As the inspired law-givers of Israel were called to establish 
theocratic institutions for a chosen people whom the bitter experi- 
ences of centuries had not entirely purged of prejudice and folly, 
so the great architects of our institutions were required to frame a 
political system for the peoples of independent states jealous of 
their rights and dreading the limitations of state power by the sur- 
render of any part of their accustomed local sovereignty, even to 
secure the general welfare. The Confederacy was crumbling 
beneath their feet, but the masses did not yet realize that the 
states must become component and subordinate parts of a supreme 
state, with power to conserve both national and local interests, if 
they would not drift into speedy and irretrievable ruin. 

Religious bigotry and social castes had driven their fathers 
to a renunciation of birthrights and fatherland for a home 
upon a wild and desolate continent amid the savagery and 
cruelty of barbarism. Abandoned, without sympathy or 
support, to the rigors of nature and the cruelties of men, they 
grew strong in the conquest of fortune. Exiled from 
home by religious persecution and mercantile selfishness, 
they reached by original steps both the theory and the art of 
self-government, and when, by the exercise of unequalled energy 
and self-reliance, they had attained a period of profit, the 



mr. Patterson's address. 



*5 



king and an oligarchy of nobles and gentry entered, by the help 
of a corrupted and subservient parliament, upon a system of 
legalized robbery of the colonies. They made it a crime for them 
to manufacture what could be made in England, or to sell their 
products and purchase their supplies in any but British markets. 

" England has founded an empire on the other side of the 
Atlantic," said Adam Smith, " for the sole purpose of raising a 
people of customers for her shop-keepers." They even denied to 
the colonies the right of untaxed traffic among themselves. 
They had loaded themselves with debt and sacrificed thirty 
thousand of their sons in the prosecution of England's wars, 
and yet parliament attempted to fill her empty treasury by impos- 
ing taxes upon trans-Atlantic subjects whom her oppressions had 
banished, whose industries her selfish legislation had stifled, and- 
whom she had deprived of a voice in her halls of legislation. 

When the colonists pleaded their constitutional rights as English- 
men, protested against the imposition of illegal burdens, and 
resisted the execution of unjust enactments, their laws were an- 
nulled, their assemblies broken up, their charters revoked, their 
respectful petitions rejected as treasonable utterances, and military 
forces sent to reduce them to submission. 

As a last resort in this extremity, delegates from twelve of the 
colonies, pursuant to votes passed by the Virginia and Massa- 
chusetts assemblies, and in accordance with a suggestion originally 
made by the eloquent Otis, met in Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1774, 
and organized the first Continental Congress. The delegates, in a 
letter addressed to Gov. Gage, styled themselves " guardians of 
the rights and liberties of the colonies," but they were British 
subjects acting without precedent for an informal union of the 
colonies. They were not yet prepared to assume the functions 
of a revolutionary government, and so they limited themselves to 
making a Declaration of Rights based upon the laws of nature, 
the English constitution and royal charters and compacts which 
had been confirmed to them by their general codes of provincial 
laws. They asserted " that it is inseparably essential to the free- 
dom of a people and the undoubted rights of Englishmen, that 
no tax be imposed upon them without their own consent, given 
personally or by their representatives." They also addressed to 



1 6 SEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the king and people of Great Britain an able resume of their 
bitter and protracted grievances, and asked for redress. 

But this Congress did something more than remonstrate and pe- 
tition. Its members showed that there was a manly temper and 
settled purpose in their supplications, for before separating they 
recommended commercial non-intercourse with England and her 
dependencies, and the assembling of another Congress on the 
ioth of the following May if their prayers should be disregarded. 
They then adjourned, and returned home. 

They were spurned from the throne. The only response of 
the infatuated government, whose power in parliament was main- 
tained by " rotten boroughs," to their appeals for justice was war — 
protracted, relentless war. At Lexington and Concord the ties 
of patriotism and loyalty which had bound our fathers with an 
affectionate allegiance to the jurisdiction of their kindred beyond 
the sea were ruthlessly sundered, and, despairing of the relief to 
which they were entitled as subjects of England, and for which 
the voices of Chatham and Burke had pleaded in vain, they turned 
as one people to the defence of their rights as men. American 
liberty was gendered and nursed into power by British oppression. 

The second Continental Congress, the Revolutionary Congress, 
came together on the ioth of May as the representatives of a 
united people, and, though elected in the hope of reconciliation, 
assumed without hesitation the exercise of the rights of war essen- 
tial to the defence of the nation not yet christened, but already 
born by the Caesarian process of battle. 

It is not our privilege to-day to follow the thrilling record of 
arms, but rather to trace the slow development of the principles 
of national government that culminated in the Constitution, whose 
adoption by our own state on the 21st of June, 17S8, we have 
met this day to recall and commemorate. 

Rightly to interpret the work of the national and state conven- 
tions, in which the Constitution had its birth, we must see it in its 
historic relations. 

The delegates to the Revolutionary Congress were the recog- 
nized leaders of their respective colonies, and, for the most part, 
had been chosen or their election ratified by conventions of the 
people, and so had the prestige of the power behind the throne. 



MR. PATTERSONS ADDRESS. I 7 

They were men of far vision and heroic mould, and did not 
shrink from the responsibilities which have given to them an im- 
mortality among the founders of states. They realized that they 
were the ministers of Providence called to secure the liberties of 
their country, the happiness of posterity, and the rights of men in 
two hemispheres. 

In the Congress of 1774 Patrick Henry had suggested that as 
the members represented populations rather than states, the voting 
should be by polls ; but as they had no census of the people in 
the respective colonies, or any way of ascertaining the relative wealth 
of each, they decided to give each colony one vote, but left the 
inference in their language that a change would be made in the 
future. The Revolutionary Congress for a similar reason and 
because immediate duties pressed this great issue aside, adopted 
the same rule, and established a precedent which came near 
strangling the Constitution in the hour of its birth. 

Congress wrested from England the sovereignty of the Union 
•for national purposes, and exercised it without a question of right 
till the great leaders had retired for the direction of more pressing 
duties at home, and weak men, who shrank from responsibility, 
had filled their places, and till the pusillanimous Confederacy had 
perverted the public mind. The city and county of New York, 
Massachusetts, and other provinces recognized the supreme 
authority of Congress by asking for military aid and direction, and 
by seeking advice and authority in the formation of state govern- 
ments. 

On the 15th of June, 1775, Congress elected one of their own 
number, Col. Geo. Washington, commander-in-chief of the forces 
of the United Colonies. They created a continental currency by 
issuing bills of credit, for the redemption of which the faith of 
the confederated colonies was pledged. They authorized reprisals 
to be made by public and private armed vessels in retaliation for 
the capture of American ships on the authority of parliament. 
They threw open American ports to all nations except Great 
Britain. They established departments of government, made 
treaties, effected domestic and foreign loans, authorized the 
establishment of state governments, severed the political connec- 
tion of the united people of this country with the people of 



iS NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

England by a formal declaration, and assumed the title and 
designation of United States of America. They issued com- 
missions and voted bounties ; they recommended the arming of 
the militia and the enrolment of the people for military purposes ; 
and in the darkest hour of the Revolution, when the hope of 
success flickered in the socket, conferred dictatorial powers upon 
the commander in-chief. 

These were all measures of a sovereign power never assumed 
or exercised by the local authorities, which were slowly leading 
up to a general government. War was the sad but essential 
precursor to the overthrow of a foreign, and the establishment of 
a domestic government. 

The Revolutionary government was purely an offspring of 
necessity, the legitimacy of whose acts had been confirmed by 
the approval of thirteen distinct political organizations, whose 
only bond of union was a common danger and a common object- 
That object was the freedom and welfare of all, and their union 
in arms knit more firmly the fraternity of a common nationality 
and history. It habituated them to combined action, suggested 
the necessity of union for strength and security in peace, and 
kindled a patriotism which, leaping the narrow boundaries of the 
state, embraced the power and glory of a new nation. The war 
which forced together the disjected strength of the colonies edu- 
cated the people to the idea of unity, and was a providential link 
in that marvellous chain of events which culminated in a national 
political system. 

But having been forced into arms before the artificial machinery 
of an organized republic had been created, such as we could com- 
mand in our later wars, Congress was obliged to act through the 
political organisms of the local governments, and to make requisi- 
tions upon the states, when their action would have been more 
efficient in the war and less demoralizing to future political interests 
if they could have laid their hands immediately upon the people. 
But they could not anticipate the development of events. 

This enforced deference to the stales at length affected the 
timid men who had worked their way into Congress, and they 
came to doubt their right or ability to enforce the war 
powers with which the Revolution had invested them. They be- 



mr. Patterson's address. 19 

gan to hesitate and vacillate, and the states to claim powers which 
they had never exercised. Moved by a senseless jealousy of 
state rights, and affecting a dread of a standing army, the dis- 
affected even denied to Washington, seemingly struggling against 
a relentless fate, the right to exact an oath of allegiance from tories 
and traitors. 

This growing discontent of the war power at length forced upon 
Congress the necessity of a government clothed with definite 
powers, and administered by a civil executive. 

A plan of civil government had been prepared and sent out 
for the assent of the states early in 1777, but various causes had 
delayed its ratification. Some objected to its method of apportion- 
ing taxes and raising the quotas of public forces. New Jersey 
complained that it did not give to Congress exclusive control of 
foreign commerce. The smaller states demanded as a condition 
precedent to their assent, that the vacant lands claimed by some 
of the larger states should be given up as public domain. 

The patriotic surrender of a large part of these vast claims, 
and the threatened collapse of the great cause for which all were 
wearily battling and suffering, at length overcame all obstacles, 
and secured the ratification of the " articles of confederation and 
perpetual union " in March, 1781. 

The power which this instrument gave to Congress to negotiate 
loans and form alliances, enabled the government, in the failure of 
men and means at home, to carry the war to a successful issue ; 
but with the return of peace, in 1783, it proved as fatal as the 
shirt of Nessus. If the genius of discord had marshalled all its 
faculties, it could not have invented a more baleful organ of 
political mischief than this. It is difficult to conceive that the 
men who gave to the world the Declaration of Independence, 
many of whom were master spirits in the convention which framed 
our venerated Constitution, were the fathers of this misshapen off- 
spring of political folly. And yet it was the natural fruitage, per- 
haps, of the circumstances in which it had its birth. 

Those " articles " were a faithful transcript— an embodiment in 
organic law — of the proceedings of the later Revolutionary 
regime, which well-nigh wrecked our fortunes and drove its 
immortal leader to the verge of despair. Nothing but the in- 



20 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

spired wisdom and patience of Washington could have baffled 
the inaction and overcome the obstacles which an unappreciative 
Congress threw into the track of the Revolution. 

However, we must not speak with unalleviated severity of the 
work of those days. Our early statesmen were familiar with co- 
lonial legislation and administration, and, in framing state govern- 
ments, distributed political power, and set the appropriate guards 
of checks and balances with remarkable skill. Contemporary lit- 
erature shows, too, that they had studied profoundly the nature 
and results of the civil leagues which had existed before their day, 
but there was nothing in their personal experience or researches to 
suggest a national system, in which a general and subordinate 
state governments, each sovereign within its range, should form 
one complex, but consistent whole. Hence, in erecting a govern- 
ment in the hurry and stress of war, they built as they knew. 

As yet the people associated federal with royal authority, and 
the laws of Congress with the oppressive enactments of a hated 
parliament. They did not realize that the union was to be the 
guardian of state rights and their security against domestic and 
foreign aggressions. They did not realize that all their industries, 
enterprises, and interests must be national, and organized and con- 
trolled with reference to the general welfare, or be destroyed by 
sectional antagonisms, and defeated in the rivalries of production 
and trade. Their thoughts, aspirations, and loyalty, at present 
lingered in the narrow sphere of local legislation, and their patriot- 
ism was limited to its defence. Utopias and ideal republics may 
be born in philosophic seclusions ; but broad, practical statecraft 
draws its plans of government from the school of experience. The 
founders of the republic were yet in the wilderness, and were be- 
ing disciplined by suffering for the supreme work of their lives. 
The confederation supplied the providential preparation for a 
wiser, grander, and more enduring structure yet to come. A semi- 
decade of confederate weakness and failures was worth a lifetime 
of speculation to the statesmanship of the age, and the misfortunes 
which it brought upon the country prepared the people to adopt a 
better plan. 

The miscalled articles of perpetual union created a league of 
sovereign states in which all the powers of government were con- 



mr. Patterson's address. 



21 



founded in a Congress of one house, which was forbidden to en- 
gage in war, grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, 
enter into treaties or alliances, coin money_ or regulate its value 
ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defense and 
welfare of the United States or any of them, emit bills, borrow or 
appropriate money, agree upon the number of vessels of war to be 
built or purchased, the number of land or sea forces to be raised 
or appoint a commander-in-chief of the army or navy, without 
the assent of nine states, each having one vote. This was an in- 
genious grant and veto of essential powers in the same instru- 
ment. All domestic legislation terminated with the states, and 
if not voluntarily complied with, was a dead letter, for it 
could be executed only by force, and that would rup- 
ture the compact. Provision was made for paying the govern- 
ment expenses from the public treasury, which could only be re- 
plenished at the option of thirteen impoverished states. Congress 
could incur debts and appoint ambassadors, but could not raise a 
dollar by imposts or taxation to pay either. Creditors at home 
and abroad clamored for the liquidation of liabilities incurred dur- 
ing the war ; but the government could not defray its ordinary ex- 
penses, much less discharge its debts. England refused to re- 
move her troops, and other governments to negotiate, because we 
could not execute treaties when made. Industries languished and 
profits ceased, for Congress could not regulate trade between the 
states or with foreign nations. Private debts were repudiated, or 
paid with worthless paper issued by the states. Combinations of 
armed demagogues, anarchists, debtors, and scoundrels besieged 
the courts of justice, and defied the public authorities, and 
the Confederacy, without an executive, without a judiciary, and 
without means, could render no help. The depreciation of prop- 
erty, the loss of credit, national disorder, poverty, insignificance 
and humiliation were but counts in this pitiful catalogue of public 
misfortunes. 

A people that had defied the strength of England and in the 
face of admiring nations had asserted the rights of man, and with 
more than Roman fortitude and heroism had lifted a new republic 
into the constellation of free states, by refusing to commit their 
common interests to a government of adequate power, " had 



22 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

shrunk to this little measure " and there were " none so poor 
to do them reverence. " The very love of liberty which had cast off 
arbitrary power was reducing them to the slavery of anarchy. 

Any language of condemnation of the system to-day would be 
but a feeble paraphrase of the bitter denunciations of Madison, 
Jay, Marshall, Story, and others of like authority. 

But out of this extremity of misery rose, like a Phoenix from its 
ashes, a new and mightier form of civil polity. The misfortunes 
of the republic had been gradually dissipating prejudices, and 
drawing together a national party of the thoughtful and patriotic 
in all the states. Experience and reflection had been slowly re- 
vealing to the great leaders, in shadowy outline to most but clearly 
to a few, the plan of government which the divine purpose had 
reserved for this people. The financial paralysis and consequent 
political impotency of the government, the depression of business 
and social demoralization, the bitter sectional feeling relative to 
the negotiations with Spain, and the dread of popular rebellions, at 
last moved to action the best elements of the country. 

Delegates from five states assembled at Annapolis in the fall of 
1 786 to confer relative to a uniform system of commercial regulations 
and duties. The representation of the states was too small for 
definite action, and the only result was an impressive report by 
Hamilton, expressing the unanimous conviction of the meeting 
that a general convention should be called to devise measures 
which should render " the Constitution of the Federal Govern- 
ment adequate to the exigencies of the Union. " This report .was 
forwarded to Congress, and that body influenced by this and a 
resolution of the New York Assembly, on the 21st of February 
passed the following resolution : " Resolved, That, in the opinion 
of Congress, it is expedient that, on the second Monday in May 
next, a convention of delegates, who shall have been appointed by 
the several states, be held at Philadelphia, for the sole and ex- 
press purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation, and re- 
porting to Congress and the several legislatures such alterations 
and provisions therein as shall, when agreed to in Congress and 
confirmed by the states, render the Federal Constitution adequate 
to the exigencies of government and the preservation ol the 
Union." 



MR. PATTERSON'S ADDRESS. j* 

Eventually twelve states appointed delegates. A part were 
present at the time designated, but it was not till the 25th of May 
that a quorum arrived and organized by the unanimous election 
of George Washington as president. Probably no assembly con- 
vened to deliberate upon political affairs was ever called to act 
under more solemn responsibilities, or upon questions pregnant 
with greater issues. The life of the nation was in their hands, and 
they were building for posterity. 

The people had learned to dread all power above the state, but 
were beginning to realize that their prosperity and freedom 
could not long survive the Union. The Confederacy was wrecked 
and going to pieces beneath their feet. Hence the thirteen inde- 
pendent states, in a time of profound peace but of great national 
distress, deliberately determined to revolutionize their government 
by a voluntary surrender of a part of their sovereignty to the ex- 
isting government or to a new national system, and these were 
their chosen agents for that stupendous work. 

A dozen or more of the delegates were the great men of that 
generation, and would be controlling spirits in any age. Henry 
declined an election, and Jefferson and Adams were ministers 
abroad ; but Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, Madison, Wilson, 
Randolph, Mason, Ellsworth, Gerry, Rutledge, and Martin, whose 
names have become watchwords of liberty in two hemispheres, were 
all there. A part of the convention would abandon the sinking hulk 
that bore the imperilled destinies of the nation for a new craft ot 
superior pattern; others would repair and strengthen the old ship. 
They represented the two great parties of the country, and some- 
thing of their spirit may be traced, I apprehend, under different 
names, through all its history. Those who favored a new Consti- 
tution were called Federalists, and they who would retain the old, 
anti- Federalists. 

The anti-Federalists claimed that, as the convention had met in 
compliance with an act of Congress for the "sole and express purpose 
of revising the Articles of Confederation, " and as their creden- 
tials expressed the same purpose on the part of the states, their 
authority was limited to such revision, and in the way provided by 
the organic law of the Confederacy. By a strict definition of their 
powers this contention seems unanswerable, but the great Federal- 



24 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ists affirmed that the disease of the " articles " was organic, and that 
they must die. Familiar with the history of civil governments in 
other times and countries, and with the hopeless condition of their 
own, and having reflected profoundly upon the effects of human 
interests and passions on the development of political institutions, 
they foresaw that in the future, near or remote, when the love of 
liberty should have grown dim by distance from the causes which 
enkindled it ; when a dense population of other than patriotic ex- 
traction should throng the public domain in the rivalries of pelf 
and power ; when the passions of party, breaking through the re- 
straints of popular intelligence and virtue, should beat against the 
defences of law, something stronger than the flimsy patchwork of 
a confederation would be demanded as a structure of government. 
And they asserted that the safety of society was to them the su- 
preme law, and should control the convention in that hour of po- 
litical dissolution. 

On the 29th of May two drafts of a federal government were 
presented to the convention. The first was the joint production 
of the Virginia delegation, and was submitted by Governor Ed- 
mund Randolph. The second was prepared and offered by 
General Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina, a man of large 
abilities and great prominence in public affairs. It has been said 
that the draft of Gen. Pinckney, as published in Elliott's Debates, 
is a later modification of the original. But both plans, as then 
presented, contemplated the abrogation of the federal and the es- 
tablishment of a national system resting directly upon the people, 
and, while they reserved to the states the control of strictly domes- 
tic concerns, gave to the general government exclusive power over 
interstate and foreign affairs, the right to regulate commerce be- 
tween the states and with all nations, and to levy and collect taxes, 
duties, imposts, and excises. 

An inspection of these plans will show that they were specially 
strong where the Articles of Confederation were weak. Poverty 
was the essential weakness of the old government. To remedy 
this the revenue system of 1783, bearing the impress of the 
splendid powers and lofty aspirations of Madison and Hamilton, 
had been urged upon the states with every consideration of reason 
and patriotism that could appeal to men in political association 



MR. PATTERSON S ADDRESS. 



25 



for the general welfare. Some rejected it absolutely and others 
acquiesced but with fatal conditions. The commercial states, and 
conspicuously New York and Rhode Island, clung to the advan- 
tages derived from their location upon the seaboard, which 
had been used to establish monopolies or to tax neighboring 
states for profit or retaliation. The government had pleaded for 
the right to regulate trade and collect revenue in the name of 
honor, interest, and national safety, but in vain, and when the 
question came up in the convention nothing but the ruin of trade, 
the hostility of states, the impotency of government, and the pros- 
tration of society, which the reservation of this power to the 
states had occasioned, carried the provision into the new Con- 
stitution. 

The propositions laid before the convention by Gov. Randolph 
and Gen. Pinckney were " referred to the committee of the 
whole house appointed to consider the state of the American 
Union." The next day, Mr. Gorham having been made chair- 
man of the committee, the members entered into a critical and 
exhaustive discussion of the Virginia plan, taking it up section by 
section. 

In this arena of debate all the master spirits plunged into the 
great contention and fought with a vigor and sometimes with a 
bitterness that recall the sanguinary struggles upon the plains of 
Ilium, when Ajax and Achilles battled before the walls of lofty 
Troy. 

That we may have a clear apprehension of the work of the 
convention, we must bear in mind that the plans of government 
proposed in the opening days of the session, and which, so to 
speak, constituted the raw material on which the house was to 
act, were referred to a committee of the whole, where this 
material was worked over till the 13th of June, when the com- 
mittee reported to the house a series of eleven resolutions, em- 
bodying what they had decided should be the groundwork of 
the constitution. 

At this point, Mr. Patterson of New Jersey introduced eleven 
new resolutions setting forth the amendments with which the anti- 
Federalists would attempt to rehabilitate the Articles of Confedera- 
tion with the requisite vigor. On the motion of Madisou, 



26 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAr. SOCIETY. 

seconded by Sherman, these resolutions were referred to a com- 
mittee of the whole. It was then moved by Rutledge, and 
seconded by Hamilton, that the report of the 13th be taken from 
the table and recommitted. The Federalists were ready and 
anxious to enter the lists with both issues before the house. 
The struggle then opened anew in the committee of the whole. 
Mr. Patterson was a strong and skillful debater, and presented his 
views with great force. His first resolution was as follows : 

Resolved, That the Articles of Confederation ought to be 
revised, corrected, and enlarged so as to render the federal 
Constitution adequate to the exigencies of the government and 
the preservation of the Union. 

It will be observed that this was an adroit introduction of the 
language of Congress calling the convention. 

But the times were too serious for men to stick in the bark, and 
Mr. Dickinson of Delaware moved to postpone this for a stronger 
resolution presented by himself. It was in this debate that 
Alexander Hamilton, the most intuitive and constructive mind of 
that age, who even in youth gave evidence of a prophetic genius 
that penetrated far beyond the vision of ordinary men, and whose 
grasp of speculative thought was only equalled by his practical 
skill, came forward, and in a speech of remarkable power 
presented a scheme of government which drew upon him the 
unjust accusation of being a monarchist. He desired a strong 
government, but that peerless statesman needs no defence at our 
hands, for as early as 1780 he drew a plan containing the 
essentials of our present Constitution, and before a second century 
shall have passed into our history, we shall realize how wisely he 
would have builded. 

On the 19th of June, having rejected the proposition of Mr. 
Patterson, the committee reported back the resolutions of Mr. 
Randolph as altered, amended, and agreed to in their deliberations. 
This report was accepted by a vote of seven states to three, Mary- 
land being divided. The report was then taken up for discussion 
and amendment in the house, and ran the gauntlet of debate from 
the 20th of June to the 23d of July. No political paper was ever 
submitted to a more thorough and searching scrutiny than this. 



MR. PATTERSON S ADDRESS. 



27 



It was a battle of giants, in which quarter was neither asked nor 
given. 

On the 30th of June it was moved, ** That the president be 
requested to write to the supreme executive of the state of New 
Hampshire, and inform him that the business before the con- 
vention is of such a nature as to require the immediate attendance 
of the gentleman appointed by that state to this convention." 
The motion was lost, and was intended, doubtless, only as a 
gentle hint. 

The legislature of New Hampshire did not meet till the 6th of 
June, and did not complete its organization and the election of 
state officers, including councillors and raembers of congress, till 
the 21st. On the 27th they elected as delegates to the constitu- 
tional convention, John Langdon, John Pickering, Nicholas Gil- 
man and Benjamin West. Their credentials show that " they or 
any two of them were authorized and empowered " to attend the 
convention. It was arranged that John Langdon and Nicholas 
Gilman should go ; but they did not take their seats till the 23d 
of July. John Langdon was president of the state, and the leg- 
islature being in session, he could not leave before the final 
adjournment. Nicholas Gilman was prominent in public affairs 
and may have been detained at home by Important business. Why 
otherwise his attendance upon the convention was delayed, we can 
only conjecture at this distance of time, but as he and President 
Langdon had both been elected to congress, to which they might 
have to go immediately on the adjournment of the convention, it 
is possible it took them some days to arrange their private business 
for an indefinite absence from home. 

I have drawn out these details because Madison wrote a letter to 
Jefferson, dated June 6th, which reads as follows : " New Hamp- 
shire has appointed deputies, but they are not expected, the state 
treasury being empty, it is said, and a substitution of private 
resources being inconvenient or impracticable." 

Now if the date of this letter is properly printed in the Madi- 
son papers, it was written twenty days before our delegates were 
elected. The state treasury may have been empty, but it could 
hardly be said with truth that private funds could not be substi- 
tuted for public in an emergency of that kind. Ten years before 



28 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

this, when John Langdon was speaker of the house, the spring 
session of our legislature had just closed when it was heard that 
Burgoyne was on his way from Canada to New York through 
Vermont. At that time General Stark, like Achilles, was 
"sulking in his tent " because he had been superseded. It was 
reported, however, that he would take command of New Hamp- 
shire volunteers, and push out to arrest the English army. The 
legislature was hastily called together, and Speaker Langdon 
made this speech to its members : " I have ,£3,000 in money 
and fifty hogsheads of rum ; and I will pawn my house and plate 
for all they are worth, if General Stark will take command of the 
New Hampshire troops to cut off Burgoyne ; if we regain our 
independence, I shall be repaid ; if not, it matters not what be- 
comes of my property." Is it probable that such a man would 
cling to his money bags when the welfare of his country was at 
stake? And yet McMaster, I find, has copied this imprudent 
gossip into his first volume as authentic history.* 

But returning to the convention, we find that the resolutions, as 
they had been amended and enlarged on their passage through 
the convention, were referred to a committee of detail to 
digest and report in a final draft of a constitution. On mo- 
tion of Mr. Pinckney the New Jersey resolutions were also 
referred to the same committee. Mr. Rutledge, the chair- 
man of this committee, made his report on the 6th of Au- 
gust, when it was referred to a committee of the whole. At 
this stage in the proceedings, this scheme was subjected to the 
closest analysis, sentence by sentence, and word by word, and the 
best minds of the age studied it as a whole and in its related parts, 
to anticipate, as far as possible, its working power as a funda- 
mental law. When difficult questions arose, and new matter came 



* Since delivering my address Hon. J. D. Stone, of Philadelphia, has kindly sent nie the 
following communcaition, from Portsmouth, N. H., published in the Independent Gazet- 
teer, of Philadelphia, July 23d, 1787: 

" We hear that His Excellency the late President Langdon will leave this town on Mon- 
day, to join the Federal Convention. The prayers of the good will follow this disinterested 
patriot, who, when the; public treasury was incapable o] furnishing supplies, generously 
offered to bear the expense of himself and colleague on this important mission." 

This is a gratifying confirmation of what we had inferred, from the well-known patriotism 
and generosity of President Langdon, must have been his conduct in that great crisis of our 
history. 



mr. Patterson's address. 29 

in, such as the assumption of state debts and the return of fugi- 
tive slaves, they were referred to sub-committees for study and 
adjustment. 

At length, after nearly four months of difficult evolution through 
these consecutive stages of development, the constitution was 
committed for final revision and arrangement to five of the ablest 
men in the convention. Dr. William Samuel Johnson, Alexander 
Hamilton Gouverneur Morris. James Madison and Rufus King, 
constituted this committee of revision. Mr. Johnson, of Con- 
necticut, though less famous than his associates, was probably 
the most scholarly and cultivated man in the assembly ; but, with 
characteristic modesty, he committed to Gouverneur Morris the 
priceless privilege of making the final draft of the constitution. 

The result was a document at once terse, perspicuous and 
felicitous, without a parallel in political history. One can readily 
believe, in the light of subsequent events, that He who holds the 
destinies of nations breathed a divine wisdom into the thought that 
framed that immortal instrument. It was the birth of the ages 
and was to introduce a new dispensation into the government of 
nations, and the fame of its authors will be as supreme and endur- 
ing as their work. 

The committee having reported the final draft, after a few 
amendments, it was enrolled and submitted to the convention, and 
received an affirmative vote from all the states represented. After 
receiving the signatures of thirty-nine of the fifty-five members in 
attendance, the instrument was transmitted to Congress, and from 
thence to the legislatures of the several states, " in order to be 
submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each state, by 
the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention 
made and provided in that case." 

In this necessarily brief record of the growth of the Constitu- 
tion, I have not presumed to traverse the ground covered by the 
Federalist and the imperishable commentaries of Kent, Story, and 
Marshall. Only the genius of a Hamilton or Madison would be 
equal to such a task. I have simply attempted to show how, out 
of the confused and multitudinous mass of views presented and 
advocated with great force and passion through four weary months. 
it took on by slow gradations, as by a natural selection, the 
supreme wisdom of all. 



30 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

There were numerous questions of detail on which the members 
might well differ .vithout touching the underlying sentiment that 
controlled the convention and colored all its acts. Whether the 
functions of government should be separated into three depart- 
ments, or all confounded in one ; whether the legislature should 
consist of one or two houses ; whether the executive should be 
one or several ; how the courts should be organized, and the 
extent of their jurisdiction ; how the duties of the different 
departments should be distributed so that each might have a 
salutary check upon the others, — these, and many other questions 
not touching party prejudices, would naturally develop a great 
variety of opinions, and we are often surprised to see how the 
greatest minds groped and stumbled in the dark in adjusting them 
into their proper relations. But whenever any question involving 
the characteristic differences between the Virginia and the New 
Jersey plans came upon the floor ; whenever the smaller states 
were called to protect their prospective interests and safety 
against the anticipated power and selfishness of the larger ; when- 
ever the question was, Shall the people, as such, or the states, 
be represented in the executive or Congress, the convention 
marshalled itself resolutely upon a party line, from which there 
was no retreat but in dissolution or mutual concession. 

The Constitution, therefore, when it came to the state conven- 
tions for ratification, was a compromise of the views entertained 
by the antagonistic parties, and yet it was so framed as to become, 
when ratified by the people, the organic law of a national govern- 
ment, supreme within the realm of its jurisdiction. The general 
depression of business and the lawless attitude of large numbers 
of people in several of the states, together with the mystery that 
hung about the protracted term of the convention which sat in se- 
cret session, had produced an intense popular interest in the result. 
As a rule, the officers of the army, the men of wealth who had 
interests to be protected, the intelligent professional men, and the 
lovers of good order welcomed the Constitution, while the local 
demagogues whose importance would decline with a strong govern- 
ment, the ruined debtors who would discharge their liabilities like 
Micawber with irredeemable paper, the silent tories who hoped a 
reunion with England through anarchy, and the dissolute who 



MR. PATTERSON'S ADDRESS. 



31 



would arrest the execution of law. lifted up their voices against 
it at the outset. Between these there was a large class of honest 
people, willing to be informed, who had no decided opinions for 
or against it. There were also in all the states patriotic men who 
had laid the country under lasting gratitude for their services, 
who opposed the Constitution on principle. 

This was the attitude of the public mind when the plan was 
presented to the states for action. 

Delaware, New Jersey, and Georgia gave a unanimous vote for 
the Constitution, gratified with the concessions which had been 
made in respect to representation and suffrage in the senate and 
the control of the slave trade. 

In Pennsylvania and Connecticut, the only remaining states that 
adopted the system without proposing amendments, the contest 
was short but spirited. James Wilson and Oliver Ellsworth were 
the Federalist champions in their respective states, and bore 
down all opposition by the clearness and force of their expositions 
of the new scheme of government. 

The next in order was the old Bay State, her convention open- 
ing on the 9th of January, the day on which that of Connecti- 
cut closed. Great public interest and not a little apprehension 
centered in the action of this commonwealth, in view of the 
glorious part she had played in the early history of the country, 
and her questionable record under the confederation. An adverse 
vote in Massachusetts might have proved fatal, for its influence on 
New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, and other states yet to act, 
would have been controlling. With the exception of Samuel 
Adams, who acted with great caution, all the experienced and 
able debaters were with the Federalists ; but the majority of the 
assembly was made up of elements not to be reached by argument, 
and hence the convention had to be won over by skill rather than 
eloquence. Theophilus Parsons drew up a series of amendments, 
which were handed to the president, John Hancock. Parsons then 
moved that the instrument be assented to and ratified. Imme- 
diately Hancock left the chair, and with a brief and conciliatory 
speech laid before the house his proposed amendments. Samuel 
Adams, assuming that the amendments were a condition precedent, 



wwni.yria rat, tin wnmm iiwmir wimrr -■mm ^w^tmm^i t mm &m^jismLii^ ^^^^fmsi^ji^. ^ a^ , & H,i»i*i m i 



32 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

advocated the measure, and the ratification was carried by a 
majority of nineteen. 

The convention of New Hampshire met immediately after the 
adjournment in Massachusetts. In a letter which Mad- 
ison addressed to Washington the 15th of February, 1788, 
he says, — " The convention in New Hampshire is now 
sitting. There seems to be no question that the issue there 
will add a seventh pillar, as the phrase now is, to the Federal 
temple." In a letter addressed to Jefferson, on the 19th of 
February, he says, — " New Hampshire is now deliberating on the 
Constitution. It is generally understood that an adoption is a 
matter of certainty." Such seems to have been the general 
impression entertained in the country. 

About fifty delegates met at Exeter on the 13th of February, 
and organized by electing Hon. Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, temporary chairman. Hon. Samuel 
Livermore, Hon. John Taylor Gilman, and Benjamin West were 
selected to receive the returns of members and prepare rules for 
the convention. On the second day a permanent organization was 
effected by the selection of General John Sullivan, president, and 
John Calfe, Esq., secretary. Thus, at the outset, the convention 
called to its service the men who had won distinction in the 
field and in the councils of the nation. We learn from the 
Journal, which gives us only a meagre skeleton of the proceed- 
ings, that the Constitution was taken up and discussed from day 
to day till the 2 2d of February, when the convention was ad- 
journed to meet in Concord on the 3d of June. 

This adjournment was a source of great regret to the friends of 
the cause in other states. Madison, who was then a member of 
Congress in New York, in a letter to Washington on the 3d of 
March, writes as follows : 

" Dear Sir : The convention of New Hampshire has afforded 
a very disagreeable subject of communication. It has not 
rejected the constitution, but it has failed to adopt it. Contrary to 
aH calculations that had been made, it appeared, on meeting, that 
a majority of three or four was adverse to the object before them, 
and that on a final question on the merits, the decision would be 
in the negative. In this critical state of things, the Federalists 
thought it best to attempt an adjournment ; and having proselyted 



mr. Patterson's address. 33 

some of the members who were positively instructed against the 
Constitution, the attempt succeeded by a majority of 5 7 against 47, 
if my information as to the numbers be correct. It seems to be 
fully expected that some of the instructed will prevail on their towns 
to unfetter them, and that, in the event. New Hampshire will be 
among the adopting states. The mischief elsewhere will, in the 
meantime, be of a serious nature. The second meeting is to be in 
June. This circumstance will be construed in Virginia as making 
contemporary arrangements with her. It is explained to me, how- 
ever, as having reference merely to the conveniency of the mem- 
bers, whose attendance at their annual elections and courts would 
not consist with an earlier period. The opposition, I understand, 
is composed precisely of the same description of characters with 
that of Massachusetts, and stands contrasted to all the wealth, abil- 
ities, and respectability of the state." 

The convention reassembled, according to adjournment, at Con- 
cord, June 1 8th, and after some preliminary business appointed a 
committee of fifteen on amendments to the Constitution. Gov. 
Langdon, afterwards the first president of the Senate of the United 
States under the new Constitution, was chairman of this committee. 
The same form of ratification, and the same amendments as had 
been adopted in Massachusetts, with some additions were reported 
and accepted in New Hampshire. Cushing, in his " History of 
the Constitution," suggests that they were sent to General Sullivan, 
the president of the convention, by his brother, Governor Sullivan, 
of Massachusetts. The leader of the Constitutional party upon the 
floor of the convention was Hon. Samuel Livermore, of Holder- 
ness. He was a profound lawyer, a skilful parliamentarian, and 
possessed of great quickness of apprehension. His influence at 
home, or the virtue and intelligence of the people, led all but one 
in a delegation of eleven in Grafton county to vote for the Consti- 
tution. The leader of the opposition was Hon. Joshua Atherton, a 
man of distinction and large personal influence. The only record 
of the New Hampshire convention in Elliott's Debates is a reputed 
speech by Mr. Atherton, the authenticity of which has no official 
foundation but rests purely upon tradition. 

Curtis in his life of Webster says that the great expounder of 
the Constitution once repeated to him, with great pride, a little 
speech made by his father before giving his vote for the Constitu- 
tion, and requested him, if he ever had an opportunity, to do some- 

(3) 



34 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

thing to perpetuate it. Whether Capt. Webster ever made the 
speech or not, I can not say. It certainly has the Websterian ring, 
and is entirely worthy of the heart and intellect of the old hero, but 
the official record does not record his vote. 

An attempt was made by Mr. Atherton to ratify the Constitution, 
with the proviso that it should not operate in the state without the 
amendments, but the manoeuvre was defeated by the vigilance of 
Mr. Livermore, and the Constitution was adopted by a vote of 
fifty-seven to forty-seven. 

In the interval of the recess of the convention in this state that 
of Maryland met, and in a brief session of seven days ratified the 
Constitution. Washington had effectively exerted his influence 
to prevent any postponement, lest such a course following the 
adjournment in New Hampshire, might defeat ratification in South 
Carolina, where the convention was to meet on the 12th of May. 
A profound interest, and not a little anxiety, pervaded the 
country as to the effect upon this state of the compromises which 
General Pinckney had been specially influential in effecting. He 
had conceded to Congress an absolute power to regulate com- 
merce, the right to levy and collect direct and indirect taxes, ex- 
cept on exports, and to terminate the slave trade at the end of 
twenty years, but as an offset he had secured the admission of the 
blacks to the basis of representation, the right to recover fugitive 
slaves, to continue the slave trade twenty years, and a renunciation 
of the right to emancipate slaves in the states. Would these be 
accepted as equivalents ? The debate was able and earnest on 
both sides, and the youthful student of American history can do no 
better than to study the remarkable speeches of Gen. Pinckney on 
this occasion, both in the assembly and in the convention of his 
state. On the 23d of May the state wheeled into line by a vote 
of 149 to 73. 

New Hampshire, standing guard on the northern frontier, was 
permitted by a supreme felicity of fortune to complete the consti- 
tutional majority, and give to the country assurance of escape from 
anarchy, and the establishment of a strong and stable government. 
Immediately on the ratification post-riders were despatched in all 
haste to announce the result in Boston, New York and Richmond, 
and so relieve the intense anxiety of the public, and give to the 






1770806 



mr. Patterson's address. 35 

event its legitimate weight upon the convention then in session in 
Virginia. The news spread like an electric force, and thrilled the 
country with unlimited enthusiasm. Bells rang, cannon boomed, 
bonfires were kindled, and processions of all the guilds and profes- 
sions, with banners, transparencies, and martial music, conducted 
the mimic ship of state through the streets of cities and larger 
towns. 

The requisite number of states having ratified the Constitution, 
the establishment of a national government upon this basis was 
assured, but the end was not yet. If the four remaining states, 
including Virginia and New York, were to reject the new system, 
the political situation would be perilous and possibly fatal in the 
not distant future. Hence all eyes turned upon Richmond, and 
all hearts throbbed with hope and fear in anticipation of the result. 

Washington was resting anxiously at Mount Vernon, and Jeffer- 
son was in France ; but nearly all the other eminent men of the 
state were embraced in the membership of the convention. The 
fiery and eloquent Henry, who had risen like a splendid exhalation 
out of the turmoil of the Revolution, aided by the powerful intellect 



of Mason, marshalled and led with chivalrous courage the forces of 
the opposition. They inveighed against the Constitution as an 
instrument that would establish a consolidated despotism, that 
would close the navigation of the Mississippi in the interest of the 
East, would impoverish the states by the power of taxation, and at 
last overwhelm the liberties of the people. But Madison, calm 
and intelligent on every point, demonstrated that the government 
would be complex in its nature, partly federal and partly consoli- 
dated, dividing sovereignty with the states ; and Marshall, the great 
chief justice of the future, entering the field with his iron logic, 
crushed out the plausible sophistries of the opposition, and carried 
the Constitution by a majority often on the 26th of June. 

One can but feel a throb of admiration as he recalls the patriotic 
and pathetic words of Henry, facing defeat at the close of this pro- 
tracted struggle : " If I shall be in the minority," he said, " I shall 
have those painful sensations which arise from a conviction of 
being overpowered in a good cause. Yet I will be a peaceable citi- 
zen. My head, my hand, and my heart shall be free to retrieve 
the loss of liberty, and remove the defects of this system in a con- 



36 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

stitutional way. I wish not to go to violence, but will wait with 
hopes that the spirit which predominated in the Revolution is not 
yet gone, nor the cause of those who are attached to the Revolu- 
tion lost. I shall, therefore, patiently wait in expectation of seeing 
this government so changed as to be compatible with the safety, 
liberty and happiness of the people." 

We can imagine how, as the knowledge of the action in Virginia 
was borne to New York by swift -footed steeds, the shadows lifted from 
the heart of Hamilton, struggling like a Titan to save his state from 
dishonor against the arts of her astute and powerful Governor. We 
cannot linger upon the prolonged and bitter struggle waged at Pough- 
keepsie by Alexander Hamilton. John Jay, Chancellor Livingstone, 
and James Duane against the leagued malcontents of the Empire 
state, but the names of that splendid quarternian of statesmen will 
brighten from age to age on the roll-call of the nation's saviours. 

North Carolina and Rhode Island crept, at last, into the Union 
like belated school-boys, and their record must stand as it was 
made. 

This is the simple story of our early history, and it is a record of 
which we may well be proud in all our generations. It may be a 
humiliating illustration of the instability of human sentiments, that 
the states which originally formulated our system of national gov- 
ernment should have been the first to expound the organic law as 
a league of states and to deny its power. It is a more instructive 
lesson still that the revered statesmen who founded a " more per- 
fect union" should have unconsciously planted in its foundations 
the seeds of future discord and dissolution. 

The phrensied prophecies of ruin and despotism predicted by 
patriots who would have died for their country, seem to-day, after a 
century of the glorious experiences of a free people, like the 
pompous utterances and mock passions of a mimic tragedy, but 
they were legitimate in the order of time and events. There is a 
sequence in the march of nations which we must recognize if we 
would be just to the past or wise for the future. Unconsciously we 
gather up in the great crisis of national life which we experience 
the fruitage of centuries of progress, and embody them in laws and 
institutions as an inheritance to our children, and as steps in an 
advancing civilization. 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 37 

Preoccupied and absorbed in the events and transactions of our 
local and immediate status, we are as unconscious of our historic as 
of our planetary movements, and limit our judgments, as our lives, 
to the present and perishable. So our fathers " builded better than 
they knew," but the patriotism that with them was feeble and local 
has become strong and national in their children. The blood shed 
to subdue foreign aggression and domestic treason has cement- 
ed the foundations of the republic, and the ensign of the Union 
that was unfurled with trembling hands a century ago from the old 
North church, has unrolled its ample folds to the western winds, 
till to-day a continent of happy, prosperous states sits secure 
beneath its protecting power. 

At the close of the oration, Mr. Allen Eastman Cross, of Man- 
chester, was introduced as the poet of the day, and read the fol- 
lowing poem : 

THE NINTH STAR. 

"Congress had provided that when conventions in nine of the 
thirteen states should ratify the Constitution it should become the 
fundamental law of the republic. To New Hampshire, therefore, 
rightly belongs the honor of securing the adoption of the Con- 
stitution, with all its attendant blessings." — Benson J. Lossing. 

" The courier, announcing the news of the ratification by New 
Hampshire, passed through New York on the 25th and reached 
Philadelphia on the 26th. The newspapers of the latter city 
immediately cried out, ' The reign of Anarchy is over,' and the 
popular enthusiasm rose to the highest point." — Curtis 's History 
of the Constitution. 

" God bless New Hampshire ! from her granite peaks 
Once more the voice of Stark and Langdon speaks; " 
So cried our martial bard in days of old, 
When, from the accursed chains of slavish gold, 
The spirit of our hills sprang proudly uncontrolled. 

God bless New Hampshire ! Tis the common prayer 

That heavenward floats upon the loyal air 

Whenever courage crowns the Granite State, 

Or she for freedom holds the torch of fate, 

Or free New Hampshire hearts her valor celebrate. 



$S NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Such was the torch, brave state, that beaconed forth, 
When, from the crystal summits of the North, 
New Hampshire signaled back the fateful sign 
That made the stars upon thy banner nine, 
True Magna Charta of man's liberties divine ! 

True Magna Charta of the brave and free ! 

Our Magna Charta it must ever be, 

Since from New Hampshire's sky the light was hurled 

That saved this Constitution to the world, 

And by her federal star the starry flag unfurled. 

Thence rose our free Republic, the ninth star 
Filling its perfect lustre, while afar 
From Maine to Carolina rang the cry — 
" God bless this brave New Hampshire," till God's sky 
Seemed proudlier on her ancient hills to lie. 

Hills of the North-land, be ye ever proud ! 

Crowning memorial peak with whitest cloud; 

New Hampshire's star hath flashed above your heights, 

Blent with its sister stars' embattled lights, 

And fought each Sisera for God and human rights. 

Lakes of New Hampshire, be ye calm and clear ! 

Ye've mirrored many a storm, but ne'er a fear; 

Fold in your fair embrace our Northern star; 

Let no foul hand its fair reflection mar, 

Down dropt in your clear depths from Freedom's heaven afar. 

Sons of New Hampshire, hold ye, also, fast 

The light that blessed Constitution cast ! 

Let no disloyal son its power deny, 

From where the ocean meets the sands of Rye 

To where your crystal hills uplift the crystal sky. 

Remember those who left this light to you; 
Remember its " Defender,'' grand and true; 
Gasp in your own great Langdon's generous hand, 
Feel Stark's strong pulse, and with McClary stand, 
Letting each loyal life your loyalty command. 

And now, true hearts, who love God's greater sky 

Of human rights and human liberty, 

Look upward to that heaven, then be true 

To the brave star upon your banner blue, 

And pray with me the grand old prayer so dear to you : 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 39 

Our Father, bless New Hampshire ! keep her light 

In its fair sky of freedom clear and bright, 

Pure as a star should be, devoid of shame, 

True to her ancient heritage of fame, 

With grateful, loving hearts to guard her holy name. 

The members of the Society, with invited guests, then repaired 
to Chase's Hall, where the elegant banquet of 200 plates was 
spread. The table of honor was placed across the south side of 
the hall, and, at right angles to it, extended four other tables. 
At these the guests sat down, and, after blessing asked by Rev. 
Dr. F. D. Ayer, partook of the dinner, served in courses, in a most 
satisfactory manner, from the following menu : 

Soup — Mock Turtle. 

Fish — Boiled Salmon. Cucumbers. Potato Croquettes. Green Peas. 

Roast — Spring Chicken, Currant Jelly. Sirloin of Beef, Dish Gravy. 
Mashed Potatoes. Baked Tomatoes. Asparagus. 

Entrees — Potted Pigeon. Lobster Salad. 

Dessert — Cake. Neapolitan Ice Cream. Orange and Raspberry Sherbet. 
Roman Punch. Frozen Pudding. 

Fruit — Strawberries and Cream. English Walnuts. Raisins. 

Crackers. Cheese. 

French Coffee. 

At President Sargent's right sat Hon. James W. Patterson, His 
Excellency Governor Sawyer, Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, of Bos- 
ton, Amos Hadley, Recording Secretary of the Society, Hon. 
George B. Loring, of Salem, Mass., Capt. Woolmer Williams, of 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery of London, Hon. Robert S. 
Rantoul, of Boston. On his left were Allen Eastman Cross, 
President S. C. Bartlett, of Dartmouth College, Rev. Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale, of Boston, Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, chairman of 
committee of arrangements, Hampton L. Carson, of Philadelphia, 
Hon. Frank B. Sanborn, of Concord, Mass., Rev. Dr. F. D. Ayer, 
of Concord, N. H. 

Among the other distinguished guests from abroad were Hon. 
Charles Levi Woodbury, of Boston, F. A. Stone, of Philadelphia, 
Capt. A. A. Folsom, Charles Carleton Coffin, Col. Albert H. 
Hoyt, William B. Trask, and Hon. Nathaniel F. Safford, all of 
Boston j Hon. E. H. Elvvell, of Portland, Me., Rev. Henry A. 
Hazen, of Billerica, Mass. The resident members of the Society 
and other citizens from Concord, Manchester, and other places 



40 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

were present in goodly numbers, and numerous ladies graced the 
banquet with their presence. 

At a little past four o'clock p. m., President Sargent called the 
guests about the banquet tables to order, and introduced Hon. 
Samuel C. Eastman, of Concord, as toast-master. In accepting 
the position, Mr. Eastman said : 

" It seems unusually fitting that on an occasion of this kind the 
New Hampshire Historical Society should call together its mem- 
bers, and after listening to the stately periods of the oration and 
the musical numbers of the poet, should invite its friends together 
around the social board. And while customs of the day forbid 
our greeting you with the loving cup, which would have graced 
the tables on a like occasion in old Hampshire, we, of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, bid you, our honored guests, a no 
less hearty welcome. We appreciate the honor you have done us 
in leaving the " busy hum of men," and coming for a day to 
kindle anew your patriotism by reviving your recollections of what 
our fathers have done for us, and pledging renewed devotion to 
our common country. We celebrate to-day the act of New 
Hampshire which not only gave that common country an existence 
and a place among the nations of the earth, but which, at the 
same time, sacrificed a portion of its own individuality for the 
common good. VVe are justly proud of that act, and rejoice that 
it was reserved for our native state to supply that which was want- 
ing to complete the arch. VVe believe that it will endure for all 
time ; and why should it not, when that keystone was of granite 
and therefore as enduring as the everlasting hills of the Granite 
State? As loyal citizens of that state, as well as faithful members 
of the Historical Society, and as friends of both and interested in 
the continued prosperity of both, I am sure you would all be dis- 
appointed did I not give you as the first toast : ' The State of 
New Hampshire — Her sons and daughters in every part of our 
land never forget their love for her rugged hills and pleasant 
valleys.' His Excellency, Hon. Charles H. Sawyer, the 
governor." 

The governor responded as follows : 

" In the absence of any special provision for the celebration 
under the auspices of the state of the centennial anniversary of 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 4 1 

its ratification of the Constitution, the Historical Society deserves 
much credit for assuming the duty, and for arranging for this com- 
memoration of an event of such historical interest and probably 
the most important event in the history of the state. 

The Declaration of Independence cut off the colonies from 
any reconciliation with the mother country, short of their recog- 
nition as independent states. In the struggle which ensued they 
were bound together by the necessity of making a united defence 
against the common enemy. 

As in all civil disturbances which bring about great changes in 
the condition of the people, the Revolution brought forward a 
large number of remarkably able men, who became eminent as 
soldiers and as statesmen. They were men who were competent 
to cope with the difficult problems which presented themselves for 
solution during the progress of the war, and afterwards in the 
framing of a plan of government which, commending itself to the 
people of the thirteen states, was to unite and bring into being a 
new nationality. The results of the work of those able and far- 
sighted men are embodied in the national constitution, which has 
stood the test of time and the great and varied strains to which it 
has been subjected. In the hundred years of its life the country 
has grown from a population of less than four millions to nearly 
sixty millions. Poor and heavily burdened with debt at the time 
of the adoption of the Constitution, it has developed its resources 
so that in wealth and influence it now stands in the front rank of 
the nations. Great as has been its progress in the past, it is safe 
to predict a far greater future, and that the beneficent influences 
of its government and institutions will be felt throughout the 
human world. 

New Hampshire has an honorable record in the country's his- 
tory. Although she moved somewhat slowly in giving her assent 
to the plan submitted for a permanent union of the states, and 
only after a prolonged and careful consideration of the subject, it 
can be truly said that never for a moment since the government was 
organized has she faltered in her loyalty and devotion to the 
Union and its Constitution. She has always responded with 
alacrity to the calls made upon her to assist in the national 
defence. Although New Hampshire cannot show the great increase 



42 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

in wealth and population of some of the more favored states, yet she 
lakes pride in the fact that she has largely contributed to the progress 
of the republic through the large number of eminent men who were 
born and reared on New Hampshire soil, whose influence and 
talents have been potent in shaping its destinies. This govern- 
ment of and by the people can no longer be considered as an 
experiment, but an assured and enduring success. Under the 
rapidly changing social and industrial conditions, new and per- 
plexing questions in government will continue to present them- 
selves for settlement, but which, under the rule and guidance of 
the well tried constitution, one may have faith to believe, will be 
successfully met and treated by the people in the future, as in the 
past one hundred years of our national life. 

It may not be out of place here and at this time to refer to the 
coming celebration of the anniversary of the National Independ- 
ence in the town of Amesbury in Massachusetts, an interesting 
feature of which will be the unveiling of a statue of Josiah Bart- 
lett — the gift of a public spirited citizen of that town. Dr. Bart- 
lett was born in Massachusetts, but his life's work was in New 
Hampshire. A signer of the Declaration of Independence, and 
a member of the convention which framed the Constitution, he 
was also the first governor of New Hampshire. It has been 
arranged for the states of Massachusetts and New Hampshire to 
be officially represented on the occasion by their chief executive 
officers." 

In offering the next sentiment, " The highest type of education 
in New Hampshire," Mr. Eastman said : 

" Our ancestors early declared as one of the cardinal principles 
of their civil creed that ' the general diffusion of knowledge and 
learning through the community is essential to the preservation of a 
free government.' From the little red school houses dotted over the 
length and breadth of our state to the more stately and costly high 
schools of our cities, the evidences that the people of the state 
have always been faithful to this high ideal are everywhere to be 
found. And if the state has not been so liberal to the chief 
representative of that ideal as those upon whose shoulders has 
fallen the burden of maintaining the noble standard of excellence 
it has always set up could have wished, the people of the state 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 43 

have never ceased to honor Dartmouth College. There some of 
the greatest men our nation has yet produced have received their 
early training and manly development, and there in the future let 
me prophecy will New Hampshire's sons continue to turn for 
inspiration and counsel. As Athens was the eye of Greece and 
shed her light upon the world, so Dartmouth College is the eye of 
New Hampshire and sheds its light wherever her sons are found." 
This was responded to by President Bartlett, who said that 
" Mr. Eastman had spoken of Dartmouth College as ' the highest 
type of education in -New Hampshire ; ' he was prepared to go 
farther and say it stands for the highest type of college education 
in the United States. While it does not offer the professional 
training of a university, in its strong and rounded curriculum, 
thorough and able instruction, and diligent and successful applica- 
tion of its students, it stands to-day unsurpassed in the United 
States. It antedates this Society, the signing of the national and 
state constitutions, and the framing of the national and state gov- 
ernments. It has had a romantic history, and has passed success- 
fully through great crises. It has been closely identified with the 
government, furnishing a chief justice, a member of the cabinet, 
representatives to foreign courts, and more than eighty members of 
the National Congress. Indirectly it has exerted an influence 
throughout the country, through the agency of its sons who have 
become teachers and preachers. Bright as has been the war and 
civic record of New Hampshire, Dartmouth College has for more 
than a century been its brightest light and its greatest ornament. It 
has drawn young men from all parts of the state, and started them 
on the way to success and eminence." 

Mr. Eastman then said : 

" A century ago there was no class of our citizens who exerted a 
wider influence than the clergy. Men of education, in a com- 
munity where all were educated enough to know and appreciate 
the value of that higher education which was not within the reach 
of all, with their wits quickened by their logical studies of a system 
of theology which called into play all the reasoning powers which 
man possesses, the friends and advisers of their flocks, it was inevit- 
able that they should wield a great power in moulding our civil 
institutions. We are fortunate in having with us to-day from our 



44 NE W HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

sister state, Massachusetts, one of the lineal descendants of this 
very class. Always busy, he never fails to find time to do his 
whole duty, and to keep abreast with the progress of the day ; as 
one to whom nihil humani alienutn, who is in sympathy with 
everything that effects mankind, I know of no one who could 
better respond to the next toast or whom you would wish to listen 
to in his place : ' The influence of the clergy of New England on 
our form of government ' — Rev. Dr. Edward Everett Hale." 

Dr. Hale, in his response, referred to the prayer of Rev. Dr. 
Langdon before the battle of Bunker Hill, and assigned to him 
the credit of being a controlling and organizing spirit in the Revo- 
lution and subsequent events. Great stress was laid upon the fact 
that the Constitution of America owed much to the Christian 
ministers and the Christian church. Its ground-work cannot be 
found in any of the political writings of those days. To Manassah 
Cutler, a minister from Ipswich, Mass., Dr. Hale showed that the 
Ordinance of 1787 was owed, and narrated the incidents of Rev. 
Mr. Cutler's journey from Ohio to the Continental Congress, and 
his success in securing the passage of the Ordinance. He closed 
with the presentation of the truth that the clergy's weapons are 
ideas. 

To the sentiment, " Philadelphia, the birthplace of the Repub- 
lic," Hampton L. Carson, of that city, responded. He spoke of 
Philadelphia's interest in the history of the Revolutionary period 
and in the men who made that history, and referred to the celebra- 
tion in that city of the supposed ratification of the Constitution on 
the day New Hampshire ratified, an erroneous report having been 
received that Virginia had ratified. This action was prophetic of 
the course New Hampshire was taking on the very same day. 
The fact that Pennsylvania was the first large state to ratify and 
adopt the Constitution was recalled, and tributes were paid to some 
of the men who had a prominent part in the proceedings. Phila- 
delphia's historic buildings were mentioned, with an earnest assur- 
ance that the city would always cherish them as sacred monuments 
to the memory of the nation. 

Hon. Mellen Chamberlain responded to the the sentiment, " The 
training of the people of New Hampshire for Constitutional govern- 
ment," saying that for more than 150 years New Hampshire stood 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. 45 

on the skirmish line of civilization, and withstood and forcibly 
resisted the acts of barbarians and their French allies. This fact 
gradually prepared the state to take an important part in Revolu- 
tionary history n and trained that admirable corps of officers to 
which Stark, Reed, Sullivan, and others belonged. New 
Hampshire stood also on the skirmish line of Constitutional gov- 
ernment. Massachusetts and the other New England colonies 
were favored with charters from the crowrt, which became the bul- 
warks of their liberty. As in the days of the Indian wars, New 
Hampshire had no garrisons to protect her, so she had no protec- 
tion by charter ; she lived under the commission of a royal gov- 
ernor. New Hampshire was not entirely Puritan, but took the 
best qualities of Puritanism and left behind the worst. She 
remained clear of everything that was vicious. Under such cir- 
cumstances men were differentiated somewhat from the Constitu- 
tionalists of Massachusetts. This can be traced clearly to the 
circumstances which surrounded the people from the earliest time. 
Joseph B. Walker, Esq., of Concord, moved a vote of thanks to 
the orator, Hon. James W. Patterson, and the poet, Allen Eastman 
Cross, which was passed unanimously. They were called up in 
turn, and Mr. Patterson's response was to read an extract from a 
sketch of Judge Timothy Farrar, of New Ipswich, who had an 
important part in shaping public opinion In the matter of adopting 
the Constitution. Mr. Cross responded by repeating a stanza of 
his poem, and concluded with an earnest plea for the erection of 
monuments to Stark and John Langdon, to the former in Man- 
chester, and to the latter in Portsmouth. 

Hon. Frank B. Sanborn, of Concord, Mass., spoke to the senti- 
ment, " The Statesmen of Hampton Falls, Meshech Weare and 
Samuel Langdon." He "gave interesting facts about Meshech 
Weare, the first president of New Hampshire. The infant state of 
New Hampshire owed more to him for the successful issue of the 
Revolution than to any of its soldiers, statesmen or divines. In 
1776 we find him both chief executive and chief justice of the new 
state, and he continued in that dual capacity until the close of the 
war. He carried the state through its difficulties, financial and 
persona], and managed, with especial ski!!, the controversy with 
Vermont. 



46 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Hon. George B. Loring was given the sentiment, " Peace hath 
her victories no less renowned than war. The Revolution of 
1788." He addressed himself to the "patient and patriotic few 
who remain," for it was nearly 6 o'clock, and many had left the 
hall to take trains for home. He spoke both facetiously and elo 
quently of affairs in his own state of Massachusetts and in New 
Hampshire. It was doubtless true that Massachusetts was not 
quite civil to the witches and Quakers. We are told that this 
was not true of New Hampshire, but it was because there were no 
witches and Quakers there. They preferred to live where civilization 
was rank and powerful, and had rather be lashed to the tail of every 
cart in Essex county than to risk the rigors of the New Hampshire 
climate. A surprising characteristic of the people of early New 
Hampshire was their ability to recognize the value and power of 
government and their loyalty to sustain it. New Hampshire's po- 
litical history is as interesting as that of any state. John Langdon, 
the framer, and Daniel Webster, the expounder of the Constitution, 
place her at the front, and will never be forgotten by New Hamp- 
shire or by her sister states. 

The exercises closed with " America," sung under the leader- 
ship of Mr. B. B. Davis, of Concord. 

It is worthy of mention that the U. S. Senate, on motion of Mr. 
Blair, of New Hampshire, a member of the Historical Society, 
adjourned in honor of the event celebrated ; and a telegram from 
the New Hampshire Senator, announcing the fact, was received in 
course of the banquet. 

The following was presented by Rev. Henry A. Hazen, as 
representative of the New England Historic Genealogical Society : 
Letter of Gen. George Washington to Gen. Henry Knox, 
June 17, 1788. Written while the ratification of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States of America by the states of New Hamp- 
shire and Virginia was pending. Printed for the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society for the Centenary Commemora- 
tion by the New Hampshire Historical Society of the Ratifica- 
tion of the Constitution by New Hampshire, June 21, 1888. 
The following letter is copied from the original— a three-page 
letter all in the autograph of Washington— in the Manuscripts of 
Gen. Henry Knox presented May 26, 1873, to the Historic Gen- 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY — LETTERS. 47 

ealogical Society, by his grandson, Rear Admiral Henry Knox 
Thatcher, U. S. N. These manuscripts make fifty-five folio vol- 
umes : 

Mount Vernon, June 1 7, 1 788. 
My Dear Sir : 

I received your letter of the 25 th of May, just when I was 
on the eve of departure for Fredericksburgh to pay a visit to my 
mother, from whence I returned only last evening. 

The information of the accession of South Carolina to the new 
government since your letter, gives us a new subject for mutual 
felicitations. It was to be hoped this auspicious event would have 
had considerable influence upon the proceedings of the convention 
in Virginia, but I do not find that to have been the case. Affairs 
in the convention, for some time past, have not worn so good an 
aspect as we could have wished ; and, indeed, the acceptance of 
the Constitution has become more doubtful than it was thought to 
be at their first meeting. 

The purport of the intelligence I received from my private letters 
by the last night's mail, is, that every species of address & artifice 
has been put in practice by the antifederalists to create jealousies 
& excite alarms. Much appears to depend upon the final part 
which the Kentucke members will take ; into many of whose minds 
apprehensions of unreal danger, respecting the navigation of the 
Mississipi and their organization into a separate State has been 
industriously infused. Each side seems to think, at present, that 
it has a small majority, from whence it may be augured that the 
majority, however it shall turn, will be very inconsiderable — 
Though, for my own part I cannot but imagiwey-if any decisionals 
had, it will be in favor of the adoption. — My apprehension is rather 
that a strenuous — possibly — successful effort may be made for an 
adjournment ; under an idea of opening a correspondence with 
those who are opposed to the Constitution in other States. — Col 
Oswald has been at Richmond, it is said, with letters from anti- 
fcedralists, and in New York & Pennsylvania to their Co-adjutors 
in this State. 

The Resolution, which came from the antifederalists (much to the 
astonishment of the other party) that no question should be taken 
until the whole Plan should have been discussed paragraph by para- 



48 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

graph, and the remarkable tardiness in their proceedings (for the 
Convention have been able as yet only to get through the 2 d or 3 d 
Section) are thought by some to have been designed to protract 
the business until the time when the Assembly is to convene, that 
is the 23 rd instant, in order to have a mere colorable pretext for an 
adjournment.— But notwithstanding the resolution, there has been 
much desultory debating, & the opposers of the Constitution are 
reported to have gone generally into the merits of the question. — I 
know not hew the matter may be, but a few days will now deter- 
mine. 

I am sorry to find not only from your intimations, but also from 
many of the returns in the late Papers, that there should be so 
great a majority against the Constitution in the Convention of New 
York. — And yet I can hardly conceive, from motives of policy & 
prudence, they will reject it absolutely, if either this state or New 
Hampshire should make the 9 th in adopting it —as that measure 
which gives efficacy to the system, must place any State that shall 
•actually have refused to assent to the New-Union in a very awk- 
ward & disagreeable perdicament. 

By a letter which I have just rec d from a young Gentleman who 
lives with me, but who is now at home in New Hampshire, I am 
advised that there is every prospect that the Convention of that 
state will adopt the Constitution almost immediately upon the 
meeting of it. — I cannot but hope then that the States which may 
be disposed to make a secession will think often and seriously on 
the consequence. 

Col . Humphreys who is still here, occupied with literary pursuits, 
desires to be remembered in terms of the sincerest friendship to 
you & yours. M™. Washington & the family offer, with me, their 
best Compliments to M rs . Knox and the little ones — You will ever 
believe me to be, with great esteem & regard, 
My dear Sir 

Y r affect* and Obed* Serv' 

G°. Washington. 
General Knox. 

Owing to the late hour to which the exercises were protracted, 
the reading of the following letters was necessarily omitted : 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY — LETTERS. 49 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C, June 19, 1888. 

My Dear Sir : 

I am very much gratified that the Historical Society is to 
hold a meeting for the commemoration of the ratification of the 
national Constitution by the state of New Hampshire — the de- 
cisive act by which the United States became a nation. 

If possible to be absent from the discharge of public duties here, 
I should be present to participate in these proceedings in memory 
of an august event to the glory of whose consummation our beloved 
and noble state is specially entitled, and for which her sons will 
proudly congratulate themselves forever. I predict that when the 
next centennial of our Constitutional epoch shall approach for due 
celebration by the three hundred millions who then shall constitute 
the American people, the 21st day of Jene, 1988 — the termina- 
tion of the second century from the day when New Hampshire, in 
the' crowning exercise of her then unlimited sovereignty, closed the 
illustrious debate by the act of supreme popular legislation which 
merged that sovereignty in a grander nationality of invincible 
power and world-wide beneficence, and made America what she 
now is and is yet to be — will be selected by a universal sense of 
justice as the appropriate season of continental thanksgiving and 

joy- 
Thankful that the honor of the state, and the dignity and pro- 
prieties of the occasion are in the hands of your venerable Society, 
which from its eminent and continual labors may well be termed the 
guardian of New Hampshire's history, bust for whose watchfulness 
much*would be lost which concerns her honor, I am, 
My Dear Sir, 

Very Respectfully, 

Your Obt. Sen., 

HENRY W. BLAIR. 
Hon. Amos Hadley, 

Secretary N. H, Historical Society. 

(4) 



50 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Oneida Historical Society. 

Utica, N, Y., June 7, 1888. 
Messrs, Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Hadiey, and J. C. A. Hill, 

Committee. 
Gentlemen : 

I regret that I cannot accept your kind invitation to be 
present at the celebration in commemoration of the Centennial 
anniversary of the ratification of the Constitution of the United 
States by the state of New Hampshire. 

The action by New Hampshire, which made the Constitution the 
organic law of the nation, was not the only one which placed New 
Hampshire among the prominent states of the Union. When hos- 
tilities between Great Britain and this comrtry were suspended, a 
number of the states commenced to emit fails of credit as a sub- 
stitute for specie to supply the deficiency of a medium, notwith- 
standing the fact that the Continental His afforded a recent 
example of the ill effects of such an expedient. Pennsylvania first 
adopted this system, and the faith of that state was pledged for the 
redemption of the whole issue at its nominal value, yet the advan- 
tages of specie as a medium of commerce soon made a difference 
of ten per cent, between the bills of credit and specie. North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia had recourse to the same 
expedient to supply themselves with money, but the bills they 
emitted expelled almost all the circulating cash from those stales, 
impoverished the merchants and embarrassed the planters. The 
state of Virginia tolerated -a base practice of cutting the coin to 
prevent it from leaving the state, and a silver dollar was usually cut 
in five pieces, each piece passing for a quarter, so that the person 
who cut it gained one-fifth. Maryland escaped the calamity of a 
paper currency. New Jersey, being situated between two of the 
largest commercial cities in America, was completely drained of 
specie, and this state also issued a large sum in bills of credit, 
which served to pay the interest of the public debt, but the cur- 
rency depreciated as in other states. Rhode Island exhibited a 
melancholy proof of that anarchy and licentiousness which follow 
a relaxation of moral principle. In a rage for supplying the state 
with money the legislature passed an act for making ^100,000 in 
bills, a supply much more than sufficient for a medium of trade in 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY— LETTERS. 51 

that state, even without any specie. A legal tender of a most ex- 
traordinary nature was created, and an act passed ordaining that if 
any creditor should refuse to take their bills for any debt whatso- 
ever, the debtor might lodge the sum diae with a justice of the 
peace, and if the creditor did not appear to receive the money 
within six months from the date of the first notice, his debt should be 
forfeited. The inevitable consequence was, that their money rap- 
idly depieciated, business almost totally ceased, confidence was 
lost, while the state was thrown into confusion at home, and exe- 
crated abroad. Massachusetts had the wisdom, even in the midst 
of her great political calamities, to prevent an emission of bills of 
credit. New Ha?npshire made no paper, and rather than fail to 
fulfill her contracts she tnade her articles ®f produce, her lumber, 
and even her horses, a legal tender, in the fulfillment of contracts. 
A similar law prevailed in Massachusetts a&d Connecticut, and it 
was optional with the creditors either to imprison the debtor or 
take land on execution at a price to be fixed by three disinterested 
freeholders, provided no other means of payment appeared to sat- 
isfy the demand. 

The fact, however, must not be overlooked that while the most 
flourishing commercial states introduced a paper medium to the 
great injury of honest men, a bill for the emission of paper in Con- 
necticut, where there was very little specie, could never command 
more than one-eighth of the votes of the legislature. New York 
issued a large sum in bills of credit which supported their value 
better than the currency of any other state. Still the paper raised 
the value of specie. 

Such is the brief history of the part which New Hampshire and 
other states took in the history of paper money in the olden time, 
a miserable substitute for real coin, in a country where the reins of 
government are too weak to compel the fulfillment of public 
engagements. 

Truly yo&rs, 

C. W. DARLING, 

Cor. Sec. 



$2 , NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Washington, June 13, 1888. 
Messrs. Eastman, Hadley and Hiffl, Committee of the N. H. 

Historical Society, Concord. 
Gentlemen : 

I am honored by your invitation to be a guest of your 
Society at the coming Centennial anniversary of the adoption by 
New Hampshire of the National Constitution. It is with very 
great regret that I decline it, owing to imperative engagements in 
the West at the same date. 

Few of the descendants of the men of that time are now aware 
of the tenacity and sharpness of the straggle which ended in the 
ratification of the National Constitution by the first nine states, or 
of the joy with which patriotic hearts in New York and Virginia 
were filled when a courier brought news of the great completing 
act of New Hampshire. The minority resisted the ratification 
everywhere, because it was a national Constitution, operating 
directly upon the people, and not a Confederate or Federal Con- 
stitution, operating only through sovereign states. It is an ever- 
lasting honor to New Hampshire thai her fiat first gave active life 
to a vigorous Constitutional republic of the people of the states, 
in the place of a dissentient and powerful federation of separate 
and quarrelsome state governments. 

May your Society be the instrument of perpetuating this historic 
distinction as it was well understood by the great men who framed 
the Constitution and made the union of the people, as well of the 
states, perpetual. I am, gentlemen, 

Very respectfully, 

Yoar obedient servant, 
JOHN A. KASSON, 

of Iowa. 



Englewood, New Jersey, June n, 1888. 
Messrs. Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Hadley, and J. C. A. Hill, 

Committee. 
Gentlemen : 

I have the honor to acknowledge the invitation of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society to the celebration in commemora- 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY — LETTERS. 53 

tion of the Centennial anniversary of the ratification of the Consti- 
tution of the United States, by the state of New Hampshire, on the 
21st of June, instant. It would afford me the keenest pleasure to 
accept this invitation and unite in the exercises of that occasion. 
An important engagement at that time in the state of Missouri, 
however, compels me to forego this pleasure, very much to my 
regret. 

In looking back to the critical moment in the history of the Con- 
stitution, it does not surprise me that the clear heads and sound 
judgments of New Hampshire's Revolutionary fathers discovered 
the defects of " Confederacy of Sovereign States," nor that after 
due deliberation they ratified the Constitution, thus rounding up 
the " Revolution of Independence," and making an organic law 
for the nation. 

As a native of the state of New Hampshire, among whose royal 
hills reposes the dust of my ancestors, I take great pride in her 
hist6ry and institutions, and am ever ready to rejoice in the achieve- 
ments of her grand men. 

I am, gentlemen, 

Very respectfully and truly yours, 

J. WYMAN JONES. 



State Historical Society of Iowa. 
Office of Curators, 

June 14, 1888. 

Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Hadley,and J. C. A. Hill, Committee. 

Gentlemen : 

The State Historical Society of Iowa acknowledges, with 
gratitude, the invitation of the New Hampshire Historical Society 
to a participation in the celebration in commemoration of the Cen- 
tennial anniversary of the ratification of the Constitution of the 
United States by the state of New Hampshire. 

By vote of Curators it is my pleasant duty to represent the State 
Historical Society of Iowa upon that occasion. 

Personal presence is denied me by press of other duties. 

The insertion in the record of the hour as well as the day of 
ratification by New Hampshire, gives to your state precedence of 
Virginia in the claim of giving life to the organic law of this nation. 



54 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Bancroft's History of the Constitution accords New Hampshire 
this honor, and adds, " As the glad tidings flew through the land, 
the heart of its people thrilled with joy that at last the tree of 
union was firmly planted." And I would repeat his sentiment : 
"Never may its trunk be riven by the lightning ; nor its branches 
crash each other in the maddening storm ; nor its beauty wither ; 
nor its root decay." 

I regret, much, my inability to be present upon so joyful an 
occasion ; for my heart turns with love to the old Granite State, for 
witiin her borders rest the earthly forms of my grandparents, who 
were active participants in public affairs, in a humble way, at the 
time of New Hampshire's ratification of the Constitution. Though 
not myself a native of your state, I attained my majority while a 
resident of North Conway, 1844-5, ancl entered upon full citizen- 
ship there. 

In behalf of and representing the State Historical Society of 
Iowa, I have the honor to be 

Your grateful and obedient servant, 

JOSIAH L. PICKARD, 

Pres'tS. H.S.of Iowa. 



Philadelphia, June 13, 1688. 

Messrs. Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Hadley, J. C. A.Hill, Com- 
mittee, Concord, N. H. 
Dear Sirs : 

I have the honor to acknowledge your kind invitation to 
attend the celebration of the New Hampshire Historical Society on 
the 21st inst., in commemoration of the Centennial anniversary of 
the ratification of the Constitution of the United States by the 
state of New Hampshire. 

I have an appointment in Washington for that day, which will 
prevent me from attending ; but I cannot refrain from express- 
ing the gratification which your invitation has given me, not 
only because it recalls the occasion when I had the pleasure of 
meeting so many of your citizens in our own Historical Society's 
rooms upon a similar occasion, but because it impresses me, as it 
will do our whole country, that from one end of it to the other, all 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY — LETTERS. 55 

regard the adoption of that Constitution as the birth of a great 
nation. What we see every day of our lives necessarily comes to 
be regarded as in the ordinary course of nature : the blessings 
that our Constitution confers upon us are continual and for the same 
reason are unnoticed ;■ but we should be in earnest that those who 
are to succeed us shall with us recognize the consummate wisdom 
that guided our ancestors when they framed this remarkable docu- 
ment ; that it was then a new departure in the science of govern- 
ment, and not a copy of some previously existing form, for although 
other governments called republican had previously existed, they 
had little to distinguish them as such to those educated under this 
wonderful instrument of ours, which becomes greater and greater 
the more it is studied and compared with other systems then known 
or now existing. That it exerted an immediate and powerful influence 
for good, at the time of its adoption, is apparent now that the 
period has become so remote that its effect can be clearly traced, 
and -that it may continue to exert an ever widening and beneficial 
influence is not only the hope but the belief of all of us. 

Yours truly, 

WM. SELLERS. 



Plymouth, Ind., June 14, i388. 

Messrs: Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Nadley, and J. C. A. Bill, 

Committee, Concord, N. H. 
Gentlemen : 

I thank you for the honor of an invitation by the New 
Hampshire Historical Society to attend its celebration on the 21st 
inst., in commemoration of the Centennial of the ratification of the 
Constitution of the United States. It would give me great pleasure 
to be present on so important an occasion, and I should avail my- 
self of the opportunity your courtesy has presented, were it not that 
prior engagements tor that date render it impossible to do so. I 
feel an absorbing interest in everything that tends to draw the 
attention of the existing generation to that great charter, the Fed- 
eral Constitution, from an intimate knowledge of which I fear the 
American people are drifting. Your celebration and the publica- 
tion of its proceedings will directly bring it to the study of many. 



5^ NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

under favorable conditions to make a lasting impression. By the 
administration of government strictly in accordance with its pro- 
visions, the tendency of power to centralize itself in the General 
Government on the one hand, and to regard liberty as license by 
the people on the other, will be equally prevented ; and with a 
judicious distribution and an honest use of the elective franchise in 
electing administrators of government, there is no good reason why 
the nation shall not have perpetual liberty as broad as it has en- 
joyed during the first century of its existence. 

With thanks for the invitation, and wishes that you may realize 
your most sanguine hopes for the grand occasion, I remain 

Yours with sincere respect, 

C. H. REEVE. 



Hartford, Vt., June 15, 1888. 

Samuel C. Eastman, and others, Committee N. H. Historical 

Society. 
Gentlemen : 

Your kind invitation to me to attend your meeting at the 
celebration of the anniversary (Centennial) of the creation of the 
United States of America by the ratification of its Constitution by 
my native state is received. I regret exceedingly that I am obliged 
by professional duties to be in Michigan through next week, but 
for which appointment I should surely accept of your invitation 
with the utmost pleasure ; and it is only on account of a business 
obligation to others that I am constrained to forego being present 
on an occasion of such great historical interest as your celebration 
forecasts. 

The momentous duties of that convention whose members were 
such men as Langdon and Sullivan. Bartlett and Atherton. and Gil- 
man and Pickering and Livermore, in their labors at Exeter, to 
crown the monument of our nationality by the ninth stone of the 
Constitutional column, the apex, which would give the government 
strength, and a " local habitation and a name ;" its care, while the 
question hung so evenly balanced, to adjourn for a time, to feel the 
public pulse and know what the wishes of the plain people were ; 
its reassembly at Concord, and triumphant establishment of the 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY — LETTERS. 57 

great Constitutional government which has so wonderfully blessed 
mankind for a hundred years next Friday,— all form one of the 
gravest and most critical turning-points in the history of states. 

Our New Hampshire fathers of that day took up a position in 
which they were sustained, and it has been a habit with their suc- 
cessors for a century. Esto perpetua. 

With thanks for your polite invitation, and sincere regrets that I 
cannot avail myself of the privilege it confers, I remain 

Very truly yours, 

SAM'L E. PINGREE. 



Boston, June 14, 1888. 
My Dear Sir : 

I thank you for the invitation to be present at the Centen- 
nial anniversary of the ratification of the Constitution of the United 
States by the state of New Hampshire, and I regret that my en- 
gagements prevent me from accepting it. There could be no more 
interesting an occasion, and I am glad that your Historical Society 
has decided to celebrate it. The contributions of New Hampshire 
to the cause of good government deserve all the praise which the 
orator and the poet can express. 

Yours sincerely, 

WALBRIDGE A. FIELD. 
Samuel C. Eastman, 

Chairman of Committee, Concord, N. H. 



New Ipswich, N. H., June 16, 1888. 
Messrs, S. C. Eastman, Amos Hadley,J. C. A. HilL 
Gentlemen : 

Yours of the 15th is at hand, and I am greatly obliged for 
your kind invitation to be present on the 21st, and I wish it were 
in my power to accept, but I fear it will be impossible for me to 
come. 

I am glad that attention is to be called to the important action 
taken by New Hampshire at a time when so many were wavering, 



5§ NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and I am also glad that the celebration of this Centennial anni- 
versary is to be in charge of those who have long been honored 
in their native state ; and I feel sure that the occasion cannot fail 
to be one of the most interesting in the kmg line of historic festi- 
vals which our people have witnessed. 

Again thanking you for your courtesy, I am, 

Very truly, 

WILL. A. PRESTON. 



N. E. Historic, Genealogical Society. 
Society's House, 18 Somerset St. 

Boston, Mass., Monday, June 18, 1888. 

To Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Had/ey, and J. C. A. Hill, Es- 
quires, Committee of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
Concord, N. H. 
Gentlemen : 

The invitation with which the New Hampshire Historical 
Society has, through you, honored this Society, requesting their 
attendance at Concord on the 21st instant, to assist in celebrating 
the one hundredth anniversary of the ratification, on the part of 
the state of New Hampshire, of the Constitution of the United 
States of America, was duly received. 

The Board of Directors of the New England Historic, Genealog- 
ical Society have ordered me to return to you the thanks of the 
Society for being permitted to join in the celebration of so impor- 
tant an event : one that, in your own words, " made the Constitu- 
tion the organic law of the nation." They have voted to accept 
your invitation, and have appointed as delegates to represent the 
society, Abner C. Goodell, Jr., Esq., President of the Society, Rev. 
Henry A. Hazen, Col. Albert H. Hoyt, William B. Trask, Esq., 
Hon. Nathaniel F. Safford, Charles Carleton Coffin, Esq , Rev. 
Luther Farnham. 

Yours respectfully, 

JOHN WARD DEAN, 
Secretary of tike Board of Directors. 



THE CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY — LETTERS. 59 

New York Historical Society, June 16, 1888. 

Messrs. Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Hartley, J. C. A. Hill, Com- 
mittee. 
Gentlemen : 

I beg to acknowledge the invitation by the New Hampshire 
Historical Society to the New York Historical Society to be present 
at the celebration of the Society in Concord, on the 21st day of 
June, 1888, in commemoration of the Centennial anniversary of 
the ratification of the Constitution of the United States by the state 
of New Hampshire. In response thereto, as President of the New 
York Historical Society, which is now in its summer recess, I have 
the honor to appoint as its representatives at your most notable and 
august celebration, The Honorable John Jay, William H. Morse, 
LL. D., and Robert Ray Hamilton, Esquire. I trust that they may 
be able to be with you, and to express the full sympathy of our 
Society in this most fitting remembrance of the great work done by 
the convention of New Hampshire in 1788. By that ratification 
the Constitution was made a certainty, and the Granite Hills 
afforded a solid foundation for the new government. 
I have the honor to be 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN A. KING, 
Pres't of N. Y. Historical Society. 



The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, 18th June. 1888. 

To Messrs. Samuel C. Eastman, Amos Hartley, and J. C. A. Hill, 
Committee of the New Hampshire Historical Society. 

Gentlemen : 

On behalf of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, I thank 
you very much for your invitation to our members to attend your 
Centennial celebration of the Ratification of the Constitution of the 
United States by the State of New Hampshire. Two of our most 
valued members will represent our Society : Mr. Frederick D. 
Stone and Mr. Hampton L. Carson. I am greatly disappointed 
that I can not accompany them and be with you next Thursday, 



60 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

From a legal point of view, the ratification t>y New Hampshire 
was an event of the first magnitude. By that act, the Constitution 
of the United States, under the seventh artkle thereof, was first 
established between the necessary nine States, and became the 
great law of the Union. By that act, the Constitution of the 
United States not only became the law of the land of New Hamp- 
shire, but also the law of the land of Pennsylvania. Such was the 
operation in nine States, respectively, of the ratification of New 
Hampshire. Last year, in Pennsylvania, we celebrated the framing 
and writing of the Constitution. Next year tibe inauguration of 
the Constitutional government of the United States will be cele- 
brated in New York. On the 21st of June, of the present year, in 
New Hampshire, you will celebrate the establishment of the Con- 
stitution. Each year is memorable, indeed, and it would seem 
that each in its turn, as it is celebrated, has its peculiar impressive- 
ness. 

The prince of poets in his time has selected 1888 as that year of 
the three which most impresses him in the contemplation of the 
subject. His view necessarily implies that the Ratification Day of 
New Hampshire is a date of supreme importance. It was legally 
the exact date, when, as his winged words suggest, this growing 
world of ours assumed new " harmonies of law." Lord Tennyson, 
in his letter to Mr. Walt Whitman, dated November 15, 1887, 
holds the year 1888 to be that of the Centennial anniversary of the 
Constitution. He has acted upon that view by first publishing in 
the present year his noble Ode upon the Separation of England and 
America, which he had long reserved in manuscript. The poem 
and the letter of Lord Tennyson, taken together, enable us to 
understand how he appreciates what we Americans celebrate in 
our Constitutional anniversaries. He would be the last of his 
countrymen to forget, that, while Magna Charta was written in 
Latin, our great Charter was written in English. He does not, 
however, speak of the language of the Constitution. He dwells 
upon something beyond. The soul which inspired the founders of 
our Constitution seems to him so great, that to breathe a breath of 
it should give new life to every patriotic American. Such were the 
men whose work you now celebrate. They were men who cher- 
ished the inheritance of rights they had defended in the 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 6 1 

past, and who composed long-enduring harmonies of law for the 
future. 

Faithfully yours, 

BRINTON COXE, 

President of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 



Concord, Wednesday, Sept. 5, 1888. 

The adjourned sixty-sixth annual meeting of the Society was 
held at the Society's rooms, this day at eleven o'clock a. m., the 
President in the chair. 

An Indian relic, presented by Stephen D. Messer, Esq., of New 
London, was accepted, with thanks to the donor. 

A communication from VV. G. Hamilton, chairman, and James 
Montgomery, secretary of the Committee on States, respecting the 
celebration in New York, April 30, 1889, of the Centennial of 
Washington's inauguration was presented, and, on motion of Mr. 
J. B. Walker, the President was requested to confer with the Gov- 
ernor as to the appointment of a commission, so that New Hamp- 
shire may be properly represented at said celebration. 

Rev. C. L. Tappan presented the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Whereas, The manuscript volume entitled " Belknap Papers," 
belonging to this Society, has been printed, in part, in the New 
Hampshire Province and State papers ; therefore — 

Resolved, That permission is hereby granted to the editor of said 
work to publish the remaining portion of said manuscript volume 
in said state publications. 

Mr. J. B. Walker offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the treasurer be requested to carry to, and here- 
after treat as a part of the Permanent Fund, the sum of four 
thousand fifty-two dollars and fifty -eight cents, now on hand in the 
treasury ; said fund to be increased from time to time to ten 
thousand dollars. 

Mr. Hammond, from the committee on new members, nomi- 
nated the following-named persons, who were elected, by ballot and 
the requisite constitutional majority, members of the Society : 



62 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Hon, James W. Patterson, Hanover; Henry O. Kent, Lancas- 
ter; George Peabody Little, Pembroke; Hon. Martin A. Haynes 
Gilford. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 

Hon. Edward H. Elwell, Portland, Me. 

HONORARY MEMBER. 

Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, New York City. 

Rev. C. L. Tappan, from the special committee on Volap^k , 
reported that it was inexpedient to comply with the request of the 
American Philosophical Society concerning the same. The report 
was accepted, and the committee was discharged from further con- 
sideration of the subject. 

Mr. J. C. A. Hill, from the Centennial committee, submitted a 
financial statement. 

On motion of Mr. E. C. Eastman : 

Resolved, That the financial statement of the Centennial com- 
mittee be referred to the standing committee for examination, and 
if found correct, that the treasurer be authorized to pay out of the 
treasury the balance of deficiency. 

Mr. J. B Waker offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That this Society cordially approves the proposition 
now pending in the Congress of the United States to include in the 
next census the names of all veterans of the war of the Rebellion. 
with the state for which, and the organization in which each 
served ; also, if practicable, such data as will indicate the place and 
date of death of such as have deceased since the close of the war. 

On motion of the same gentleman, the attention of the publica- 
tion committee was called to the desirableness of an early publica- 
tion of a part of the next volume of proceedings of the Society. 

Messrs. Walker, Tappan, and others, of the delegation appointed 
to attend the celebration of the 250th anniversary of the settlement 
of Hampton, made verbal reports. 

Adjourned to meet again on Thursday, Nov. 15, 188S, at such 
place as the president may designate. 



ADJOURNED ANNNAL MEETING. 63 

Concord, Thursday, Nov. 15, 1888. 

The adjourned sixty-sixth annual meeting was held at the 
Society's rooms, this day at n o'clock a. m., the president in the 
chair. 

The president read a communication from Henry M. Baker, of 
How, presenting to the Society a print of an etched portrait of 
George Washington, by M. Lefort, which gift was accepted with 
thanks, and ordered to be suspended in the rooms of the Society. 

A communication from Hon. C. H. Bell, containing a proposi- 
tion respecting certain exchanges, and the withdrawal of certain 
reprints from the Bell alcove, was read, and Mr. Bell's proposition 
accepted. 

Mr. Hammond, from the committee on new members, nomi- 
nated the following persons, who were elected, by ballot and the 
requisite constitutional majority, members of the Society : 

RESIDENT MEMBER. 

Luther Sargent, Canterbury. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

J. Ware Butterfield, Florence, Kan. ; George E. Littlefield, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

It was resolved that when the Society adjourn to-day, it do so 
to meet at Grand Army Hall, in Concord, on Thursday, Dec. 20, 
1888, at 7 : 30 o'clock p. m., at which meeting Elder Henry C. Blinn 
would deliver an address upon " Shakerism in New Hampshire." 

Adjourned. 



Concord, Thursday, Dec. 20, 1888. 

The adjourned sixty-sixth annual meeting of the Society was 
held in the hall of the Grand Army of the Republic, this day at 
seven and a half o'clock p. m., the president in the chair. 

The president read a communication from the New England 
Historic, Genealogical Society, requesting permission to print in a 
forthcoming volume of the works of the late Charles VV. Tuttle, 
Ph. D., an address. of his delivered before the N. H. Historical 
Society, and published in its transactions. On motion of Mr. 
Hammond the request was granted. 



64 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Hammond, from the committee on new members, nomi- 
nated the following-named persons, who were elected, by ballot and 
the requisite constitutional majority, members of the Society : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

W. A. Fergusson, Lancaster ; Nahum J. Bachelder, East Ando- 
ver; J. F. Mahaney, Concord. 

HONORARY MEMBER. 

Hon. William W. Clapp, Boston. 

Mr. Hammond presented the following preamble and resolu- 
tions, which were adopted : 

Whereas, Considerable interest has been manifested among his- 
torical students, of late, relative to the nationality of some of the 
early settlers in this state, commonly denominated "Scotch-Irish," 
therefore — 

Resolved, That, in our opinion, it is expedient, and will be his- 
torically profitable, to have the subject investigated and fully dis- 
cussed. 

Resolved, That the standing committee be, and hereby is, re- 
spectfully requested to make arrangements for such dicussion before 
this Society, and to invite such ladies and gentlemen as it may see 
fit to take part in the same. 

The president, with opening remarks, introduced Henry C. 
Blinn, of Canterbury, who delivered an address upon "Shakerism 
in New Hampshire." 

Mr. Moses Humphrey moved a vote of thanks to the speaker, 
which, after remarks by the mover, the president, and Messrs. John 
Kimball and Parker Pillsbury, was adopted. 

The Society then adjourned, to meet again at the call of the 
president. 



THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA 

BY THE NORTHMEN, 
IN THE TENTH AND ELEVENTH CENTURIES. 

ADDRESS 

Before the N. H. Historical Society, April 24, 1888, 
By Rev. EDMUND F. SLAFTER, D. D. 



On the 29th day of October, 1887, a statue erected to the 
memory of Leif, the son of Erik, the discoverer of America, 
was unveiled in the city of Boston, in the presence of a large 
assembly of citizens. The statue is of bronze, a little larger 
than life-size, and represents the explorer standing upon the 
prow of his ship, shading his eyes with his hand, and gazing 
towards the west. This monument 1 suggests the subject to 
which I wish to call your attention, viz., the story of the dis- 
covery of this continent by the Scandinavians nearly nine hun- 
dred years ago. 

I must here ask your indulgence for the statement of a few 
preliminary historical facts in order that we may have a clear 
understanding of this discovery. 

About the middle of the ninth century, Harald Haarfager, or 
the fair-haired, came to the throne of Norway. He was a 
young and handsome prince, endowed with great energy ot 
will and many personal attractions. It is related that he fell 
in love with a beautiful princess. His addresses were, how- 
ever, coolly rejected with the declaration that when he became 
king of Norway in reality, and not merely in name, she would 

1 If it be admitted, as it is almost universally, that the Scandinavians came to this 
continent in the last part of the tenth or the early part of the eleventh century, it is 



66 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

give him both her heart and her hand. This admonition was 
not disregarded by the young king. The thirty-one principal- 
ities into which Norway was at that time divided were in a 
few years subjugated, and the petty chieftains or princes who 
ruled over them became obedient to the royal authority. The 
despotic rule, however, of the king was so irritating and 
oppressive that many of them sought homes of greater freedom 
in the inhospitable islands of the northern seas. Among the 
rest, Iceland, having been discovered a short time before, was 
colonized by them. This event occurred about the year S74. 
Notwithstanding the severity of the climate and the sterility of 
the soil, the colony rapidly increased in numbers and wealth, 
and an active commerce sprung up with the mother country, 
and was successfully maintained. At the end of a century, 
they had pushed their explorations still farther, and Greenland 
was discovered, and a colony was planted there, which con- 
tinued to flourish for a long period. 

About the year 9S5, a young, enterprising, and prosperous 
navigator, who had been accustomed to carry on a trade between 
Iceland and Norway, on returning from the latter in the sum- 
mer of the year, found that his father had left Iceland some 
time before his arrival, to join a new colony which had been 
then recently planted in Greenland. This young merchant, 
who bore the name of Bjarni, disappointed at not finding his 
father in Iceland, determined to proceed on and pass the com- 
ing winter with him at the new colony in Greenland. Having 
obtained what information he could as to the geographical 
position of Greenland, this intrepid navigator accordingly set 
sail in his little barque, with a small number of men, in an 
unknown and untried sea, guided in his course only by the 
sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies. 1 After sailing three 
days they entirely lost sight of land. A north wind sprung 
up, accompanied with a dense fog, which utterly shrouded the 
heavens from their view, and left them at the mercy of the 

eminently fitting that a suitable monument should mark and emphasize the event. 
And it seenis equally fitting that it should be placed in Boston, the metropolis of New 
England, since it simply commemorates the event of their coming, but is not intended 
to indicate their land-fall, or the place of their temporary abode. 
* The mariner's compass was not discovered till the twelfth or thirteenth century. 



DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 67 

winds and the waves. Thus helpless, they were borne along 
for many days in an open and trackless ocean, they knew not 
whither. At length the fog cleared away, the blue sky 
appeared, and soon after they came in sight of land. On 
approaching near to it, they observed that it had a low, undu- 
lating surface, was without mountains, and was thickly cov- 
ered with wood. It was obviously not the Greenland for 
which they were searching. Bearing away and leaving the 
land on the west, after sailing two days, they again came in 
sight of land. This was likewise flat and well wooded, but 
could not be Greenland, as that had been described to them as 
having very high snow-capped hills. Turning their prow 
from the land and launching out into the open sea, after a sail 
of three days, they came in sight of another country having a 
flat, rocky foreground, and mountains beyond with ice-clad 
summits. This was unlike Greenland as it had been described 
to them. They did not even lower their sails. They, how- 
ever, subsequently found it to be an island. Continuing on 
their course, after sailing four days they came to Greenland, 
where Bjarni found his father, with whom he made his per- 
manent abode. 

This accidental discovery of lands hitherto unknown, and 
farther west than Greenland, and differing in important features 
from any countries with which they were familiar, awakened 
a very deep interest wherever the story was rehearsed. Bjarni 
was criticised, and blamed for not having made a thorough 
exploration and for bringing back such a meagre account of 
what he had seen. But while these discoveries were the fre- 
quent subject of conversation, both in Norway and in the colo- 
nies of Iceland and Greenland, it was not until fifteen years 
had elapsed that any serious attempt was made to verify the 
statement of Bjarni, or to secure any advantages from what he 
had discovered. 

About the year iooo, Leif, the son of Erik, an early colonist 
of Greenland, determined to conduct an expedition in search of 
the new lands which had been seen on the accidental voyage of 
Bjarni. He accordingly fitted out a ship, and manned it with 
thirty-five men. Shaping their course by the direction and 



68 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

advice of Bjarni, their first discovery was the country which 
Bjarni had seen last. On going ashore they saw no grass, but 
what appeared to be a plain of flat stones stretching back to 
icy mountains in the distance. They named it flat-stone land, 
or Helluland. 

Again proceeding on their voyage, they came to another 
land which was flat, covered with wood, with low, white, 
sandy shores, answering to the second country seen by Bjarni. 
Having landed and made a personal inspection, they named 
the place woodland, or Markland. 

Sailing once more into the open sea with a north-east wind, 
at the end of two days they came to a third country, answering 
to that which Bjarni had first seen. They landed upon an 
island situated at the mouth of a river. They left their ship in 
a sound between the island and the river. The water was 
shallow, and the receding tide soon left their ship on the beach. 
As soon, however, as their ship was lifted by the rising tide, 
they floated it into the river, and from thence into a lake, or an 
expansion of the river above its mouth. Here they landed and 
constructed temporary dwellings, but having decided to pass 
the winter, they proceeded to erect buildings for their more 
ample accommodation. They found abundance of fish in the 
waters, the climate mild, and the nature of the country such 
that they thought cattle would not even require feeding or 
shelter in winter. They observed that day and night were 
more equal than in Greenland or Iceland. The sun was above 
the horizon on the shortest day, if we may accept the interpre- 
tation of learned Icelandic scholars 1 , from half past seven in 

1 This statement rests on the interpretation of Professor Finn Magnusen, for which 
see " The Voyages of the Northmen to America," Prince Socely's ed., pp. 34, 126. Bos- 
ton, 1877. The general description of the climate and the products of the soil are in 
harmony with this interpretation, but it has nevertheless been questioned. Other 
Icelandic writers differ from him, aad make the latitude of the land-fall of Leif at 
49 55', instead of 41 43' 10", as computed by Magruisen. 

This later interpretation is by Professor Gustav Storm. Vide The Finding of 
Wineland the Good, by Arthur Middleton Reeves, pp. 1S1-1S5. London, 1890. These 
interpretations are wide apart. Both writers are represented to be able and thorough 
scholars. When doctors disagree, who shall decide? The sciolists will doubtless range 
themselves on different sides, and fight it out to the bitter end. 

The truth is, the chronology of that period in its major and minor applications was 
exceedingly indefinite. The year when events ocasxred is settled, when settled at all, 



DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 69 

the morning till half past four in the afternoon. Having com- 
pleted their house-building, they devoted the rest of the season 
to a careful and systematic exploration of the country about 
them, not venturing, however, so far that they could not return 
to their homes in the evening. 

In this general survey they discovered grapes growing in 
great abundance, and timber of an excellent quality and highly 
valued in the almost woodless region from whence they came. 
With these two commodities they loaded their ship, and in the 
spring returned to Greenland. Leif gave to the country, which 
he had thus discovered and explored, a name, as he said, after 
its '* qualities," and called it Vineland. 

The next voyage was made by Thorvald, a brother of Leif, 
probably in the year 1002. The same ship was employed, and 
was manned with thirty men. They repaired at once to the 
booths or temporary houses constructed by Leif, where they 
passed three winters, subsisting chiefly uipon fish, which they 
took in the waters near them. In the summers they explored 
the country in various directions to a considerable distance. 
They discovered no indications of human occupation except on 
an island, where they found a corn-shed constructed of wood. 
The second year they discovered native inhabitants in great 
numbers, armed with missiles, and having a vast flotilla of boats 
made of the skins of animals. With these natives they came 
into hostile conflict, in which Thorvald received a wound of 
which he subsequently died. He was buried at a spot selected 
by himself, and crosses were set up at his head and at his feet. 
After another winter, having loaded their ship with grapes and 
vines, the explorers returned to Greenland. 

with great difficulty ; and it is plain that the divisions of the day were loose and indefi- 
nite. At least, they could only be approximately determined. In the absence of clocks, 
watches, and chronometers, there could not be anything like scientific accuracy, and 
the attempt to apply scientific principles to Scandinavian chronology only renders con- 
fusion still more confused. The terms which they used to express the divisions of the 
day were all indefinite. One of them, for example, was hirdis rismd/, which means 
the time when the herdsmen took their breakfast. This was sufficiently definite for 
the practical purposes of a simple, primitive people ; best as the breakfast hour of a 
people is always more or less various, hirdis rismal probably covered a period from one 
to three hours, and therefore did not furnish the proper data for calculating latitude. 
Any meaning given by translators touching exact hours erf the day must, therefore, be 
taken cum grano salis, or for only what it is worth. 



70 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The death of Thorvald was a source of deep sorrow to his 
family, and his brother Thorstein resolved to visit Vineland and 
bring home his body. He accordingly embarked in the same 
ship, with twenty-five chosen men, and his wife Gudrid. The 
voyage proved unsuccessful. Having spent the whole summer 
in a vain attempt to find Vineland, they returned to Greenland, 
and during the winter Thorstein died, and the next year his 
widow Gudrid was married to Thorfinn Karlsefni, a wealthy 
Icelandic merchant. 

In the year 1007, three ships sailed for Vineland, one com- 
manded by Thorfinn Karlsefni, one by Bjarni Grimolfson, and 
the third by Thorvard, the husband of Freydis, the half-sister 
of Leif, the son of Erik. There were altogether in the three 
ships, one hundred and sixty men, and cattle of various kinds 
taken with them perhaps for food, or possibly to be useful in 
case they should decide to make a permanent settlement. They 
attempted, however, nothing beyond a careful exploration of the 
country, which they found beautiful and productive, its forests 
abounding in wild game, its rivers well stocked with fish, and 
the soil producing a spontaneous growth of native grains. They 
bartered trifles with the natives for their furs, but they were 
able to hold little intercourse with them. The natives were so 
exceedingly hostile that the lives of the explorers were in con- 
stant peril, and they consequently, after some bloody skirmishes, 
abandoned all expectation of making a permanent settlement. 
At the end of three years, Karlsefni and his voyagers returned 
to Greenland. 

In the year 101 1 Freydis, the half-sister of Leif, inspired by 
the hope of a profitable voyage, entered into a partnership with 
two merchants, and passed a winter in Vineland. She was a 
bold, masculine woman, of unscrupulous character, and desti- 
tute of every womanly quality. She fomented discord, con- 
trived the assassination of her partners in the voyage, and early 
the next spring, having loaded all the ships with timber and 
other commodities, she returned with rich and valuable cargoes 
for the Greenland market. 

Such is the story of the discovery of America in the last 
years of the tenth and the early years of the eleventh centuries. 



DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. *l 

These four expeditions of which I have given a very brief 
outline, passing over many interesting but unimportant details, 
constitute all of which there remains any distinct and well 
defined narrative. Other voyages may have been made during 
the same or a later period- Allusions are found in early Scan- 
dinavian writings, which may confirm the narratives which we 
have given, but add to them nothing really essential or important. 

The natural and pertinent question which the historical 
student has a right to ask is this : On what evidence does this 
story rest? What reason have we to believe that these voyages 
were ever made? 

I will endeavor to make the answer to these inquiries as 
plain and clear as possible. 

There are two kinds of evidence by which remote historical 
events may be established, viz., ancient writings, which can be 
relied upon as containing truthful statements of the alleged 
events, and, secondly, historical monuments and remains illus- 
trating and confirming the written narratives. Such events 
may be established by one of these classes of evidence alone, or 
by both in concurrence. 

Our attention shall be directed in the first place to certain 
ancient writings in which the story of this discovery of America 
is found. What are these ancient writings? and to what extent 
do they challenge our belief? 

At the time that the alleged voyages to this continent in the 
year iooo, and a few years subsequent, were made, the old 
Danish or Icelandic tongue, then spoken in Iceland and Green- 
land, the vernacular of the explorers, bad not been reduced to a 
written language, and of course the narrative of these voyages 
could not at that time be written out. But there was in that 
language an oral literature of a peculiar and interesting charac- 
ter. It had its poetry, its romance, its personal memoirs, and 
its history. It was nevertheless unwritten. It was carried in 
the memory, and handed down from one generation to another. 
In distinguished and opulent families men were employed to 
memorize and rehearse on festivals and other great occasions, 
as a part of the entertainment, the narratives, which had been 
skilfully put together and polished for public recital, relating to 



irfBAalla,*^..*^ .^^^.fe^^^^^^.^.A^, ^ , ^, ,. , ^ 



72 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the exploits and achievements of their ancestors. These narra- 
tives were called sagas, and those who memorized and repeated 
them were called sagamen. It was a hundred and fifty years 
after the alleged discovery of this continent before the practice 
began of committing Icelandic sagas to writing. Suitable 
parchment was difficult to obtain, and the. process was slow 
and expensive, and only a few documents of any kind at first 
were put into written form. But in the thirteenth century 
written sagas multiplied to vast numbers. They were deposited 
in convents and in other places of safety. Between 1650 and 
1 715, these old Icelandic parchments were transferred to the 
libraries of Stockholm and Copenhagen. They were subse- 
quently carefully read, and classified by the most competent 
and erudite scholars. Among them two sagas were found 
relating to discoveries far to the southwest of Greenland, the 
outlines of which I have given you in the preceding pages. 
The earliest of these two sagas is supposed to have been written 
by Hauk Erlendsson, who died in 1334. Whether he copied it 
from a previous manuscript, or took the narrative from oral 
tradition, cannot be determined. The other was written out in 
its present form somewhere between 13S7 and 1395." It was 
probably copied from a previous saga not known to be now 
in existence, but which is conjectured to have been originally 
written out in the twelfth century. These documents are pro- 
nounced by scholars qualified to judge of the character of 
ancient writings to be authentic, and were undoubtedly believed 
by the writers to be narratives of historical truth. 

They describe with great distinctness the outlines of our 
eastern coast, including soil, products, and climate, beginning 
in the cold, sterile regions of the north and extending down to 
the warm and fruitful shores of the south. It is to be observed 
that there is no improbability that these alleged voyages should 
have been made. That a vessel, sailing from Iceland and bound 
for Greenland, should be blown from its course and drifted to 
the coast of Nova Scotia or of New England, is an occurrence 
that might well be expected ; and to believe that such an acci- 
dental voyage should be followed by other voyages of discovery, 
demands no extraordinary credulity. 



■ 



DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 73 

The sagas, or narratives, in which the alleged voyages are 
described, were written out as we have them to-day, more than 
a hundred years before the discoveries of Columbus were 
made in the West Indies, 1 or those of John Cabot on our north- 
ern Atlantic shores. The writers of these sagas had no infor- 
mation derived from other sources on which to build up the 
fabric of their story. To believe that the agreement of the nar- 
ratives in their general outlines with the facts as we now know 
them was accidental, a mere matter of chance, is impossible. 
The coincidences are so many, and the events so far removed 
from anything that the authors had themselves ever seen, or of 
which they had any knowledge, that it becomes easier and 
more reasonable to accept the narratives in their general feat- 
ures than to deny the authenticity of the records. If we reject 
them, we must on the same principle reject the early history of 
all the civilized peoples of the earth, since that historv has been 
obtained in all cases more or less directly from oral tradition. 

In their general scope, therefore, the narrative of the sagas 
has been accepted by the most judicious and dispassionate his- 
torical students, who have given to the subject careful and con- 
scientious study. 

But when we descend to minor particulars, unimportant to 
the general drift and import of the narratives, we find it diffi- 
cult, nay, I may say impossible, to accept them fully and with 
an unhesitating confidence. Narratives that have come down 

1 It has been conjectured by some writers that Columbus on a visit to Iceland learned 
something of the voyages of the Northmen to America, and was aided by this knowl- 
edge in his subsequent discoveries. There is no evidence whatever that such was the 
case. In writing a memoir of his father, Ferdinando Columbus found among his papers 
a memorandum in which Columbus states that, in February, 1477, he sailed a hundred 
leagues beyond Tile, that this island was as large as England, that the English from 
Bristol carried on a trade there, that the sea when he was there was not frozen over ; 
and he speaks also of the high tides. In the same paragraph we are informed that the 
southern limit of this island is 6}^ from the equator, which identifies it with Iceland. 
Beyond these facts, the memorandum contains no information. Tiiere is no evidence 
that Columbus was at any time in communication with the natives of Iceland on any 
subject whatever. There is no probability that he sought, or obtained, any information 
of the voyages of the Northmen to this continent. Ferdinando Columbus's life ot his 
father may be found in Spanish in Barcia's Historical Collections, Vol. I. Madrid, 1749. 
It is a translation from the Italian, printed in Venice in 15 71. An English translation 
appears in Churchill's Collections, in Kerr's, and in Pinkerton's, but its mistranslations 
and errors render it wholly untrustworthy. 



Mi .. .„,- ,. .■„,. ,**„.***t^ , Sm*m**4^«*M*Atii^ dtf t to ri tf ftWf ^' ^""-ft , , : i- . . ...1 f j W a .„ |, 



J 



74 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to us on the current of oral tradition are sure to be warped and 
twisted from their original form and meaning. Consciously or 
unconsciously they are shaped and colored more or less by the 
several minds through which they have passed. No one can 
fail to have witnessed the changes that have grown up in the 
same story, as repeated by one and another in numerous in- 
stances within his own observation. The careful historian 
exercises, therefore, great caution in receiving what comes to 
him merely in oral tradition. 1 

We must not, however, forget that the sagamen in whose 
memories alone these narratives were preserved at least a hun- 
dred and fifty years, and not unlikely for more than three hun- 
dred, were professional narrators of events. It was their 
office and duty to transmit to others what they had themselves 
received. Their professional character was in some degree a 
guarantee for the preservation of the truth. But nevertheless 
it was impossible through a long series of oral narrations, that 
errors should not creep in ; that the memory of some of them 
should not fail at times ; and if it did foil there was no authority 
or standard by which their errors could be corrected. More- 
over it is probable that variations were purposely introduced 
here and there, in obedience to the sagaman's conceptions of 
an improved style and a better taste. What variations took 
place through the failure of the memory or the conceit of the 
sagamen, whether few or many, whether trivial or important, 
can never be determined. It is therefore obvious that our 
interpretation of minor particulars in the sagas cannot be criti- 
cal, and any nicely exact meaning, any absolute certainty, can- 
not be successfully maintained, since an inevitable doubt, 
never to be removed, overshadows these minor particulars. 
We may state, therefore, without hesitation, that the narratives 

i It is somewhat remarkable that most writers who have attempted to estimate the 
value of the sagas as historical evidence have ignored the fact, that from a hundred and , 

fifty to three hundred years ihey existed only in oral tradition, handed down from one 
generation to another, subject to the changes which are inevitable in oral statements. 
They are treated by these critics as they would treat scientific documents, a coast or 
geodetic survey, or an admiralty report, in which lines and distances are determined by 
the most accurate instruments, and measurements and records are made simultaneously. 
It is obvious that their premises must be detective, and consequently their deductions 
are sure to be erroneous. 






DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 75 

of the sagas are to be accepted only in their general outlines 
and prominent features. So far we find solid ground. If we 
advance farther we tread upon quicksands, and are not sure of 
our foothold. 

The question here naturally arises, viz., If in minor particu- 
lars the sagas cannot be fully relied upon, to what extent can we 
identify the countries discovered, and the places visited by the 
Northmen? 

In answer to this very proper inquiry, I observe that,, 
according to the narrative of the sagas, and the interpretation 
of Scandinavian scholars, the first country that the explorers 
discovered after leaving Greenland answers in its general feat- 
ures to Newfoundland, with its sterile soil, its rocky sur- 
face, and its mountains in the back-ground. The second 
answers to Nova Scotia, with its heavy forests, its low, level 
coast, and its white, sandy cliffs and beaches. The third an- 
swers to New England in temperature, climate, productions 
of the soil, the flat, undulating surface of the country, and 
its apparent distance from Greenland, the base or starting- 
point from which these voyages of discovery were made. 

The statements of the sagas coincide with so many of the 
general features of our Atlantic coast that there is a strong 
probability, not indeed rising to a demonstration, bu<- to as 
much certainty as belongs to anything in the period of unwrit- 
ten history, that the Vineland of the Northmen was somewhere 
on our American Atlantic coast. Of this there is little room for 
doubt. But when we go beyond this there is absolutely no 
certainty whatever. The local descriptions of the sagas are 
all general and indefinite. They identify nothing. When they 
speak of an island, a cape, a river, or a bay, they do not give us 
any clue to the locality where the said island, or cape, or river, or 
bay is situated. The whole coast of New England and of the 
English Provinces farther east is serrated with capes and bays 
and river-inlets, and is likewise studded with some hundreds 
of islands. It would be exceedingly interesting, indeed a great 
achievement, if we could clearly rix or identify the land-fall of 
Leif, the Scandinavian explorer, and point out the exact spot 
where he erected his houses and passed the winter. 






*j6 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The key to this identification, if any exists, is plainly the 
description of the place as given in the sagas. If we find in 
the sagas the land-fall of Leif, the place where the Scandina- 
vians landed, so fully described that it can be clearly distin- 
guished from every other place on our coast, we shall then 
have accomplished this important historical achievement. Let 
us examine this description as it stands in these ancient docu- 
ments. 

Leaving Markland, they were, says the saga, "two days at 
sea before they saw land, and they sailed thither and came to an 
island which lay to the eastward of the land." Here they landed 
and made observations as to the grass and the sweetness of the 
dew. "After that," continues the saga, u they went to the ship, 
and sailed into a sound, which lay between the island and a 
ness (promontory), which ran out to the eastward of the land ; 
and then steered westwards past the ness. It was very shallow 
at ebb-tide, and their ship stood up, so that it was far to see 
from the ship to the water. 

" But so much did they desire to land, that they did not give 
themselves time to wait until the water again rose under their 
ship, but ran at once on shore, at a place where a river flows 
out of a lake ; but so soon as the waters rose up under the ship, 
then took they boats, and rowed to the ship, and floated it up to 
the river, and thence into the lake, and there cast anchor, and 
brought up from the ship their skin cots, and made there booths. 
After this they took council, and formed the resolution of re- 
maining there for the winter, and built there large houses." 

In this brief extract are all the data which we have relating 
to the land-fall of Leif, and to the place where he erected his 
houses, which were occupied by himself, and by other explorers 
in subsequent years. 

We shall observe that we have in this description an island 
at the mouth of a river. Whether the island was large or 
small, whether it was round, square, cuneiform, broad, narrow, 
high or low, we are not told. It was simply an island, and of 
it we have no further description or knowledge whatever. 

Their ship was anchored in what they call a sound, between 
the island and a promontory or tongue of laud which ran out to 






DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 77 

the eastward. The breadth or extent of the sound at high 
water, or at low water, is not given. It may have been broad, 
covering a vast expanse, or it may have been very small, em- 
braced within a few square rods. It was simply a sound, a 
shallow piece of water, where their ship was stranded at low 
tide. Of its character we know nothing more whatever. 

Then we have a river. Whether it was a large river or a 
small one, long or short, wide or narrow, deep or shallow, a 
fresh water or tidal stream, we are not informed. All we 
know of the river is that their ship could be floated up its 
current at least at high tide. 

The river flowed out of a lake. No further description of 
the lake is given. It may have been a large body of water, or it 
may have been a very small one. It may have been only an 
enlargement or expansion of the river, or it may have been a 
bay receiving its waters from the ocean, rising and falling with 
the tides, and the river only the channel of its incoming and 
receding waters. 

On the borders of this lake, or bay, or enlargement of the 
river, as the case may have been, they built their houses; 
\yhether on the right or left shore, whether near the outlet, 
or miles away, we know not. 

It is easy to see how difficult, how impossible, it is to identify 
the landing place and temporary abode of the Northmen on 
our coast from this loose and indefinite description of the sagas. 

In the nearly nine hundred years which have passed since 
the discovery of this continent by these northern explorers, 
it would be unreasonable not to suppose that very great changes 
have taken place at the mouth of the rivers and tidal bays along 
our Atlantic coast. There is probably not a river's mouth or a 
tidal inlet on our whole eastern frontier, which has not been 
transformed in many and important features during this long 
lapse of time. Islands have been formed, and islands have 
ceased to exist. Sands have been drifting, shores have been 
crumbling, new inlets have been formed, and old ones have 
been closed up. Nothing is more unfixed and changeable than 
the shores of estuaries, and of rivers where they flow into the 
ocean. 



78 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

But even if we suppose that no changes have taken place 
in this long lapse of time, there are, doubtless, between Long 
Island Sound and the eastern limit of Nova Scotia, a great num- 
ber of rivers with all the characteristics of that described bv the 
sagas. Precisely the same characteristics belong to the Taun- 
ton, the Charles, the Merrimack, the Piscataqua, the Kennebec, 
the Penobscot, the Saint Croix, and the St. John. All these 
rivers have one or more islands at their mouth, and there are 
abundant places near by where a ship might be stranded at low 
tide, and in each of these rivers there are expansions or bays 
from which they flow into the ocean. 1 And there are, probably, 
twenty other less important rivers on our coast, where the same 
conditions may likewise be found. What sagacious student of 
history, what experienced navigator, or what learned geogra- 
pher has the audacity to say that he is able to tell us near which 
of these rivers the Northmen constructed their habitations, 
and made their temporary abode ! The identification is plainly 
impossible. Nothing is more certain than the uncertainty that 
enters into all the local descriptions contained in the Ice- 
landic sagas. In the numerous explorations of those early 
navigators, there is not a bay, a cape, a promontory, or.a 
river, so clearly described, or so distinctly defined, that it can 
be identified with any bay, cape, promontory, or river on our 
coast. The verdict of history on this point is plain, and must 
stand. Imagination and fancy have their appropriate sphere, 
but their domain is fiction, and not fact ; romance, and not his- 
tory ; and it is the duty of the historical student to hold them 
within the limits of their proper field. 

But there is yet another question which demands an answer. 
Did the Northmen leave on this continent any monuments or 
works which may serve as memorials of their abode here in the 
early part of the eleventh century ? 

The sources of evidence on this point must be looked for in 
the sagas, or in remains which can be clearly traced to the 
Northmen as their undoubted authors. 

In the sagas, we are compelled to say, as much as we could 

desire it otherwise, that we have looked in vain for any such 

1 If the reader will examine our coast-survey maps, he will easily verify this statement. 



i 

DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 79 

testimony. They contain no evidence, not an intimation, that 
the Northmen constructed any mason work, or even laid one 
stone upon another for any purpose whatever. Their dwell- 
ings, such as they were, were hastily thrown together, to serve 
only for a brief occupation. The rest of their time, according 
to the general tenor of the narrative, was exclusively devoted 
to exploration, and to the preparation and laying in of a cargo 
for their return voyage. This possible source of evidence yields 
therefore no testimony that the Scandinavians left any structures 
which have survived down to the present time, and can there- 
fore be regarded as memorials of their abode in this country. 

But, if there is no evidence on this point in the sagas, are 
there to be found to-day on any part of our Atlantic coast remains 
which can be plainly traced to the work of the Northmen? 

This question, we regret to say, after thorough examination 
and study, the most competent, careful, and learned antiqua- 
ries have been obliged to answer in the negative. Credulity 
has seized upon several comparatively antique works, whose 
origin half a century ago was not clearly understood, and has 
blindly referred them to the Northmen. Foremost among 
them were, first, the stone structure of arched mason work in 
Newport, Rhode Island ; second, a famous rock, bearing in- 
scriptions, lying in the tide-water near the town of Dighton, 
in Massachusetts; and, third, the " skeleton in armor " found 
at Fall River, in the same state. No others have been put 
forward on any evidence that challenges a critical examination. 

The old mill at Newport, situated on the farm of Benedict 
Arnold, an early governor of Rhode Island, was called in his 
will " my stone built wind mill," and had there been in his 
mind any mystery about its origin, he could hardly have failed 
to indicate it as a part of his description. Roger Williams, the 
pioneer settler of Rhode Island, educated at the University of 
Cambridge, England, a voluminous author, was himself an 
antiquary, and deeply interested in everything that pertained to 
our aboriginal history. Had any building of arched mason 
work, with some pretensions to architecture, existed at the 
time when he first took up his abode in Rhode Island, and be- 
fore any English settlements had been made there, he could 






Q * 

SO NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

not have failed to mention it : a phenomenon so singular, un- 
expected, and mysterious must have attracted his attention. 
His silence on the subject renders it morally certain that no 
such structure could have been there at that time. 1 

The inscriptions on the Dighton rock present rude cuttings, 
intermingled with outline figures of men and animals. The 
whole, or any part of them, baffles and defies all skill in inter- 
pretation. Different scholars have thought they discerned in 
the shapeless traceries Phoenician, Hebrew, Scythian, and 
Runic characters or letters. Doubtless some similitude to 
them may here and there be seen. They are probably acci- 
dental resemblances. But no rational interpretation has ever 
been given, and it seems now to be generally conceded by those 
best qualified to judge, that they are the work of our native 
Indians, of very trivial import, if, indeed, they had any mean- 
ing whatever. 

The " skeleton in armor," found at Fall River, has no better 
claim than the rest to a Scandinavian origin. What appeared 
to be human bones were found in a sand-bank, encased in 
metallic bands of brass. Its antecedents are wholly unknown. 
It may possibly have been the relics of some early navigator, 
cast upon our shore, who was either killed by the natives or 
died a natural death, and was buried in the armor in which he 
was clad. Or, what is far more probable, it may have been the 
remains of one of our early Indians, overlaid even in his grave, 
according to their custom, with the ornaments of brass, which 
he had moulded and shaped with his own hands while living. 3 

i Although most antiquaries and historical students have abandoned all belief in the 
Scandinavian origin of this structure, yet in the March number of Scribner's Magazine, 
1879, an article may be found in defence of the theory that it was erected in the eleventh 
century by the Northmen. The argument is founded on its architectural construction, 
but it is clearly refuted by Mr. George C. Mason, Jr., in the Magazine of American 
History, Vol. Ill, p. 541. 

2 In Professor Putnam's Report, as Curator of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archseology and Ethnology, in 1S87. will be found the following interesting account 
of the " Skeleton in Armor : " 

" I must, however, mention as of particular interest relating to the early period of 
contact between the Indians and Europeans on this continent, the presentation, by Dr. 
Samuel Kneeland, of two of the brass tubes found with the skeleton of an Indian near 
Fall River, about which so much has been written, including the well known verses by 
Longfellow, entitled ' The Skeleton in Armor.' That two of the ' links of the armor* 



dr. slafter's address. 8 1 

Could the veil be lifted, some such stones as these would 
doubtless spring up from the lifeless bones. But oblivion has 
for many generations brooded over these voiceless remains. 
Their story belongs to the domain of fancy and imagination. 
Poetry has woven it into an enchanting ballad. Its rhythm and 
its polished numbers may always please the ear and gratify the 
taste. But history, the stern and uncompromising arbiter of past 
events, will, we may be sure, never own the creations of the poet 
or the dreams of the enthusiast to be her legitimate offspring. 

Half a century has now elapsed since the sagas have been 
accessible to the English reader in his own language. No 
labor has been spared by the most careful, painstaking, and 
conscientious historians in seeking for remains which can be 
reasonably identified as the work of the Northmen. None what- 
ever have been found, and we may safely predict that none will 
be discovered, that can bear any better test of their genuineness 
than those to which we have just alluded. 1 

should find their final resting place in this Museum is interesting in itself, and calls up 
in imagination the history of the bits of metal of which they are made. Probably some 
early emigrant brought from Europe a brass kettle, which by barter, or through the 
vicissitudes of those early days, came into the possession of an Indian of one of the New 
England tribes and was by him cut up for ornaments, arrow points, and knives. One 
kind of ornament he made by rolling little strips of the brass into the form of long, 
slender cylinders, in imitation of those he had, probably, before made of copper. These 
were fastened side by side so as to form an ornamental belt, in which he was buried. 
Long afterwards, his skeleton was discovered and the brass beads were taken to be 
portions of the armor of a Norseman. They were sent, with other things found with 
them, to Copenhagen, and the learned men of the old and new world wrote and sung 
their supposed history. Chemists made analyses and the truth came out ; they were 
brass, not bronze nor iron. After nearly half a century had elapsed these two little 
tubes were separated from their fellows, and again crossed the Atlantic to rest by the 
side of similar tubes of brass and of copper, which have been found with other Indian 
braves ; and their story shows how much can be made out of a little thing when fancy 
has full play, and imagination is not controlled by scientific reasoning, and conclusions 
are drawn without comparative study." Vide Twentieth Annual Report of the Pea- 
body Museum, Vol. Ill, p. 543. 

In an article on " Agricultural Implements of the New England Indians," Professor 
Henry W. Haynes, of Boston, shows that the Dutch were not allowed to barter with the 
Pequots, because they sold them " kettles" and the like with which they made arrow- 
heads." Vide Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. XXII, p. 439. 
In later times brass was in frequent, not to say common, use among the Indians. 

1 There are in many parts of New England old walls and such like structures, appar- 
ently of very little importance when they were originally built, never made the subject 
of record, disused now for many generations, and consequently their origin and purpose 



82 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

It is the office and duty of the historian to seek out facts, to 
distinguish the true from the false, to sift the wheat from the 
chaff, to preserve the one and to relegate the other to the obliv- 
ion to which it belongs. 

Tested by the canons that the most judicious scholars have 
adopted in the investigation of all early history, we cannot 
doubt that the Northmen made four or five voyages to the 
coast of America in the last part of the tenth and the first part 
of the eleventh centuries ; that they returned to Greenland with 
cargoes of grapes and timber, the latter a very valuable com- 
modity in the markets both of Greenland and Iceland ; that 
their abode on our shores was temporary ; that they were most- 
ly occupied in explorations, and made no preparations for estab- 
lishing any permanent colony ; except their temporary dwell- 
ings they erected no structures whatever, either of wood or of 
stone. We have intimations that other voyages were made to 
this continent, but no detailed account of them has survived to 
the present time. 

These few facts constitute the substance of what we know of 
these Scandinavian discoveries. Of the details we know little : 
they are involved in indefiniteness, uncertainty, and doubt. The 
place of their first landing, the location of their dwellings, the 
parts of the country which they explored, are so indefinitely 
described that they are utterly beyond the power of identifica- 
tion. 

But I should do injustice to the subject to which I have vent- 
ured to call your attention, if I did not add that writers are not 
wanting who claim to know vastly more of the details than I 
can see my way clear to admit. They belong to that select 
class of historians who are distinguished for an exuberance of 
imagination and a redundancy of faith. It is a very easy and 
simple thing for them to point out the land-fall of Leif, the 
river which he entered, the island at its mouth, the bay where 

have passed entirely from the memory of man. Such remains are not uncommon : 
they may be found all along our coast. But there are few writers bold enough to assert 
that they are the work of the Northmen simply because their history is not known, 
and especially since it is very clear that the Northmen erected no stone structures what- 
ever. Those who accept such palpable absurdities would doubtless easily believe that 
the " Tenterden steeple was the cause of the Goodwin Sands." 



DR. SLAFTER'S ADDRESS. 83 - » 

they cast anchor, the shore where they built their temporary 
houses, the spot where Thorvald was buried, and where thev 
set up crosses at his head and at his feet. They tell us what 
headlands were explored on the coast of Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island, and what inlets and bays were entered along the 
shores of Maine. The narratives which they weave from a fer- 
tile brain are ingenious and entertaining : they give to the sagas 
more freshness and greater personality, but when we look for 
the facts on which their allegations rest, for anything that mav 
be called evidence, we find only the creations of an undisci- 
plined imagination and an agile fancy. 

It is, indeed, true that it would be highly gratifying to believe 
that the Northmen made more permanent settlements on our 
shores, that they reared spacious buildings and strong for- 
tresses of stone and mason work, that they gathered about them 
more of the accessories of a national, or even of a colonial ex- 
istence ; but history does not offer us any choice : we must take 
what she gives us, and under the limitations which she imposes. 
The truth, unadorned and without exaggeration, has a beauty 
and a nobility of its own. It needs no additions to commend it 
to the historical student. If he be a true and conscientious 
investigator, he will take it just as he finds it : he will add 
nothing to it : he will take nothing from it. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



Concord, Wednesday, June 12, 1889. 

The sixty-seventh annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held this day, at the Society's rooms, 
at 11 o'clock a. m., the President, Hon. J. Everett Sargent, in 
the chair. 

The reading of the records of recent meetings, already printed 
in the Proceedings, was dispensed with. 

The Recording Secretary reported that the following persons 
had accepted membership during the past year : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

George E. Todd, Mrs. Annette M. R. Cressy, Mrs. Caro- 
line B. Bartlett, Concord ; Frederick Smyth, Mrs. Marion 
Smyth, Walter M. Parker, Manchester ; Hon. James Willis 
Patterson, Hanover ; George Peabody Little, Pembroke ; W. 
A. Fergusson, Lancaster. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Edward H. Elvvell, Portland, Me. ; George E. Littlefield, 
Boston, Mass. ; John Edwin Mason, M. D., Washington, D. C. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Mellen Chamberlain, William W. Clapp, Boston, Mass. 

The report was accepted. 

Messrs. C. H. Bell, I. K. Gage, and W. Odlin were ap- 
pointed a committee to nominate officers for the ensuing year. 

Messrs. I. W. Hammond, J. E. Pecker, and Sylvester Dana 
were appointed a committee to nominate new members. 



86 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Judge J. E. Sargent signified his purpose to decline further 
service as President of the Society. 

The following reports of the Treasurer and Librarian were 
read, accepted, and ordered on file : 

To the New Hampshire Historical Society: 

The Treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures from June 20, 18S8, to Tune 12, 
1889: J 

RECEIPTS. 

By balance, ■ '> $10,710.00 

cash received from initiation fees, 60.00 

assessments, . 359-°° 

interest on invested funds, 548.88 

for books and pamphlets, 115.95 





4 


111,/yj.oS, 


EXPENDITURES. 






To paid Isaac W. Hammond, salary, . 


$250.00 




64 " special, 


20.00 




" " sundry ex- 






penses, .... 


31-5 1 




Addie F. Hooper, services, . 


29.25 




B. F. Stevens, London, on ac- 






count of papers in Public Rec- 






ord, 


900.00 




Republican Press Association, 


*5-99 




Ira C. Evans, printing Part IV, 


163.25 




" " " Proceedings, 89.60 




" " " circulars, etc., 3.25 




N. H. Democratic Press Asso., 


16.50 




R. P. Staniels & Co., insurance, 


35 -oo 




Crawford & Stockbridge, binding 


55-35 




M. Bateman, 


8.51 




J. B. Walker, expenses at dinner, 
J. C. A. Hill, expenses at celebra- 


6.50 








tion, . . . 


93.18 




Books and pamphlets, . 


3X-87 




Water rent, .... 


4.50 




Postage and Journal, 


6.82 




sundry bills, .... 


13-35 




* - 




$i.774-43 



$10,019.40 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 87 

Permanent fund, $8,115.95 

Publication fund, .... 600.00 

Balance of fund for papers in Public Rec- 
ord, London, .... 100.00 

Current funds, 1,203.45 

$10,019.40 

Increase the past year, $209.40 

W. P. FISKE, Treasurer. 

The undersigned, having examined the accounts of VVm. P. 
Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
find the receipts for the year ending June 12, 18S9, to have 
been $1,083.83, and the disbursements for the same time 
$1,774.43, which deducted from the balance on hand at the 
close of last year, $10,710.00, leaves the balance of $10,019.40 
as the amount of funds belonging to said Society, — all of which 

1 find properly cast, and sustained by satisfactory vouchers. 

ISAAC K. GAGE, Auditor. 
Concord, N. H., June 12, 1SS9. 

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

Society's Rooms, June 12, 1889. 
To the Members of the Historical Society : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : Your Librarian respectfully sub- 
mits the following as his annual report: 

The additions during the past year have been 1,754 miscella- 
neous pamphlets, 314 bound volumes by donations and ex- 
change, 2 town histories by purchase, and 5S volumes, which 
have been bound for the Society by authority of the Library 
Committee, the latter being publications of various historical 
societies, which have been received from time to time in parts, 
making a total addition of 374 bound volumes; 101 manuscript 
sermons of Rev. Nathaniel Haven, D. D., from Mr. John 
Albee, of New Castle; 17 broadsides, proclamations, etc.; 

2 maps ; Tippecanoe cane, formerly belonging to the late Hon. 
Mason Weare Tappan ; the uniforms and equipments of the late 
Gen. Albe Cady, of the U. S. army ; a fine etching of Washington, 
framed, presented by Gen. Henry M. Baker ; 6 volumes Daily 
Monitor, bound, from the Republican Press Association ; and 
some of the powder and ball captured at Fort William and 
Mary in December, 1774, presented by John Demerit, Esq. 

The following periodicals are regularly donated : Magazine 
of American History, by Mr. P. B. Cogswell; Boston Daily 



88 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Advertiser, by Hon. J. B. Walker; Mirror and Farmer, 
People and Patriot, Veterans' Advocate, Great Falls Free 
Press, Plymouth Record, Exeter Gazette, Shaker Manifesto, 
and The Open Court, by the several publishers. 

The Society is again indebted to Hon. Charles H. Bell for a 
large quantity of valuable material, including bound volumes, 
pamphlets, and nearly a complete file of the Exeter News- 
Letter. 

During the past year the rooms of the Society have been 
open to visitors on Tuesdays and Thursdays of each week, in 
accordance with a vote of the Society. They have also been 
accessible to members of the Society and historical students 
generally the other four secular days in each week, with few 
exceptions. 

Your Librarian, having occupied a room in the building for 
his office as editor of State Papers, the state paying the expense 
of heating the same, has courteously received and attended to 
the wants of all callers, whether they came on the days for 
which he was paid by the Society, or those devoted to his 
other labors, notwithstanding such attentions on four days of 
the week were a tax on his own time. There seemed to him 
to be no other way to do without discommoding, and in some 
cases offending, members of the Society, especially those from 
out of town who happened to be in the city on other business, 
and, having some time to spare, desired to avail themselves of 
the privileges to which the payment of the annual assessment 
entitled them. 

It is the opinion of your Librarian that the prosperity of the 
Society, and its utility to the citizens of the state as an historical 
institution, demands open doors during the entire year. It is 
also his opinion, that in consideration of the fact that its his- 
torical and genealogical treasures, now so much sought after, 
are accessible to all of our citizens free of charge, the state 
should assist the Society, by a yearly appropriation, in its en- 
deavor to accumulate all such material as is required by local 
historians, and in keeping the library open for the benefit of 
the public. It is an educational institution, supported by 
private means, designed to collect and preserve all manuscripts, 
prints, etc., which give any light upon the history of our state 
especially, and other states of the Union generally, so far as its 
means will permit. An appropriation from the state, which is 
now prosperous and abundantly able, will enable the Society 
to add to its valuable material, and make the same accessible 
to the public. 

It is evident that an increasing interest in the Society is being 
developed among our citizens, and that it is caused partly by 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION. 



89 



our more frequent meetings, by the publication of the Society's 
Proceedings containing addresses of much historic value, and 
by a volume of collections printed from ancient manuscripts; 
and largely because the rooms have been open to the public, 
and the library and manuscript records accessible to members of 
the institution and historical students in general. 

Hon. J. B. Walker, of the Standing Committee, made a 
verbal report, which was accepted. 

The report of the Publishing Committee, presented by I. W. 
Hammond, was accepted, and ordered on file. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION. 

The Committee on Publication respectfully presents the fol- 
lowing report : 

Part I of Volume II of the Proceedings of the Society has 
been printed and mailed to the members of the Society. Its 
contents are as follows : Records of meetings of the Society 
from June 13, iSSS, to date, including the exercises at the cele- 
bration of the Centennial Anniversary of the ratification by 
New Hampshire of the Federal Constitution, with the address 
of Hon. James Willis Patterson, and the poem by Allan East- 
man Cross. 

A volume of Collections is in press, and will issue in about 
two months; 36S pages are in print, advance sheets of which 
may be seen. Any one desiring to subscribe for the work 
may leave his name with this committee. The contents so 
far as printed are, — Records of Transactions of the Annual 
Convocation of Ministers in the Province of New Hampshire, 
1747 to 17S5; Correspondence between President Wheelock 
of Dartmouth College, and Hon. John Phillips of Exeter, 1765 
to 1779; Diaries of Rev. Timothy Walker, annotated by Hon. 
Joseph B. Walker, 1746 to 1764; Record of 15th Reg. of N. 
H. Militia, 1774; Orderly-book of Captain Daniel Liver- 
more's Co., Continental Army, 17S0— West Point; Records 
of New England Revolutionary Committee's Meetings, at 
Providence, R. I., Dec. 25, 1776, at New Haven, Conn., Jan- 
uary, 1778, and in Boston, Mass., August, 17S0; Depositions 
in the Case of Councillor Peter Livius vs. Governor John 
Wentworth ; Revolutionary Diary of Adjutant Silvanus Reed, 
R. I. Expedition, 177S. 

This Society owns a manuscript record-book of 354 pages 
folio, of the proceedings of a committee of congress, elected in 
1780, on the conduct of the war. In it are recorded all of the 



90 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

committee's correspondence with the generals of the army, and 
with congress. It has been examined by several historical 
students who have visited our rooms, and some inquiries have 
been made by your Librarian without finding a duplicate of it, 
and it is believed that none exists. If that shall prove to be the 
case, it is an exceedingly valuable document, and should be 
printed in the near future. 

CHARLES H. BELL, 
ISAAC WE ARE HAMMOND, 
A. S. BATCHELLOR, 

Committee on Publication. 

Isaac W. Hammond, of the Committee on Calendar of His- 
torical Papers in London, made a report, which was accepted, 
and the committee continued. 

The attention of the Society was called to a portrait of Gov. 
Benjamin Pierce, loaned to the Society for safe-keeping by 
Mrs. Frances McNiel Potter; whereupon Joseph B. Walker 
moved the following vote, which was passed : 

Voted, That this Society accepts with pleasure the loan, by 
Mrs. Judge Potter, of a portrait in oil of ex-Governor Benjamin 
Pierce, and that she be invited to make the loan a permanent 
one, and that the Secretary be requested to send her a copy of 
this vote. 

Hon. J. B. Walker presented the following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

Resolved, That the usual annual tax of three dollars be hereby 
assessed upon each member of the Society for the ensuing year, 
and that upon the payment of said tax by each member of the 
Society, such member shall be entitled to purchase of the So- 
ciety a copy of the IXth volume of the Society's Collections, 
now in press, at the price of one dollar and twenty-five cents, 
and that the regular price of the volume to persons not mem- 
bers of the Society be $2.50. 

Hon. Charles H. Bell, from the Committee to Nominate Offi- 
cers, made a report, which was accepted and adopted, and the 
following gentlemen, nominated therein, were, by ballot, elect- 
ed officers of the Society for the ensuing year : 



PROCEEDINGS ANNUAL MEETING. 9 1 

President, Hon. Samuel C. Eastman ; Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. George L. Balcom and Hon. John J. Bell ; Recording- 
Secretary, Amos Hadley, Ph.D. ; Corresponding Secretary, 
Hon. Sylvester Dana ; Treasurer, William P. Fiske, Esq. ; 
Librarian, Isaac W. Hammond, A. M. ; Necrologist, Hon. 
J. B. Walker ; Standing Committee, Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Joseph C. A. Hill, Esq., Gen. Howard L. Porter ; Publishing 
Committee, Hon. Charles H. Bell, Isaac W. Hammond, A. M., 
Albert S. Batchellor, Esq. ; Library Co??imittee, J. Eastman 
Pecker, Esq., John C. Ordway, Rev. Charles L. Tappan. 

I. W. Hammond, from the Committee on New Members, 
made a report, which was accepted, and the persons therein 
nominated were, on ballot, elected by the constitutional major- 
ity members of the Society, as follows : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

David A. Taggart, Goffstown ; Dr. George W. Pierce, Win- 
chester ; Henry B. Qiiinby, Gilford; Alvah W. Sulloway,. 
Franklin ; Marshall P. Hall, Manchester. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 

W. H. Whitmore, Boston, Mass. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

W. Noel Sainsbury, Esq., assistant keeper of Her Majesty's 
Records, London, England ; Prof. Oliver P. Hubbard, New 
York city ; B. F. Stevens, London, England. 

Mr. Amos Hadley presented the following resolution, which 
was adopted unanimously : 

Resolved. That the thanks of this Society be and are hereby 
tendered to Hon. J. Everett Sargent for his efficient and satis- 
factory performance of the duties of President for the past two 
years. 

On motion of Mr. J. B. Walker, it was voted that when the 
Society adjourn this forenoon, it do so to meet again at half 
past one o'clock in the afternoon. 



9 2 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The President-elect and Messrs. J. E. Pecker and Wood- 
abridge Odlin were appointed a Committee on Field Day, with 
full powers. 

I. W. Hammond, J. B. Walker, and C. H. Bell were ap- 
pointed a committee to select an orator for next year. 

Adjourned at 12 o'clock, M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Society met in the Library room at half past one 
•o'clock, p. m., Hon. J. Everett Sargent in the chair. 

The annual address was then delivered by Hon. Ezra S. 
■Steams. 

ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

THE OFFERING OF LUNENBURG, MASS., TO CHESHIRE COUNTY. 

Ties of kindred and association were potent agencies in the 
■early immigration to New Hampshire. Except in the older 
and south-eastern part of the state, nearly all the settlements 
found in Massachusetts a parent town. The family names of 
Watertown, of Concord, of Newbury, of Salem, of Woburn, 
of Lancaster, and of Roxbury, were renewed in groups among 
the settlements within our borders. These influences, con- 
trolling and directing the early immigration from Massachu- 
setts, are easily discerned. Previous to the permanent estab- 
lishment of a Province line, many towns in New Hampshire 
were granted by Massachusetts, then claiming jurisdiction over 
a considerable area of our state. The grantees of a township 
quite generally w r ere residents of a single town. Indeed, 
nearly every town in eastern Massachusetts had its colony in 
New Hampshire. The pride and interest of the parent town 
were reflected in the prosperity, and an impress of its inhabi- 
tants was renewed in the character, of the settlement. Under 
the Massachusetts charter, the grantees of Keene were residents 
of Wrentham and the immediate vicinity, and from that locality 
came the early settlers of the town ; from Rowley, the home of 
the grantees, came the first settlers of Rindge ; and from Ips- 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 



9S 



wich, whose inhabitants received double favors, came the early 
pioneers of New Ipswich and Winchendon, adjoining Rindge. 
When these charters were annulled by the adjustment of the 
Province line, the influence and impress of the parent town- 
were frequently renewed by the admission of many of the orig- 
inal proprietors among the grantees under charters issued by 
Governor Wentworth, or the Masonian proprietors. These 
proceedings, familiar to every student of history, demand no 
explanation, and the general truth of these premises is too self- 
evident for discussion. I propose, in this paper, to review the 
influence and the impress of one town in Massachusetts over 
the south-western portion of New Hampshire. At the begin- 
ning, the hardy pioneers and future husbandmen are gathering 
at Lunenburg ; the field for subjection and cultivation is Ches- 
hire county, and Charlestown, a part of the original county. 
In this connection, we do not overlook or underestimate the- 
number and the character of the enterprising men from North- 
field, and from other towns in the valley of the Connecticut,. 
nor those no less worthy who came from the remoter towns in 
Massachusetts and Connecticut ; but in an imperfect enumera- 
tion of the emigration from a small and well defined area, we 
shall find ample material for our present purpose. 

Lunenburg, the prolific mother of towns, was severed from 
the wilderness by a decree of the General Court of Massachu- 
setts, December 7, 17 19. This date was at the dawn of an era 
of land speculation, which for a season stimulated an emigra- 
tion from the older towns to the settlements. The growth of 
Lunenburg was continuous and vigorous, and many men of 
more than local reputation were assembled there. The town, 
then including the city of Fitchburg and the southern part of 
Ashby, was incorporated August 1, 172S. On the exterior, or 
farther in the wilderness, commencing with the year 1735, set- 
tlements were made in Ashburnham, Winchendon, Rindge, 
New Ipswich, and Peterborough ; but in 1744 these infant set- 
tlements were abandoned, and for several years, and until these 
exterior settlements were renewed, Lunenburg was a border 
town, boldly and bravely meeting the dangers of an exposed and 
menaced frontier. The following petition, addressed to Gov- 



94 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ernor Dummer, and dated May 10, 1725, presents a vivid pict- 
ure of their surroundings : 

Sir : — We desire with thanks to acknowledge your Honour's 
care of us as well in timesjpast as this present spring in sending 
Colo Buckmaster to se what postur of defence we war in & in 
furder desiring to know our Afayrs which we would be glad to 
enform your Honour oftener of had we opertunity. we have 
here this spring 9 fameles posted in 5 garisons which we are all 
willing to stand their ground if they can ; they have the liberty 
if 2 garisons will come together to have the solders belonging 
to each garison with them for ther support Our manner of 
emproving the solders has been by scouting & sumtimes gard- 
ing men at ther woork, sumtimes 3 or 3 days together in the 
woods, but wee think it more for our safety to scout round the 
town so as to cum in the same day for the strengthing our 
garisons at night & when our men gos out to woork they must 
have a gard or expose themselves & we must leave sum in our 
garisons or else they are exposed so that we canot keep a scout 
always out except w r e have more solders. We have made no 
discovrey of the enemy yet among us, but live in dayly expec- 
tation of them ; but knowing they are in the hands of god who 
is abel to restrain them to whos name we desire to give the 
praise of our presarvation the year past & in whos name we 
desire still to trust with dependance on your Honour's pro- 
tection, a means under god of presarvation ; if your Honour 
shall think it needfull to make any adition to our number of 
solders we leve it to your Honours wise consedration & remain 
your Honours most humbel servants 

Josiah Willard 
Philip Goodridge. 

Firmly maintaining a mutual trust in God and Governor 
Dummer, they devoutly measured their faith by the number of 
the soldiers delegated to their protection. In future years they 
were not unmindful of the necessity of violent measures for the 
defence of the border. In military discipline and in their daily 
lives, many of the early residents of Lunenburg were trained 
for the hardships and dangers which attended their later career 
in the frontier settlements of New Hampshire. Among the 
large number of men who, before and after the French and 
Indian war, were actively engaged in land speculation, none 
were more prominent than were several enterprising and influ- 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 95 

ential men of this town. If a few of these men are named in 
this connection, it will not exclude them from a participation 
in our continued narrative. Chief among them were Col. 
Josiah Willard, and his half brother, Col. Benjamin Bellows; 
and closely allied was their neighbor in peace and comrade in 
the wars, Major Jonathan Hubbard, an honored resident of 
Lunenburg for many years, and while he did not remove to the 
New Hampshire grants, he possessed an interest in many of 
them. Gen. Joseph Blanchard, of Dunstable, married a daugh- 
ter of Major Hubbard, and on these credentials he was speedily 
admitted to the association. He had wealth and a very con- 
siderable influence with the authorities of New Hampshire, 
and was an agent of the Masonian proprietors. He never lived 
in Lunenburg, but he continued in close alliance with his asso- 
ciates, and his successful solicitations for grants of land enriched 
the common treasury. Col. Josiah Willard, Jr., and John 
Jennison also married daughters of Major Hubbard, while Capt. 
Ephraim Wetherbee, Moses Gould, and Fairbanks Moor mar- 
ried sisters of Colonel Bellows, and were ex officio members of 
a close corporation. Valentine Butler and William Willard 
married daughters of Col. Josiah Willard, Sen., and at the 
hymeneal altar secured admission among the grantees of sev- 
eral townships. 

It was a syndicate of blood as w^ell as of treasure. They 
acquired large possessions in Cheshire county, and thither 
many of them removed. For several years the emigration was 
stimulated and continued. During the French and Indian War, 
when for a season the new settlements were abandoned, the 
fugitives, both former residents and strangers, sought safety and 
temporary homes within the defences of Lunenburg. By this 
association and many intermarriages, the sojourners became 
allied with the resident families, and upon their departure were 
attended or followed by many natives of the town. The second 
immigration exceeded the first, and extended over a wider 
field. In such numbers and in such types of sturdy men did 
the living current flow, that Rindge, Winchester, Charlestown, 
and Walpole were new Lunenburgs on the border of the reced- 
ing wilderness. 



1)0 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

In these movements, and during these years of emigration 
from Lunenburg to Cheshire county, the blood of the mother 
town became widely disseminated. Two thirds of the popu- 
lation of Rindge, until near the close of the past century, were 
descendants of Lunenburg families. Lunenburg names are 
found in nearly every list of grantees, and among the early 
settlers of many places. 

The initial proceeding of record on the part of these men 
toward the settlement of Cheshire county appears in the petition 
of Col. Josiah Willard and sixty-three associates " for the grant 
of a tract of land six miles square lying on the east side of Con- 
necticut river and between Northfield and the Truck-house to 
be by them settled into a township." This petition was enter- 
tained by the General Court of Massachusetts, Nov. 9, 1732. 
The council refused to concur in the affirmative action of the 
house, and the prayer of the petitioners was denied. In fail- 
ure our worthies found no precedent. Immediately they re- 
newed their petition, with such argument and solicitation that 
the grant was made, April 6, 1733. Nearly twenty years the 
township was called Earlington, and sometimes Arlington. It 
included nearly all of the present towns of Winchester and 
Hinsdale, and for several years it was essentially a colony of 
Lunenburg, and there the first chapter of its history was en- 
acted. There dwelt many of the grantees, and there at the 
house of Isaac Farns worth was held their first meeting, at 
which was sealed the doom of the forest, and was pronounced 
the decree that should stay the river in its onward course and 
compel it to grind the corn and saw the lumber for the new 
proprietors of the soil. From there went forth Nathan Hey- 
wood with the compass and chain to divide the wilderness 
into lots and set bounds to fields designed for tillage. In addi- 
tion to the usual conditions that the grantees should settle a 
learned orthodox minister, build a house for the worship of 
God, build a stated number of dwellings, and bring into tillage 
a certain number of acres, there was one stipulation in the 
grant of Earlington which was exceptional. By it the grantees 
were enjoined lt within two years from the date of the grant to 
clear and make a convenient travelling road twelve feet wide 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 97 

from Lunenburg to Northfield, and build a house for receiving 
and entertaining travellers on said road about midway between 
Northfield and Lunenburg aforesaid." In the charter there 
was also a subsidiary grant of 150 acres to be located at the site 
selected for the house of entertainment. At a meeting of the 
grantees held in May, or one month after the date of the char- 
ter, measures were matured for building this historic road. 
Many persons residing in Lunenburg and vicinity were em- 
ployed, and so vigorously was the work prosecuted that during 
the summer (1733) it was completed, extending through the 
wilderness a distance of forty-two miles. About twenty-four 
miles from Lunenburg, near the boundary line between Winch- 
endon and Royalston, a house was erected, and was there 
established u for receiving and entertaining travellers." In 
1735 the general court made a grant of 450 acres to support 
another house of entertainment on the line of the road. 

The petition for this rant was signed by Benjamin Bellows, 
Hilkiah Boynton, and Moses Willard, and was endorsed by 
Josiah Willard. This grant was located, in the language of 
the record, partly on the fifteenth and partly on the sixteenth 
mile from the meeting-house in Lunenburg. The family who 
lived upon this grant, entertaining with homely fare the lonely 
traveller through the wilderness, were the earliest, and for a 
season, the only inhabitants of Ashburnham. The location of 
this ancient road much of the way is known at the present 
time. At a short distance from the centre of Lunenburg it was 
sharply deflected to the north of a direct course, extending 
through the south-western part of Asbby, which was then a 
part of Lunenburg. This course without doubt was adopted 
to avoid branches of the Nashua and Millers rivers. The 
continued location of the road through the northern parts 
of Ashburnham and of Winchendon is established by the rec- 
ords. These unpretentious inns were beacons in the wilder- 
ness, and the glow of their light at evening welcomed the 
approaching traveller. Over this primitive road the early 
settlers, and soldiers ordered to the frontiers, wended their way 
through the forest, fording streams and counting the milestones 
on their laborious journey. 
3 



98 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

To present even in outline an account of the settlement of 
Earlington would extend this paper beyond a proper limit, and 
my theme only contemplates the mention of some of the Lunen- 
burg men that were here engaged. Chief among these was 
Col. Josiah Willard, a son of Henry and Dorcas (Cutler) Wil- 
lard, and a grandson of the renowned Major Simon Willard. 
He was born in Lancaster between the beginning of the year 
1693 and the close of the year 1695 : the exact date is not 
known. The author of the Willard Memoir states his age at 
his decease, but he reckons from an assumed date of birth. He 
married, in Lancaster, Hannah Wilder, the daughter of an 
equally distinguished family, and removed to Lunenburg in 
1723, or the following year. In the annals of Lunenburg his 
name is conspicuous. He was a controlling spirit in the 
affairs of the settlement, and in the act of incorporation he was 
designated by the general court to call the first meeting, at 
"which he was chosen a selectman. He was reelected nearlv 
every year while he remained a citizen of the town, was earlv 
commissioned a justice of the peace, and for several years was 
the only magistrate in the exterior of Lancaster and Groton. 
In military affairs he was equally prominent. He was a cap- 
tain previous to his removal from his native town, and was 
styled colonel after 1731 . He was frequently in command of 
scouting parties, and in this service he became familiar with 
the Province land in the vicinity of Fort Dummer, which in 
early times was often styled the " truck house." In the valley 
of the Ashuelot he obtained for himself and his associates a 
township possessing many natural advantages. From the date 
of the charter, Col. Willard was much employed in forwarding 
the settlement, and thither with his numerous family he re- 
moved in 1737. At this time Josiah Willard, Jr., the eldest 
son, was married. Nathan was 11, Oliver 7, Samson, who 
was drowned Dec. 15, 1739, was 5, and Wilder, the youngest 
son, was 2 years of age. The same year the eldest daughter 
was married to Thomas Prentice, Esq., of Lunenburg. She 
was the only member of the family who did not remove to 
Earlington. Susannah, the second daughter, and the future 
wife of Valentine Butler, was 14, and Prudence, in whom 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 99 

William Willard found a dutiful consort, was nearly 10. This 
was an important addition to the infant colony. Other families 
from Lunenburg, and a considerable number from other places, 
from year to year were invited to the prosperous settlement. 
Suddenly the French and Indian War cast its deepening shad- 
ows over the frontiers. After eight years of hardship, yet 
crowned with many triumphs, the settlement for a season was 
abandoned. The family of Col. Willard, attended by the 
wives and children of the settlement, returned to Lunenburg. 
He and many of his associates found employment in the ser- 
vice. For a considerable time Col. Willard was commandant 
at Fort Dummer, and frequently all the soldiers at the fort, 
including the chaplain, were men immediately or originally 
from Lunenburg. Before the return of peace and the rehabi- 
tation of his beloved colony, leaving his mantle to his able and 
brilliant son who bore his name, our hero, whose foe was the 
wilderness and whose triumphs spread the verdure of tillage 
over a wide domain of forest, found in death his only rest from 
labor. He died Dec. 8, 1750. 1 

Another prominent actor in the settlement of Earlington was 
Rev. Andrew Gardner. He was born in Brookline in 1694. 
His father was Rev. Andrew Gardner, the third minister of 
Lancaster, who began his ministry in that town in 1701, and 
was accidentally killed ^during an Indian alarm in the autumn 
of 1704. His mother was Mary (Swan) Gardner, formerly a 
resident of Roxbury, and subsequently the wife of Rev. John 
Prentice, the successor of Mr. Gardner at Lancaster. A daugh- 
ter of her second marriage was the mother of Rev. John Cush- 
ing, D. D., of Ashburnham. Rev. Andrew Gardner, Jr., was 
graduated at Harvard University in 171 2, was ordained the first 
minister at Worcester in the autumn of 1719, and dismissed Oct. 

« It is currently stated that Col. Willard died " while on a journey from home." 
Without information of the direction and distance travelled before death overtook our 
hero, the statement does not locate the sad event. Since this paper was read before 
the Society, I have learned that in a cemetery in Dunstable, and next the grave of 
Gen. Joseph Dlanchard, his honored associate in life, is found a headstone inscribed,— 

« Here lyes interred ye body of Josiah Willard, Captain of Fort Dummer, formerly 
of Lancaster, Lunenburg, and Winchester and Colonel of Regiment of foot, who died 
here December ye 8 Anno Domini 1750 in ye 58 year of his age." 



IOO NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

3, 1722. After preaching a short time at Rutland, he was 
settled over the church at Lunenburg- from May 15, 1728, to 
Nov. 3, 1732. He remained in Lunenburg, teaching school a 
part of the time, until 1737, when he removed to Earlington. 
He was active in land speculation, and his name frequently 
appears among the grantors and grantees in the registry ot 
deeds. He remained in Earlington until the settlement was 
temporarily abandoned, and was frequently chosen to positions 
of trust. At the meeting of the proprietors in 1745, immedi- 
ately preceding the hiatus in the records, he was chosen mod- 
erator, clerk, and a selectman. During the war he was at 
times chaplain at Fort Dummer, and in 1749 anc * J 75o his 
name is found on the roll of Capt. Stevens's company. Through 
the obscurity of the early records he next appears at Charles- 
town. He was one of the proprietors under the New Hamp- 
shire charter of that town, and was living there in 1754. In 
1761, in his pursuit of a life on the frontiers, he appears among 
the grantees at Bath, and thither he removed about 1765. He 
lived between the central and the upper village, and towering 
above the scene of his declining years Gardner mountain still 
perpetuates his name and memory. 

It has been alleged that our martial parson was fond of field 
sports, and at all times did not easily assume that grave de- 
meanor and solemn bearing that were becoming to the minister 
of the olden time. That he was somewhat eccentric cannorbe 
successfully denied, but that he was a man of force and energy, 
of ability and character, is reflected in his career and estab- 
lished in the records. In his love for adventure he accepted 
the call of the wilderness, and in his active ministrations he 
opened new fields for his more methodical brethren. 

He married, in Rutland, Susannah (Lynde) Willard, widow 
of Rev. Joseph Willard, who was slain by the Indians, Aug. 
23, 1723. By her first marriage she had two sons, William 
and Joseph Willard. The elder, as formerly stated, married a 
daughter of Col. Willard, and was a resident of Earlington. 
Subsequently he lived in Vermont, and was prominent in the 
jurisdictional controversy which vexed the adjoining states. 
Joseph, the other son, resided in Charlestown. Of the four or 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. IOI 

more children of Rev. Andrew Gardner, I have secured but 
little information. His son Andrew Gardner, Jr., lived some 
years, at least, in Charlestown. 

In an attendance upon our migratory parson in his circuit up 
the valley of the Connecticut, I have been diverted from Lunen- 
burg and Earlington. The other Lunenburg men among the 
grantees of Earlington were Col. Benjamin Bellows, subse- 
quently the founder of Walpoie, Capt. Ephraim Wetherbee. 
and Samuel and Stephen Farnsworth who will appear again at 
Charlestown. While Major Jonathan Hubbard, Isaac Farns- 
worth, Noah Dodge, Dea. Ephraim Pierce, William Jones, 
Nathan Hey wood, Major Edward Hartwell, and his sons. Ed- 
ward, Jr., and Asahel, and John Hey wood, were prominent 
in the affairs of the proprietors, and were zealous in forward- 
ing the settlement, they* did not become residents of the colonv. 
Two other grantees, James Jewell and Ephraim Wheeler, were 
only temporary residents of Lunenburg. 

As early as 1753 the rehabitation of Winchester had fairly 
begun. The boundaries were amended by the New Hamp- 
shire charter, and the former names of Earlington and Arling- 
ton were cast in the treasury of its early memories. In the 
record of suspended animation, we have recorded the death of 
• Col. Willard, the paternal guardian of the settlement, and the 
permanent removal of Rev. Andrew Gardner. The settlement 
at Walpoie is engaging the tireless energies of Col. Bellows, 
and many of our worthies are retired by age, or have found 
homes in other places. Almost without exception, the sons 
and relatives of Col. Willard are the only representatives of 
Lunenburg in the rejuvenated settlement at Winchester. 

Col. Josiah Willard, son of Col. Josiah and Hannah (Wilder) 
Willard, was born at Lancaster, Jan. 21, 1715-16, and resided 
in Lunenburg from 1723 to 1737. Before he had completed 
his seventeenth year, Nov. 23, 1732, he married Hannah Hub- 
bard, of Lunenburg. His eldest son, Major Josiah Willard. 
born at Lunenburg, Sept. 22, 1734, was the first register of 
deeds of Cheshire county. During the French and Indian War. 
while many fled within the defences of the fortified towns, he 
remained in the service upon the frontiers. The record of his 



102 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

valiant service is a part of the history of New Hampshire. At 
the death of his honored father, he was commissioned lieutenant 
colonel, and made commandant at Fort Dummer. Subse- 
quently, by the governor of New Hampshire, he was commis- 
sioned colonel, and continued in command of a regiment of 
militia until he was succeeded by Col. Ashley immediately 
preceding the Revolution. He died in Winchester, Nov. 19, 
1786. The provincial and state papers, now easily accessible, 
afford considerable information of the career of this able and 
distinguished man. The other sons of Col. Josiah Willard, 
senior, served continuously in the w r ar, and their names are 
often met in the military rolls that have been preserved. They 
were men of ability, and worthy representatives of a distin- 
guished family. Nathan Willard, the second son, born May 
28, 1726, was a captain, and while his brother, Josiah, was in 
command of a regiment at Fort Edward in 1755, he was com- 
mandant at Fort Dummer. He subsequently lived in Hinsdale, 
and for some years was proprietor of a ferry on the Connecticut 
river. Oliver Willard, born March 6, 1729-30, after a resi- 
dence of several vears in Winchester, removed to Vermont. 
In the Vermont controversy he espoused the cause of New 
York, and was appointed a judge of Cumberland county. 
Wilder Willard, the youngest son, lived in Winchester, and 
died at the age of 42 years. 

During these years of an intimate and maternal relation be- 
tween Lunenburg and Winchester, and in a measure encour- 
aged and stimulated by it, the attention. of many influential and 
enterprising men of our mother town was directed to Charles- 
town. Saunderson's history of that town faithfully records the 
details, and firmly establishes the fact. In this reference to 
that work I am citing many names and a continued record of 
events that assert the care and influence of Lunenburg over the 
settlement. Little remains to be added to the published record 
except to call attention to the names of Capt. Ephraim Weth- 
erbee, Capt. Jonathan Hubbard, Capt. Moses Willard, Capt. 
James Johnson, Capts. John and Bradstreet Spofford, Dr. 
David Taylor, John Dunsmoor, Peter Bellows, Israel Gibson, 
Dean Carlton, the Grants, the Farnsworths, and the Pages, and 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. IO3 

later the able and learned Edmund L. CusHiing, whose life has 
demonstrated that after the lapse of years Use blood of the an- 
cestral town has suffered no degeneration.. Of a few of these, 
I can briefly supplement the published record. Capt. Ephraim 
Wetherbee was an early settler in Lunenburg, and exercised a 
commanding influence over the fortunes of that town. He was 
a selectman several years, and was honorably and repeatedly 
named in the records. For several years preceding his death 
he devoted a considerable share of his iti'me to the affairs of 
Charlestown, of which he was an original proprietor. He 
frequently tarried at the settlement, but he did not remove his 
family thither. They remained in Lunenburg a few years after 
his death. He was a man of ability and tireless energy, and, 
while he lived, the best interests of the town of Lunenburg and 
of the settlement at Charlestown were ably promoted. 

He was twice married. His first wife, Elizabeth, died June 

17, 1732, leaving two or three children. Mary, who married 
Ephraim Kimball, was born Jan. 6, 1730; Bette was born May 
15, 1732, and Paul Wetherbee, born in 171:6, the father of Joab 
Wetherbee, of Chesterfield, was probably their son, but his 
birth was not recorded. Capt. Wetherbee married (2), Sept. 

18, 1732, Joanna Bellows, a sister of CoL Benjamin Bellows. 
He died suddenly at Boston, Nov. 7, 1745. In 1754, the 
widow and her seven children born in Lunenburg removed to 
Charlestown. The history of that town continues the record, 
and demonstrates that the good influence of the parents has 
been renewed in their descendants. 

Capt. Jonathan Hubbard, son of Major Jonathan and Rebec- 
ca (Brown) Hubbard, was born in Conc&rd in 1719. Major 
Jonathan, the father, was a man of considerable distinction. 
He was an innholder for some years at Concord, and removed 
to Groton about 1 721, and to Lunenburg in 1731, or the follow- 
ing year. He was a major and a deacon, and both titles were 
merited by good service in the respective callings. While he 
lived in Lunenburg, no man was more frequently or highly 
honored by his townsmen. In 1756, and after the death of his 
wife, he removed to Townsend, where he died April 7, 1761. 
His son, Capt. Jonathan Hubbard, married, Sept. 24, 1739, 



104 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Abigail Jennison, born in Watertown, April 22, 1715, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Mary (Stearns) Jennison. For some years 
he appears to have maintained a dual residence at Lunenburg 
and Charlestown, but removed with his family and perma- 
nently settled in Charlestown in 1757. His descendants are 
numerous, and have been called to many positions of trust. 

In the attempt to establish a settlement at Walpole under the 
Massachusetts charter, the people of Lunenburg were not en- 
gaged. The mention of a leader in the happy and successful 
issue of the New Hampshire charter, a born ruler of men, a 
chieftain among the frontiers, has been too long deferred. Col. 
Benjamin Bellows was a power in the Lunenburg syndicate, 
and the firm supporter of all its ambitious schemes. He was 
the trusted associate of Col. Josiah Willard, senior, both in the 
settlement of Earlington and in the construction of the highway 
to the vicinity of this grant, but he remained a resident of Lunen- 
burg almost twenty years after his first interest in the Province 
land. His name is associated with the early history of many 
towns, and, as surveyor or a proprietor, his familiar relations 
and pecuniary interest extended over a considerable part of 
Cheshire county. Walpole was chartered Feb. 13, 1752. Col. 
Bellows was one of the grantees, and by purchase he soon 
acquired a controlling interest in the grant. He has been aptly 
termed the founder of the town, and his influence was not lim- 
ited to Walpole. His public service constitutes a chapter in 
the history of the state, and has been ably set forth in a memo- 
rial sketch by a loyal descendant. Rev. Dr. Henry W. Bellows, 
from which I quote a single paragraph : 4% In person Col. Bel- 
lows was tall and stout, not to say immense. His weight was 
about 330 pounds. A man of great amiability and true benev- 
olence, with a natural suavity and courtliness of manner that 
procured for him the title of one of nature's gentlemen, honest 
as he was energetic, rare in judgment, of great self-possession 
under trying emergencies, strong in body and mind, unbounded 
in hospitality, and sagacious and prophetic in plans, Col. Bel- 
lows was the large and pure fountain of a numerous and distin- 
guished race." 

His father was Benjamin Bellows, who removed with his 



! 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. IO5 

family to Lunenburg in 1730, where he died in 1743. His 
mother was Dorcas Cutler, who married Henry Willard, and 
was the mother of Col. Josiah Willard, senior. By her subse- 
quent marriage to Benjamin Bellows, the youngest child and 
only son was Col. Bellows, born in Lancaster, May 26, 171 2. 
He married, in Lunenburg, Oct. 7, 1735, Abigail- Stearns, a 
/ sister of Rev. David Stearns, of Lunenburg. She died in Wal- 

pole, Nov. 8, 1757; he married (2J, April 21, 1758, Mary 
(Hubbard) Jennison, a daughter of Major Jonathan and Re- 
becca (Brown) Hubbard, and widow of John Jennison. He 
died July 10, 1777. Four sons were children of the first and 
three of the second marriage, — Peter who settled in Charles- 
town, Gen. Benjamin of Revolutionary fame, John distin- 
guished in the councils of the state, and Joseph, Theodore, 
Thomas, and Josiah — each inheriting a full measure of ability, 
and fully sustaining a lofty type of character which distinguished 
the race. 

From her most cultured and enterprising sons the continued 
contribution of Lunenburg to Cheshire county was selected. 
Thomas Sparhawk, a graduate of Harvard University, 17 15, 
married a daughter of Rev. David Stearns. Three of their 
eight children were born in Lunenburg. In 1769 he removed 
to Walpole, and subsequently was a judge of probate and occu- 
pied many positions of trust. John Hubbard, a son of Major 
Jonathan Hubbard, married a daughter of Samuel Johnson, 
who was a grantee of several townships in Cheshire county, 
and early removed to Walpole. His son, Rev. John Hubbard, 
was a judge of probate, and a member of the faculty of Dart- 
mouth college. 

In support of the premises, I have cited at length only a few 
examples. Others merit, and if time permitted, would receive, 
a more extended notice. Ab uno disce omnes. It must not 
be presumed that the record is exhausted. The history of 
many other towns in the county furnishes continued testimony, 
and the annals are enriched by the good works of the represen- 
tatives of our ancestral town. Fifteen of the grantees of Rindge 
were residents of Lunenburg, and a large part of the population 
are the kindred of those named in these pages. The charter of 



I06 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Chesterfield bears the names of twelve Willards. Six of these 
have been named, and the others were the second generation of 
the same families. Other grantees of this town were Joanna 
(Bellows) Wetherbee, the widow of Capt. Ephraim Wetherbee, 
William Downe, Moses Gould, Jonathan Hubbard, David Hub- 
bard, and Samuel Kennedy ; while Joab Wetherbee, Samuel 
/ Davis, John Darling, and William Henry were early residents. 

To the settlement at Fitzwilliam were contributed Gen. James 
Reed of the Revolution, 1 Phineas Hutchins, Francis Fullam, 
Joseph Foster. Josiah Hartwell, David Lowe, and Samuel 
Kilpatrick. Col. Ebenezer Bridge of Westmoreland, the Fitch 
family residing in several places, the Bowers familv of Ac- 
worth, the Gilchrists of Dublin, the Stanley, Litch, Grout, 
Pierce, Whitney, and other families of Jaffrey, and a smaller 
number of representatives in Marlborough, Keene, Stoddard, 
Hinsdale, and Swanzey, are the units of a cumulative record. 

In the midst of these voluntary and continued offerings to 
Cheshire county, the heart of the mother town was saddened 
with frequent intelligence, from the settlements, of the massacre 
or the captivity of many of her sons and daughters. The de- 
tails of the incursions by the Indians upon the frontiers are 
carefully and minutely collated in the local histories, and from 
them I have copied the names only of the members of Lunen- 
burg families. In 1746, at Charlestown, Capt. John SporTord 
and Stephen Farnsworth were carried into captivity, and Sam- 
uel Farnsworth was killed. Again, at Charlestown, in 1754, 
Capt. James Johnson, his wife and three children, and Miriam 
Willard, a sister of Mrs. Johnson, were captured. At Hins- 
dale, in 1755, Hilkiah Grout escaped an ambush, but his wife 
and three children were less fortunate. The following year 

1 Several excellent sketches of Gen. James Reed are in print. Some of the writers 
have erroneously stated that he resided in Fitchburg previous to a residence in Fitz- 
william. Gen. Reed settled in Lunenburg and within the limits of the present town at 
an early age. He was taxed in Lunenburg in 1745 an ^ x 74&- After a residence of 
three years in Brooktield, he returned to Lunenburg, and was an innholder at the 
centre of the town. He was a selectman in 1763 and 1764. He was taxed contin- 
uously in Lunenburg from 1745 to 1764, inclusive, except the years 1 747-1 749. He 
removed to Fitzwilliam in 1765. Late in life he lived a few years in Fitchburg, where 
he died Feb. 13, 1S07. It will be noted that he was elected a selectman of Lunenburg 
after Fitchburg was incorporated. 



MR. HAMMOND'S PAPER. 1 07 

Moses Willard was slain at Charlestown, and his son wounded. 
In 1757, Asa Spofford, who died in captivity, a son of Capt. 
John Spofford, and David Farnsworth were captured at Charles- 
town. The record ends in 1760, when Joseph Willard, step- 
son of Rev. Andrew Gardner, his wife and five children, were 
captured at Charlestown, and an infant child was cruelly slain. 
At all times, and at every point, the energies of our ancestral 
town have been faithful and steadfast to her New Hampshire 
mission. The first settler of Lunenburg was Samuel Page. 
He was living with his family on the Province land when the 
original grant was made. His son, Nathaniel Page, was an 
influential citizen of Rindge. John Page, a son of Nathaniel, 
removed from Rindge to Coos Meadows in 1762. His son, 
John Page, born in Haverhill, May 21, 17S7, was three years 
governor of New Hampshire. William Henry, a son of George 
and Elizabeth (Kennedy) Henry, born in Lunenburg, Jan. 22, 
1747, married, Dec. 4, 1770, Mary Conn, of Scotch-Irish par- 
entage, and settled in Chesterfield. Their daughter Eunice 
married John Haile, and was the honored mother of Governor 
William Haile. Governor Samuel W. Hale was born upon 
the soil, being a native of Fitchburg, a part of our ancient and 
prolific Lunenburg. The faithful follower of Romeo, when 
pierced by the rapier of Tybalt, made broad assertion of what 
his wound was not. Cheshire county was rapidly settled, and 
liberal draft was made upon the population of many places. 
The immigration was not all from Lunenburg, but, like the 
wound of Mercutio, lt 'Tis enough, 'twill serve." 

A paper was read by Isaac W. Hammond, Esq. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE UNDER THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. 

The centennial anniversary of the framing of the constitution 
of the United States has recently been celebrated in the city of 
Philadelphia. The adoption of that instrument as the funda- 
mental law of our country has justly been considered the most 
important event in the history of the American people, and 
under its wise provisions such progress has been made in this 



I08 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

■country as the world never before witnessed. The immense 
progressive changes in all that tends to strengthen and perfect 
-a people's government may be learned from the history of the 
important events which have transpired in our nation since the 
promulgation of that constitution. Its provisions have guided 
all legislation and controlled our whole domestic and foreign 
policy, and have had an influence to a greater extent than is 
generally realized in shaping the policy of foreign countries 
.and republicanizing the governments of the civilized world, 
and thus have wrought a greater work than we can easily com- 
prehend. 

I do not propose in this article to discuss national progress 
under the constitution, but to present some matters relative to 
progressive changes in New Hampshire. Neither time nor 
space will permit the production of an exhaustive article; and 
in order to enable us to realize to some extent the important 
and advantageous changes that have occurred in all branches 
of manufacturing industries during the last century, it seems 
proper to take some of the most notable of them and present 
them as they existed prior to 17S7, as they existed at different 
periods during the century, and as they exist to-day. Some of 
these facts may be new to the present generation, and a knowl- 
edge of them may perhaps afford a better understanding of the 
superior advantages they possess as compared with their ances- 
tors of one hundred years ago, and some knowledge of the pri- 
vations and hardships which they endured and overcame. 

First, we propose to sketch briefly the 

CONSTITUTIONS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

The first written constitution adopted by any of the United 
States was the one adopted by New Hampshire, January 5, 
1776. 

In October, 1775, the provincial congress of the " Colony of 
New Hampshire," realizing the need of some fundamental law 
upon which to base legislative proceedings, instructed their 
representatives in the continental congress to ask the advice of 
that body concerning the matter. 

Said representatives, or delegates as they were then desig- 



mr. Hammond's paper. 



109. 



nated, presented the request, and on November 3, 1775, con- 
gress passed the following : 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the Provincial Conven- 
tion of New Hampshire to call a full and free Representation of 
the people, and that the Representatives, if they think it neces- 
sary, establish such a form of government as in their judgment 
will best produce the happiness of the people, and most effect- 
ually secure peace and good order in the province during the 
continuance of the present dispute between Great Britain and 
the Colonies. 

There was no advice or intimation as to what the provisions 
of such a constitution, or " form of government," should be. 
The continental congress evidently believed that the people of 
New Hampshire were capable of providing for the exigencies 
of the occasion, and the result proved that their faith was well 
founded. 

November 14, 1775, the New Hampshire congress resolved 
that a convention of representatives should be held at Exeter 
on the twenty-first day of the following month for the purpose- 
of framing a constitution and transacting other necessary public 
business, and specified what towns and parishes should be rep- 
resented. It was also specified " that every legal inhabitant 
paying taxes shall be a voter," and "that no person be allowed 
a seat in [that] Congress who shall by themselves or any 
person at their desire Treat with Liquors &c. any Electors 
with an apparent view of gaining their votes, or by Treating 
after an Election on that Account." 

These specifications show a determination to have a consti- 
tutional convention composed of delegates elected for their fit- 
ness to do the work, and that no man should occupy a pur- 
chased seat in that body. According to the compiled list, if 
the towns and parishes were fully represented, that convention 
would have consisted of eighty-nine members. The delegates 
assembled at Exeter on the day selected, organized and pro- 
ceeded with the business without delay. A committee of fif- 
teen was appointed to " draw up a Plan for the Government of 
this Colony during the present contest with Great Britain." 
Said committee reported a code of fundamental laws, brief but. 



IIO NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



/ 



sufficient for the occasion, in language directly to the point ; 
and on January 5, 1776, said code was adopted, and became 
the constitution of this state. It was regarded, however, as a 
temporary arrangement, to exist during the war; and in 1778, 
it becoming apparent that the war was not speedily to close, 
something more extended in its provisions was deemed neces- 
sary, and a convention was held in Concord commencing June 
10. 177S, for the purpose of framing a permanent constitution 
for the future government of the state. The journal of that 
convention cannot be found, but it is known that on June 5, 
1779, "A declaration of rights and plan of government" was 
passed by that body, directed to be printed and sent out to the 
people for their consideration, and was by them rejected. 

Another unsuccessful attempt was made by a convention 
which met on the first Tuesday in June, 17S1 ; and on the 
fourteenth day of September next following voted to have 
printed and sent to each town, for the people's consideration, a 
constitution they had formulated and agreed upon. The con- 
vention then adjourned to the fourth Wednesday in January, 
17S2, at which time it again convened, examined the returns 
of votes on the adoption of their work, and found that it was 
rejected. It met again in August, 17S2, formulated another 
plan of government, submitted it as before, and with the same 
result. With commendable perseverance the delegates met in 
convention again in June, 17S3, framed a third constitution, 
which was ratified by the people, and established by the con- 
vention at an adjourned session held October 31, 17S3, to take 
effect on the first Wednesday in June, 17S4. 

By an examination of the foregoing data, we find that the 
form of government, or constitution, of January, 1776, although 
intended as a temporary code, answered the purpose of a fun- 
damental law for more than eight years; and under it this 
state did its full share in raising and equipping men for service 
in the Revolutionary war, and made more progress in the com- 
mon pursuits of life than could reasonably be expected of a 
people living in those stormy times. 

Another convention, called to revise the constitution of the 
state, met September 7, 1791, made some important changes 



mr. Hammond's paper. hi 

which were ratified by the people, and finally dissolved Sep- 
tember 5, 1792. No further change was made in the funda- 
mental law of our state until 1877, although a convention was 
held in 1850 which proposed some alterations, but they were 
all rejected by the people. 

INDUSTRIES. 

At the time of the adoption of the Federal constitution, the 
citizens of New Hampshire, outside of Portsmouth and vicin- 
ity, were engaged almost entirely in agricultural pursuits. 
Merchants in Portsmouth, Dover, and Exeter carried on a 
somewhat extensive trade with the West India Islands, in ves- 
sels built on the Piscataqua and at Exeter, shipping shook and 
hoops for molasses and rum hogsheads, and any other lumber 
that could be marketed in those islands, receiving their pay in 
sugar, molasses, and rum, with which they supplied the peo- 
ple at a profit which made them wealthy. They also exported 
masts and other ship timber to England, and exchanged the 
same for tea, household furniture, and other goods not then man- 
ufactured in this country. New Castle and Gosport were en- 
gaged in catching and curing fish for domestic and foreign 
markets — a business now nearly extinct in both of those places, 
being superseded by the less hazardous and more profitable 
one of entertaining summer visitors. 

In 1787, no fabrics were manufactured in this state except 
such as were made on hand and foot power machines in the 
houses of the farmers, by their wives and daughters. In that 
slow and tiresome way they manufactured cloth from wool for 
the winter wear of both sexes, and from flax for summer wear 
and for table and bed linen. A small surplus of linen cloth 
and thread had been made in Londonderry, which found a 
market beyond the limits of the state. A few woollen hats 
were also made in that town. 

Cutlery, crockery, and utensils for culinary purposes came 
largely from England, and were somewhat expensive com- 
pared with their cost at present. It was not uncommon to 
find wooden spoons, plates, and gallon bottles in the houses of 



112 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the farmers, which were manufactured by hand in the long- 
winter evenings before their open log fires. 

Later on, carding mills were erected on small streams, in 
which one machine converted the wool of the neighboring- 
farmers into rolls for the housewife, who still spun and wove 
by hand the cloth for the family wear. In those times the 
people generally were pecuniarily poor, but they were indus- 
trious, frugal, and enterprising, and their children inherited 
those qualities and not much else. But as the population 
increased and property was accumulated the water-powers of 
the state were utilized, saw and grist mills were built, and 
still later the large manufactories ; and to-day our cotton and 
woollen cloths, prints, carriages, locomotive engines, cars, 
paper, harnesses, cutlery, etc., are known and in demand all 
over the world. We have also extensive foundries, and our 
car wheels, stove and various other castings are in demand 
wherever such products are used. We manufacture large 
quantities of shoes, belting, furniture, leather hose, wood-pulp, 
granite monuments from our native rock, and many other 
articles which find a market beyond our borders. These 
industries give employment to our people, and furnish the 
means with which we purchase from the West the agricultural 
products our forefathers produced in abundance on their rocky 
soil. In fact, instead of depending for our means of subsistence 
upon the products of the soil, as did our ancestors of 1787, we 
depend largely upon the products of our manufactories. And 
this leads us to write of another matter, without which our 
manufacturing establishments could not exist, and that is the 
great progress that has been made in methods of 

TRANSPORTATION. 

In 17S7, people in this state travelled mostly on foot or on 
horseback ; carriages of any kind were scarce ; goods were 
transported in ox-carts in summer and on sleds in winter. 
The goodman saddled his horse, took his wife on a pillion 
behind him, and went miles to church, with the barefooted 
children following. And thus at long intervals they visited 
their friends, often taking food in their saddle-bags to save 



lI 3 

expense. When meal was wanted for the good old " rye-and- 
Indian bread," a bag with rye in one end and corn in the other 
was hung over the back of the horse, a boy placed on top of 
the bag, and sent anywhere from three to ten miles to mill. 
But a change came. Better facilities for transportation became 
a necessity. With the acquisition of wagons for the transporta- 
tion of merchandise, and of carriages and stages for carrying 
passengers, came the turnpike road with its toll-gate and the 
toll-bridge, over which at certain seasons long lines of teams 
wended their way from the interior farms with country produce 
to the seaboard markets, there to be exchanged for groceries 
and other family necessaries, and perhaps for a few luxuries 
and a little hard money. 

Increased production of farm produce and the prospective 
establishment of manufactories required still better means of 
transportation. Stage lines were established, with four or six 
horses to a coach, carrying passengers from the more populous 
interior towns to the great markets of those days. A system of 
canals was projected, which, had it been carried out, would 
have formed three lines from tide-water to the northern part of 
the state, — connecting the Merrimack river with the Connecti- 
cut, Cocheco, and Piscataqua rivers. Only one line was con- 
structed, and that was on the Merrimack river from East Con- 
cord to Lowell, Mass., there connecting with the Middlesex 
canal. By that boats ran from tide-water to the capital of the 
state, which thus became a distributing station for many towns 
in its vicinity. Among other canals chartered by the legisla- 
ture were the following : One from Merrimack river, via Sun- 
apee lake and Sugar river, to Connecticut river ; one from 
Concord to Sanbornton, to connect at Winnipesaukee lake 
with the New Hampshire Canal and Steamboat Company, 
which company was chartered to run steamboats on the lake ; 
to construct a canal from the lake to tide-water in Cocheco 
river at Dover ; also to construct one from the lake through 
Great and Little Squam ponds to Plymouth, thence up Pemi- 
gewasset and Baker's rivers through the town of Wentworth 
to Connecticut river ; one from Hinsdale up Connecticut river 
to Lancaster, — and many others. 
4 



114 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

In 1835 railroads came, and canal schemes were abandoned. 
It is impossible to realize the vast importance which railroad 
transportation has been to this state. People look upon it as a 
matter of course, and do not stop to consider the effect it has 
had in developing our resources. In consequence of their con- 
struction our water-powers are largely occupied ; manufac- 
tories have been built upon our streams, around which pop- 
ulous cities and towns have grown up, giving honest and remu- 
nerative employment to thousands of people, making a market 
for the lumber, wood, milk, and general products of the farm. 
and for the labor of the architect and the builder. It has 
opened to the summer tourist seeking health, recreation, and 
pleasure, our mountain and lake region, which as a natural 
sanitarium is unsurpassed on this continent. 

Portions of our state, which before their advent were heav- 
ily timbered wildernesses, are now thriving communities. The 
old timber has been to some extent cut off, manufactured, and 
sold, and the proceeds thereof invested in more comfortable 
farm buildings, improved stock, better cultivated brains, 
churches, schools, libraries, and the comfortable sum of sixty 
millions of dollars deposited in our savings-banks, while a con- 
siderable portion of the land is left to bear another crop of tim- 
ber for the use of our successors. To mention all the advan- 
tages accruing from railroad transportation is impossible : one 
of paramount importance is the great improvement in our 

MAIL SERVICE. 

One hundred years ago all the mail service that existed in this 
state was performed by men on horseback, called post-riders, 
who carried the mails in saddle-bags. Post-offices were scarce. 
and confined to a few of the largest towns. Within seventy- 
five vears a large portion of our towns had no post-offices. 
and their residents were obliged to get their letters from the 
nearest large town, which had a mail perhaps once a week. 
Most of those towns now have a daily mail, and many have 
two or three post-offices within their borders. A post route 
existed between Portsmouth and Boston as early as 1692, con- 
necting at the last named place with a route thence through 



mr. Hammond's paper. hc 

New York to Virginia. Mails arrived at Portsmouth once a 
week. From 1695 to 169s, the province of New Hampshire 
paid £12 per year as a subsidy to Andrew Hamilton, " Dep- 
uty Post Master General for his Majesty's Colonies and Isles of 
North America." In 17S1 a post route was established, by 
authority of the legislature of this state, from Portsmouth, via 
Exeter, Chester, Concord, and Plymouth, to Haverhill; thence 
down the Connecticut river through Hanover, Lebanon, and 
Walpole, to Keene ; thence, via Amherst, etc., to Portsmouth, 
the mail being conveyed on horseback over the route once in 
two weeks. In 1790 Concord had a mail from Boston once a 
week, via Exeter. There are now six mails a day between 
those cities by which letters reach Concord in three hours after 
they are mailed in Boston. The telegraph and telephone have 
annihilated space so far as communication is concerned, and 
men one hundred miles apart converse with each other as read- 
ily as our ancestors conversed with their next door neighbors. 

As much progress has been made in education during the 
last century as in any other matter. In 17S7 schools where 
even the rudiments of an education could be obtained were few 
and far between. Dartmouth college was in its infancy. 
Phillips Academy, Exeter, was in existence, and beginning a 
good work. T^ree public schools were in operation to some 
extent ; but teachers of them would hardly pass a successful 
examination in our intermediate schools of to-day. Text- 
books were scarce, as were all other books, and manuscript 
leaves were used to some extent in teaching mathematics. 
Governor John Wentvvorth appreciated the advantages of edu- 
cating the people in general, and in each township by him 
granted one lot was set apart "for the benefit of a school in 
said town forever." These lots were the nucleus of our com- 
mon schools — the foundation upon which they were built — 
and being in public favor, they grew rapidly in number and 
efficiency; interest in education increased; libraries were estab- 
lished in many towns ; and, later, academies sprung into exist- 
ence all over the state, in which better teachers were employed, 
and girls and boys could obtain instruction in higher branches. 
Those academies had their day, and many of them have passed 



Il6 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

out of existence ; but they accomplished more in awakening 
the people to the advantages of a higher culture than they are 
generally credited with. Some of them still remain, and are 
doing good work, which is patent to all observers in the cul- 
ture of our young men and women. 

Our college has grown to be one of the best in the land, and 
no better preparatory institutions exist than Phillips Academy 
at Exeter (more than one hundred years old) and St. Paul's 
School at Concord, both being known and celebrated through- 
out the United States. 

One hundred years ago the man in any of our country towns 
who could read intelligently, write fairly, and who understood 
the common rules of mathematics, was reputed an educated 
man ; he was made a justice of the peace, and did most of the 
town business. Now, nearly all our boys and girls of fifteen 
years can do as much or more. This leads to another product 
of New Hampshire, for which the state is justly celebrated, and 
of which she has reason to be proud, and that is, 

THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO HAVE GONE FROM US TO TAKE 
LEADING POSITIONS IN OTHER STATES. 

Our ancestors were a sturdy and self-reliant people. What 
they could not produce, or obtain in honest exchange, they 
went without. They were mostly English, Scotch, and Irish, 
inured to hardships and privations. They encountered and 
overcame more trials than we can realize in their successful 
endeavors to establish homes in the wilderness, maintain liberty 
of conscience, and institute a government "for the people and 
by the people." The same spirit was transmitted to their 
children. They were born and reared on the rocky soil of our 
Granite State. In early youth they learned the lesson of self- 
reliance. Their education was gained from the few books at 
their command, in the long winter evenings, by the firelight in 
their humble homes, or in the village workshop. Arriving at 
manhood, many have gone to wider fields, taken leading posi- 
tions in almost every state in the Union, and, by their honest 
industry, sterling integrity, and brains, acquired places of 



mr. Hammond's paper. 117 

honor and trust which are creditable alike to themselves, their 
ancestors, and the state of their birth. 

By virtue of these grand qualities— frugality, perseverance, 
and self-reliance — inherited from their sturdy ancestors, nur- 
tured in the little red school-houses and at the farmers' fire- 
sides, some of our New Hampshire men have taken positions 
second to none, and have had prominent parts in shaping the 
governments of states and the nation. Our women have been 
and are known in high ranks in the world of literature, in 
teachers' desks, and as honest Christian mothers — the highest 
and most honorable position of woman. 

We may well be proud of our men and women who have 
left us to fight the battle of life in wider fields, and who, when 
weary with the cares of busy lives, come back to breathe the 
pure air of their native state as a panacea for all their ills. 

And this leads to a consideration of 

NEW HAMPSHIRE AS A GREAT SANITARIUM. 

Twenty-five years ago our mountain and lakeside hotel busi- 
ness was in its infancy. A few summer hotels existed among 
the mountains, but were accessible only by long stage rides, 
which, although romantic and pleasing, were tiresome, and the 
number of tourists who sought them were few. Those who 
came from hot, dusty cities, and spent a portion of the summer 
under the shadow of Mt. Washington, or on the shore of Win- 
nipesaukee, returned in early autumn to their pursuits with 
improved health, clear, vigorous brains, and gave glowing 
accounts of the beauty and grandeur of the scenery, the health- 
renewing qualities of the mountain air, and the luxuries of the 
tables supplied with provisions fresh from country farms and 
trout from the clear mountain brooks. 

In consequence of that, and the extension of railroads through 
the mountain region, the business has rapidly increased, a large 
number of hotels have been erected, and many have been 
enlarged from year to year to accommodate the increasing num- 
ber of guests. The past season has been one of the most suc- 
cessful in the history of the business. Thousands of guests have 



Il8 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

been entertained at our mountain and lakeside hotels, and have 
left more than a million dollars in payment therefor. Probably 
one half as many more have been accommodated at our sea- 
coast hotels, in summer boarding-houses, and in farm-houses all 
over the state ; and it is estimated that the aggregate amount of 
income from this source is not much less than two millions of 
dollars. Let the pleasure-seeker, the weary brain, and the 
invalid continue to come. It is good for them and good for us : 
we furnish them the panacea of our great natural sanitarium ; 
they furnish us means of procuring more comfortable homes, 
and a better education for our boys and girls. 

We convey them comfortably and safely to the summit of 
Mt. Washington by railway ; we furnish them railroad excur- 
sions through Crawford Notch, with surrounding scenery that 
cannot be excelled for magnificence and grandeur this side of 
the Rocky Mountains, and boat rides by daylight and by moon- 
light on the bosom of the loveliest lakes in the country. We 
will welcome them in the future as in the past. 

A FEW WORDS RELATIVE TO THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. 

Prior to 17S7 the thirteen states were united, to a certain 
extent, by articles of confederation. 

There was no fundamental law of the Union upon which the 
legislation of the several states must be based ; consequently, 
laws of some of the states conflicted with those of others. 
Laws enacted by the continental congress could not be enforced 
upon any state without its consent. In fact, while it was a 
union in some respects, it was not a unity in any sense except 
concert of action in case of a foreign war. The articles of con- 
federation which held them together during the contest for 
independence, when they must " hang together or hang sep- 
arately," when their very existence depended upon united 
action, proved to be "a rope of sand" when the war closed 
and the object which bound them together had been accom- 
plished. 

Wise statesmen saw that the only hope for the existence and 
future welfare of the republic was the adoption of some com- 
pact by which the several states should be firmly bound to- 



4 



mr. Hammond's paper. 119 

gether as one nation, and the erection of a general government 
which should be supreme over all, and in which all should be 
represented ; that the states could have no national existence 
without some fundamental laws upon which all legislation, 
both state and national, should be based, and to which all 
should be subordinate. 

They placed the matter before the people, caused a conven- 
tion to be held, and finally secured the adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution, by which the United States was changed 
from a mere confederation of independent states to a great 
nation, w T hich has grown to be in many respects second to 
none on the face of the globe. That constitution, the produc- 
tion of the greatest statesmen of their age, has proved to be a 
rope so strong as to resist the force of one of the greatest rebel- 
lions the world ever witnessed without the breaking of a single 
strand. And I believe the day is not far distant when the peo- 
ple of this Nation will be more harmoniously united than ever 
before, under and by virtue of the provisions of that grand com- 
pact. 

Under the Federal Constitution New Hampshire has grown 
and prospered. By its provisions she has abided, and for its 
maintenance she has given the blood of her bravest men and 
the tears of her noblest women ; and because of what her sons 
helped, to the full extent of her share, in doing, our national 
constitution remains unbroken, and these several states are, 
and will continue to be, an undivided and inseparable Nation, 
over which, now and for all time, there shall Jioat but one 
flag. 

On motion of Mr. J. B. Walker, the thanks of the Society 
were extended to Messrs. Stearns and Hammond, and copies 
of their productions were requested for publication in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society. 

The Society then adjourned to meet again at the call of the 

president. 

Amos Hadley, 

Recording Secretary. 



120 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

FIRST ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Monday, September 16, 1889. 

The first adjourned sixty-seventh annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held at the Society's rooms 
this day, at 11 o'clock a. m., the president, Hon. Samuel C. 
Eastman, in the chair. 

The records of the last meeting were read and approved. 

On motion of Mr. J. B. Walker, the standing committee was 
directed to ascertain the boundaries of the Society's lot, and 
erect permanent bounds, or a fence, about the same, at their 
discretion. 

On motion of Prof. Isaac Walker, it was voted that Hon. 
Charles H. Bell be authorized and requested to take steps 
necessary to procure the "Sullivan papers" from the estate of 
the late Thomas C. Amory, of Boston. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs. J. Everett Sargent, How- 
ard L. Porter, and Isaac Walker, was appointed to arrange 
exercises and select speakers for the adjourned annual meetings 
to be held during the coming winter. 

Dr. B. S. Warren presented the following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

Resolved, That the library be kept open every week day 
from 9 : 30 a. M. to 12 : 30 p. m., and from 1 : 30 to 4 : 30 p. m. 
except on Saturday afternoons, and that the librarian be at lib- 
erty to devote his' time to other matters during those hours, 
except on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday ; and that he 
be paid at the rate of $500 per annum from and after this day. 

Mr. I. W. Hammond, from the Committee on New Mem- 
bers, nominated the following persons, who were elected, by 
the requisite constitutional majority, members of the Society. 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

John Ballard, Concord ; Mrs. Anne E. Baer, Salmon Falls. 
The Society then adjourned, to meet again at the call of the 

president. 

Amos Hadlev, 

Recording Secretary. 



PROCEEDINGS. 121 

SECOND ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Durham, Thursday, October 10, 1889. 

In accordance with the call of the president, the second 
adjourned sixty-seventh annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held this day at Durham, the occasion 
being the annual field day. 

Members of the Society, with invited guests, arriving by 
morning trains and otherwise, assembled in the Public Librarv 
building, whither they had been conducted by a citizens' com- 
mittee of reception, Hon. Lucien Thompson, chairman. The 
president being absent, Hon. John J. Bell, one of the vice- 
presidents, presided. Welcome was extended by Hon. Joshua 
B. Smith, and acknowledged by the chair. 

A part of the rainy forenoon was spent by a portion of the 
excursionists in visiting the site ofPiscataqua bridge, in the 
vicinity of which a settlement, incorporated in 1796 under 
the name of Franklin City, was once planned. At 1 p. M. the 
visitors partook of an excellent dinner, served in the Congrega- 
tional vestry by the ladies of Durham. In the brief business 
meeting which followed, Vice-President Bell in the chair, 
Hon. L. D. Stevens moved a resolution of thanks to the peo- 
ple of the town for their great courtesy and hospitality, which 
was enthusiastically adopted. 

Mr. I. W. Hammond, from the Committee on New Mem- 
bers, nominated the following persons, who were elected by 
the constitutional majority : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Charles Robert Morrison, Mrs. Harriet Newell Eaton, 
Charles Eastman Staniels, John E. Fry — all of Concord. 

The Society adjourned to meet at the call of the president. 

The weather having cleared, the visitors were taken in car- 
riages to many localities of historic interest, prominent among 
which were the house and grave of Gen. John Sullivan. Thus 
passed pleasantly and profitably the fifth field day of the 

Society. 

Amos Hadley, 

Recording Secretary. 



122 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

THIRD ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Tuesday, February 25, 1890. 

The third adjourned sixty-seventh annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held, on call of the 
president, this day, at 7 : 30 o'clock p. m., in the hall of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, the president in the chair. The meet- 
ing was the first of three arranged by the special committee 
-appointed September 16, 1SS9, for that purpose. 

The president, having alluded in appropriate terms to the 
recent death of Hon. J. E. Sargent, chairman of the commit- 
tee, introduced Hon. John C. Linehan, who addressed the 
meeting, his subject being "The Gettysburg Battlefield." 

On motion of Mr. J. B. Walker, the thanks of the Society 
were tendered the speaker. 

The Society then adjourned to meet again at the same place 
on the third of March, proximo, at 7 : 30 o'clock p. m. 

Amos Hadley, 

Recording Secretary. 

FOURTH ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Monday, March 3, 1890. 

The fourth adjourned sixty-seventh annual meeting of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society was held at the Grand 
Army hall this day, at 7 : 30 o'clock p. m., the president in the 
chair. 

Hon. Charles R. Corning delivered an address on "An 
Exploit in King William's War, 1697 : Hannah Dustan." 

MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 

Two centuries ago a mighty history was making on both 
continents. On the older, absolute monarchy dominated the 
people ; on the newer, a severe toleration in religious and 
civic affairs characterized the virgin settlements. The auguries 
of palace courtiers were fast proving false, and it was at this 
period that the kingly horoscope caught its last stars. Verily, 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 123 

the day of judgment was at hand, and kings knew it not. 
Across the turbulent Atlantic old Europe had planted her van- 
guard. There was scarcely a kingdom or principality that had 
not flung its standard to the Western sky, and claimed sover- 
eignty beneath its folds. England, France, Spain, and Hol- 
land were there, and those nations comprised the strongest and 
fairest parts of Europe. From their decree there was no appeal. 
But, fortunately for mankind, this powerful quartette never met 
at the same council board. The qualities that went to make 
"it up came from widely diverse sources, and harmony was 
impossible. Ambition intensified a thousand fold these racial 
characteristics, and to this was added the subtle poison of relig- 
ious hate, which, coursing strongly in the veins of the fathers, 
became no weaker in the blood of the sons. iVnd so over the 
thousand leagues of boisterous waves were carried the hatred 
and prejudices of Europe. On the new continent as on the 
old, England and France were constantly involved in diplo- 
matic misunderstandings, which threatened to break out in 
open war, thus keeping the settlers in solicitude and alarm. 
The air may be said to have been full of electricity, and the 
spark generated in Paris or London found quick response on 
the other side of the sea. 

In sensuous repose amid the splendors of Versailles sat Louis 
XIV, or, as he was proud to be called, the Grand Monarch. 
Seemingly secure in revenue and arms, the king serenely con- 
templated his sun in its zenith. Fortune, fickle to so many 
crowns, had never deserted Louis. His name commanded 
obedience at council tables, and carried terror into camps. He 
was his own prime minister, and in the fullest meaning of the 
term was the state itself. Vainglorious and victorious, the 
king imagined that everything was possible for him. He was 
a restless prince, even when the rattle of battle and the pomp 
of war were no more, but true to nature he continued to make 
peace a period of conquest. His designs comprised the fairest 
part of the new world, and he early determined to acquire by 
arms the regions then inhabited by the English-speaking peo- 
ple. With a brief view of Versailles as it appeared during the 
last days of Bourbon imperialism, we may understand how 



124 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

it came to pass that the French monarch might imagine that 
the world was his for conquest, and that no human opposition 
could stay his ambition. In this glowing picture of Parkman's 
we see it all : " Versailles gave no signs of waning glories. On 
three evenings of the week it was the pleasure of the king 
that the whole court should assemble in the vast suite of 
apartments now known as the Halls of Abundance, of Venus, 
of Diana, of Mars, of Mercury, and of Apollo. The magnifi- 
cence of their decorations, pictures of the great Italian mas- 
ters, sculptures, frescos, mosaics, tapestries, vases, and statues 
of silver and gold, the vista of light and splendor that opened 
through the wide portals, the courtly throngs, feasting, danc- 
ing, gaming, promenading, conversing, formed a scene which 
no palace of Europe could rival or approach. Here were all 
the great historic names of France, — princes, warriors, states- 
men, and all that was highest in rank and place, — the flower, 
in short, of that brilliant society, so dazzling, captivating, and 
illusory. In former years the king was usually present, affable 
and gracious, mingling with his courtiers and sharing their 
amusements; but he had grown graver of late, and was more 
often in his cabinet, laboring with his ministers on the task of 
administration, which his extravagance and ambition made 
every day more burdensome." 

In the fervid imagination of the hour the meditations of 
Louis are not difficult of interpretation. With a map before 
him he studied the situation of political affairs, and sought out 
the red marks of danger. To the south lay Spain, crippled as 
a beggar, but proudly scorning the beggar's mode of existence ; 
for it had come to pass that the splendid realm of Charles the 
Fifth had been so grievously juggled by fate that its weakness 
attracted the cupidity of adventurers. Holland, in her sturdy 
sons and threatening dykes, defied the legions of Louis; while 
England, under the kingship of that strong soul so frailly held, 
William of Orange, was preparing to challenge France to mor- 
tal combat. In England lay the hopes of those brave men 
who, following the setting sun, had found homes amidst the 
forests of New England. The King of Versailles was not 
playing blind man's buff, for his life had been generous in 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 1 25 

experiments and prodigal of experiences. If with keen satis- 
faction he reflected on the vassalage of Charles the Second and 
the perfidy of James, then a pensioner at his court, what were 
his feelings as he thought of the stern and unyielding William, 
who had sworn to protect the political and religious freedom 
of England even to the last drop of his blood ! The oath at 
Whitehall proclaimed the ruin of Versailles. The angry dis- 
cussions, the campaigns with their savage battles and weary 
sieges, the contests for the supremacy of the sea, the debates, 
the treaties, all may now be laid aside, while we follow the 
series of events beginning in the royal throne room at Ver- 
sailles and culminating on the Plains of Abraham. 

The tireless energy and inextinguishable zeal of the Jesuits 
kindled in the breast of the great king an ambition to go out 
into the wilderness and conquer new realms ; — so Louis, wearied 
with wars at home, turned his eyes toward Canada, and saw 
perhaps in his dreams an empire in the west far greater than 
the geographers of Europe dared to define, and far richer than 
courtly flatterers dared to value. Thus, in the year 16S9, the 
war-spent monarch, as if conscious of impending disaster (for 
the results of his previous expeditions had been disheartening), 
turned from European state-craft and bent his energies in fit- 
ting out one more expedition to Canada. Looking about him 
for a commander, his eyes rested on Count Frontenac. This 
remarkable man, now in his seventieth year, had spent half his 
life in and around Quebec, and the desperation of the situation 
quickly commended him to the king. The choice was not a 
bad one, for Frontenac deserved well of his king, in whose 
service he had long since drawn his sword. 

The distress in which European affairs had placed Louis 
denied to the courageous count a single soldier ; and yet his 
mission was to raise a prostrate colony, and to beat into sub- 
mission a people in whose veins coursed blood that years of 
persecution and suffering had not made thin. The loyal count 
did not stop to consider his mission. He received his instruc- 
tions, kissed the royal hand, and, repairing to Rochelle, em- 
barked and sailed away for the new world. When I unfold 
the plan sanctioned by the king and entrusted to Frontenac to 



126 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

carry out, you will then see the connection existing between 
what was done in the gay palace at Versailles and what soon 
after took place in the rude frontier settlements on the Merri- 
mack. The plan was certainly a daring one, but the count 
saw in it a grand opportunity to retrieve his squandered fort- 
unes, and to make for himself a name that should thrill Europe 
with admiration. This was the plan of campaign : New York 
was to be suddenly invaded by the troops then in Canada, sup- 
ported by two war-ships. Lakes Champlain and George were 
to be passed in canoes and batteaux, and the troops hurried 
across to Albany, which was to be razed to the ground ; after 
which they were to seize the river craft and descend the Hud- 
son to the town of New York, which at that time was supposed 
to contain about two hundred houses and four hundred fiofhtine 
men. Meanwhile the two ships were to hover in the harbor 
and await the coming of the soldiery. In the event of success 
great advantages would surely result to France. The Iroquois, 
deprived of English arms and ammunition, would be at the 
mercy of the French, the question of English rivalry in the 
west would be settled, and, above all, the way to Quebec would 
be much easier along the banks of the Hudson and the winding 
shores of the lakes than by the toilsome and oftentimes inacces- 
sible St. Lawrence. The last feature of the plan was the utter 
separation of New England from the colonies to the south, 
thereby exposing it to all the dangers of invasion and prepar- 
ing it for some future conquest. Everything went wrong : 
head-winds delayed the arrival of the ships till late in the 
autumn, and the enterprise turned out to be a complete fail- 
ure. Thus Nature once again arrayed herself on the side of 
the settlers. 

In case of success the king announced his intention towards 
the conquered as follows : All Catholics should be left undis- 
turbed ; persons of estate were to be thrown into prison ; all 
lands except those of Catholics were to be taken from the own- 
ers, and granted under a feudal tenure to French officers and 
soldiers. A portion of all property, public or private, was to 
be sold on account of the king. Mechanics were to work on 
the fortifications, and do other labor. The rest of the Dutch 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 1 27 

and English inhabitants, men, women, and children, were to 
be carried out of the colony and dispersed in New England, 
Pennsylvania, or other places, in such a manner that they could 
not combine in any attempt to recover their property and their 
country. And, that the conquest might be perfectly secure, 
the nearest settlements of New England were to be destroyed, 
and those more remote laid under contribution. 

This atrocious plan, worthy the perjured soul that signed 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, miscarried in every par- 
ticular, but it sowed the seed of religious hatred on singularly 
fertile soil, which nourished it unto the harvest time of an inter- 
necine war that waged a full hundred years. 

It is eminently proper at this stage to give our attention to 
that dreaded and warlike people who during the trying years 
of this bloody period actually held the balance of power be- 
tween the French and the English. It was then that the 
aborigines arrogated to themselves a physical supremacy that 
the servants of both kings were forced to acknowledge and obey. 
It was not the Indian, generically speaking, that held the 
scales at equipoise between the combatants, but a tribal family 
known then as the Iroquois, and later as the Five Nations. 
Francis Parkman thus describes this historic confederation : 
" In central New York, stretching east and west from the 
Hudson to the Genesee, lay that redoubted people who have 
lent their name to the tribal family of the Iroquois, and stamped 
it indelibly on the early pages of American history. Among 
all the barbarous nations of the continent, the Iroquois of New 
York stand paramount. Elements which among other tribes 
were crude, confused, and embryotic, were among them sys- 
tematized and concreted into an established policy. The Iro- 
quois was the Indian of Indians. A thorough savage, yet a 
finished and developed savage, he is perhaps an example of 
the highest elevation which man can reach without emerging 
from his primitive condition of the hunter. A geographical 
position, commanding on one hand the portal of the Great 
Lakes, and on the other the sources of the streams flowing 
both to the Atlantic and the Mississippi, gave the ambitious 
and aggressive confederates advantages which they perfectly 



128 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

understood, and by which they profited to the utmost. Patient 
and politic as they were ferocious, they were not only conquer- 
ors of their own race, but the powerful allies and the dreaded 
foes of the French and English colonies, flattered and caressed 
by both, yet too sagacious to give themselves without reserve 
to either. Their organization and their history evince their 
intrinsic superiority. Even their traditionary lore, amid its 
wild puerilities, shows at times the stamp of an energy and 
force in striking contrast with the flimsy creations of Algonquin 
fancy." 

Research seems to point to the conclusion that the Iroquois 
formed originally one undivided people, but jealousies, caprice, 
and the necessities of the hunt separated them into five distinct 
nations, spreading through central New York from the Hudson 
westward in the following order-: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas, Senecas. In course of time, discord having 
kept the disunited people in constant fear, a celestial being 
appeared and counselled them to peace and union, pointing 
out the advantages that would ensue, and promising them a 
supernatural power that would cause all the forests throughout 
the land to tremble at the name of Iroquois. The heavenly 
vision did its work most thoroughly, and the warring tribes 
came together, and with weird and boisterous ceremonies 
formed that celebrated league that resolutely resisted disease, 
defeat, and even the elements, for three quarters of a century. 

The Iroquois lived in a state of chronic warfare with nearly 
all the surrounding tribes, except a few from whom they ex- 
acted tribute. Any man of sufficient personal credit might 
raise a war party when he chose. All he had to do was to 
proclaim his purpose through the village, sing his war-songs, 
bury his hatchet in the war-post, and dance the war-dance. 
Any who chose joined him, and the party usually took up their 
march at once, with a little parched corn meal and maple sugar 
as their only provision. The Iroquois had a discipline suited 
to the dark and tangled forests where they fought, and they 
were a terrible foe. 

A striking peculiarity of government is observed among 
these Indians. While the head of the nation was composed of 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 1 29 

an oligarchy, the nation was essentially democratic. Equal 
rights prevailed as perhaps they have not prevailed since. 
Every man, whether high or low, had a voice in the conduct 
of affairs, and, come what might, never lost his prerogative of 
speaking his mind and exercising his right in the transaction 
of tribal affairs. There was no property, in our sense of the 
word, and authority was of a vague and illusory character, 
and yet the sachems always aimed to exercise authority with- 
out seeming to do so. They wore no insignia of chieftainship, 
nor were their costumes noticeably attractive. The emolu- 
ments of office were insignificant, but, on the other hand, no 
splendid entertainments fell to their lot; so the sachems were 
content to hunt and fish with meaner braves, and prided them- 
selves on being as foul, greasy, and unsavory as the rest. In them, 
however, was often seen a native dignity which paint and bear's 
grease could not hide. The population of the Five Nations 
was variously estimated by missionaries and travellers, but the 
general testimony would indicate that at about the close of the 
seventeenth century, or the period to which our attention is 
directed, it was upwards of twenty-three hundred warriors, 
which would imply a population, all told, of ten or twelve 
thousand. 

It was to this people that both sides turned in times of dan- 
ger, for they knew too well by long and costly experience the 
prevailing strength that lay in the swarthy ranks of the great 
confederation. 

The Iroquois were generally inclined towards the English, 
but their friendliness was not wholly of a disinterested kind. 
The reasons underlying it all could not possibly be made of 
use by the romantic novelist, who is prone to discover in our 
aborigines those sterling traits of character that make a race 
higher than humanity and lower than angels. The wily Indian 
possessed something besides prowess and cunning: he early 
began to scent the possibilities of trade, and, with an instinct 
worthy of a Yankee, sat in his camp and silently put in motion 
all the reasoning faculties at his command. In view of what 
took place in the period of his ascendency, we may conclude 
that the red man was no common student in the science of 
5 



■MUMJI^^r^^MMrifc^Y.-l .^.^^. |ir| | ,, t . |t ti ' |||[( flM 



I30 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

barter and exchange : in truth, it would not be a misstatement 
to say that he recognized that principle of political economy 
now known as Protection. He argued in his rude way, and 
his deductions led him irresistibly into business connections 
with the English. It must be admitted, however, that it 
was not the love of gain alone that led him in this direction. 
No people were ever more greedy of land than the Indians. 
To own vast territories was their proudest boast; to point to 
the descending sun, and in eloquent thought compare that orb 
with some great chief visiting the distant confines of his domain, 
was their especial delight. The powerful Iroquois nation, 
whose warriors had shouted their hoarse battle cries in the ears 
of the affrighted settlers of Maryland and Virginia, laid claim 
to an empire as boundless as the overshadowing heavens, and 
stood ready to fight for their heritage. 

The restless activity and persistency of the Canadians had 
long been the subject of Iroquois debate, and they viewed with 
ill-concealed enmity the erection of French stations on the 
shores of the Great Lakes and on the banks of the Mississippi. 
The adventurous Frontenac had invaded their lands and claimed 
sovereignty in the name of his king; he had even gone further, 
and commanded the redskins to swear allegiance to his royal 
master. Alone, the Indians could not maintain their claims, 
but allied to either of the rivals, they recognized the possibili- 
ties of their power. These two considerations, the greatest 
that could then or now be presented to a people, decided the 
course of the Five Nations. They saw in the English the best 
customers for their furs and their strongest support in time of 
trouble, and so the calumet was smoked. This alliance was 
not without its weak places, owing to the vacillations and 
caprices that always mark the character of savages ; but firm- 
ness and caution contributed to allay the suspicions and to cool 
the excitability of the dusky warriors, and the compact, in 
which fear, vengeance, and cupidity were the component parts, 
endured for a series of years. 

Count Frontenac was not the man to turn pale at fearful 
emergencies: he was a bold and skilful soldier, who had 
fought side by side with some of the best generals in Europe, 



I — mmmmumm 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 131 

and he resolved to annihilate the Iroquois for their treaty with 
the English on the Hudson. An intermittent war was waged, 
invasion was followed by incursion, battle was answered by 
massacre. Victory was never more capricious : she refused to 
have a favorite : she was cruelly fickle, and did not seem to 
care about the savage or the Frenchman. 

At length the futility of such a warfare was impressed on 
the French commander, and he resolved boldly to march into 
the enemy's territory and lay waste his settlements. The plan 
was carried out, but was successful only in part. Innocent 
women and children were slaughtered, cattle killed, and houses 
destroyed, but no lasting advantage came of it. The French 
and their Indian scouts sullenly retreated into the forests, and 
slowly made their way back to Canada. Frontenac had only 
shed blood: he had not added an inch of territory nor secured 
a penny of indemnity : he had roused the New England people, 
and they were preparing for that final contest that was to drive 
the house of Bourbon into the sea. Up to this time the wars 
had been largely in New York, where the settlers and their 
Iroquois allies had maintained their own against their foes; 
but now we are taken to the scene of another campaign, whose 
horrors make the history of York and Wells, of Oyster River 
and Haverhill. 

To the readers of this era of the nineteenth century, Acadia 
brings to memory the graceful poem of Longfellow, with sweet 
Evangeline, and the village of Grand-Pre with its tale of woe. 
We are now conducted to that same serene angle of the earth, 
and bidden to see the Acadia of 1694. It was claimed by the 
French, and, according to their claims, included Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, and the greater part of Maine. It was a wil- 
derness of woods and a wilderness of waves, with many fertile 
fields and innumerable headlands and deep bays. Nowhere 
on the continent was the scenery more rugged or more pict- 
uresque. Here roamed a tribe of Indians whose name we have 
not yet known, but more savage red men could not be found. 
Their habits were as wild as their haunts, and yet they evinced 
some of the aptitude of the husbandman by tilling their lands, 
and planting corn and beans and pumpkins, which they left to 



rtrrnnii 



132 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

nature to watch over while they went down to the sea in canoes. 
They were of a peculiarly roving disposition, and no sooner 
were the crops gathered than away they went, either to hunt or 
to fish. These Indians were the Abenakis, and to them Fron- 
tenac turned for assistance. The old soldier did not treat with 
them in person : he chose other means bv which to gain his 
ends. The Jesuits were the ambassadors to arrange matters, 
and they did their work skilfully and thoroughly. Their mis- 
sions among the savages of Acadia were highly successful. 
Some of the Indians were induced to emigrate to Canada and 
dwell in the mission villages, while those that remained in 
their native woods quickly became converts to Romanism, and 
therefore allies of France. Up to this point the French felt 
secure of the friendship of the Abenakis, but all at once a dan- 
ger that no one foresaw confronted the over-sanguine Cana- 
dians. The English began trading with the savages : they 
even sailed up their rivers, caught fish, and exchanged the 
glittering tokens of civilization for rich furs. Before many 
years had passed, a brisk and profitable trade sprang up be- 
tween these savages and the thrifty New Englanders. In the 
hostile encounters the English had displayed fighting qualities 
of a remarkable kind, which the Indians were quick to observe 
and take lessons from ; and then in addition to this were the 
attractions of speculation and the hope of gain, which disposed 
many to peace ; — so before the French were fully aware of these 
factors, a provisional treaty had actually been signed between 
the Abenakis and the commissioners of Massachusetts. 

The French were filled with alarm. Peace between the 
Abenakis and the * l Bostonnais " would be disastrous both to 
Acadia and to Canada, because these tribes held the passes 
through the northern wilderness, and so long as they were held 
in the interest of France the settlements on the St. Lawrence 
were covered from attack. Moreover, the government de- 
pended upon the Indians to fight its battles : therefore no pains 
were spared to break off their incipient treaty with the English 
and to spur them again to war. Presents were given in abun- 
dance, the Jesuits redoubled their efforts, new officers poured 
into the fair land, and all hastened to obey the royal command 



rtfi- i rt t r i iillrtfi M iia-^ i Mnr i rrt Miiatai | 



MR. CORNING S ADDRESS. 1 33 

to wage incessant war against the English horders. A blow 
must be struck in order to encourage the uneven resolution of 
the savages, — and thus a frightful border war was precipitated 
on the innocent and hapless English. Nothing that the inge- 
nuity of the priests could conceive was withheld from the red 
barbarians. They were filled with promises and grew big 
with conceit, and those that joined the expedition set out stimu- 
lated with feelings of revenge such as only the plastic minds of 
savages could entertain. The attack on Haverhill was one of 
that series of invasions, onslaughts, and massacres inspired by 
the French and a few Jesuits, and set on foot among the Aben- 
akis of Acadia and the Christian Indians of the mission stations 
along the St. Lawrence. 

With minds or imaginations singularly impressionable, the 
mysteries of the mass appealed strongly to the red man, and 
the work of redeeming their souls according to the rubric of 
Rome was carried on with a zeal and persistency that challenge 
the admiration of all candid generations. The early priests 
were, with few exceptions, men of high character and lofty 
purposes, who cheerfully faced death in every form that they 
might carry eternal light to the innermost shades of the wilder- 
ness ; but among them were brothers whose insatiate greed for 
political aggrandizement urged them to measures and means 
that would not have been thought of by the infamous kings of 
the Middle Ages. 

It so happened that there dwelt among the Abenakis at this 
time two priests who preached and practised the red religion 
of carnage and rapine, and to their baneful influence maybe 
traced the atrocities of the irregular but devastating war. 
Bigot and Thury were the leading instigators of the Indian 
mode of settling territorial disputes and the rights of property. 
There is no question that Thury exerted himself to the utmost 
to incite the savages to dig up the tomahawk, and to instil into 
the breasts of his converts an unrelenting hatred of the heretics 
across the border. It is related that an Abenaki chief, when a 
prisoner in Boston about this time, declared that the Indians 
had been taught that Jesus Christ was the son of a French lady, 
and that the English had murdered him, and that the best way 



lartMm&toA*,^^ . ,_^ii 



I34 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to gain his favor was to revenge his death. Even amid the 
forests of Maine, as late as 1S36, an ancient Indian, and a prob- 
able descendants the Abenakisyinnocently asked a surveyor 
if " Bethlehem was not a town in France" — an inquiry that 
certainly had about it an aroma of ancestral belief. To keep 
these converts in hostility to the English enhanced the power 
of the ecclesiastics with the civil authorities : therefore any 
familiar intercourse between the French and the Indians was 
hindered almost to the point of prohibition, and yet the spiritual 
nature of the savage was as carefully looked after as that of a 
prince. " He wore a crucifix, hung wampum on the Shrine 
of the Virgin, told his beads, prayed three times a day, knelt 
for hours before the Host, invoked the saints, and confessed to 
the priests ; but with rare exceptions he murdered, scalped, 
and tortured like his heathen countrymen." 

On the other hand, the English committed more than one 
crime against the unwritten laws of intercourse and hospital- 
ity ; — they imprisoned trusting Indians, and sometimes they 
shot them down with a levity that seems strangely inconsistent 
with the necessities of the hour. More than once the English 
acted in bad faith, and did things that the most specious argu- 
ments fail to make right; and for all these breaches of faith the 
poor and blameless settlers along the New England border had 
to undergo hardships and endure tortures that all coming gen- 
erations of civilization must shudder to recall. 

The frontier of Massachusetts at the close of the seventeenth 
century may be traced by a line drawn from Falmouth, now 
Portland, Maine, to the vicinity of what is now Worcester, 
and between these bounds were clustered at irregular distances 
the settlements of Saco, Wells, York, Haverhill, Andover, 
Dunstable, and Groton. which were the scenes of the warfare 
waged by the Christian Indians of Canada and the Abenakis of 
the East. 

In all probability the savages that attacked Haverhill in 
March, 1697, came from the tribes that had laid waste to 
Salmon Falls, York, and Wells a few years before, and yet at 
this late day all conclusions regarding this must depend wholly 
upon conjecture. The wild and shiftless habits of the red man, 



MR. CORNING S ADDRESS. 



135 



and the changeable moods that marked his nature, render his 
identity impossible for more than a year or two at a time. 
To-day he dwells on the Merrimack ; to-morrow he gathers 
up his worldly possessions, and seeks some mission station on 
the St. Lawrence, or plunges into the forest in search of game. 
The Indian was essentially nomadic, and any spot served him 
as a resting-place provided sustenance was abundant. 

Fear of the Mohawks, the chief tribe in the powerful Iroquois 
confederation, had driven many of the Penacook Indians to the 
eastward, where they undoubtedly mingled to some extent with 
the Abenakis and neighboring tribes, from whom they soon 
caught the spirit of the times, and, smearing their faces with 
grease and paint, sounded the war-whoop. 

With two centuries of progress and development dividing 
us from the period of the Indian invasion of Haverhill all 
researches must be unsatisfactory, and any investigation abso- 
lutely fixing upon the exact spot of Indian towns or Indian 
camping-places must be received with extreme caution. In 
nearly every instance obliteration has done its thorough work, 
leaving only a few slight traces of that which legendary lore 
has long been wont to clothe with life and action. We may 
surmise as to this or that, but it avails nothing. The ripest 
scholar is only led by the elf child of fancy. The deepest 
researches discover but little. The Indians spoke in signs 
which, like the swift flight of birds, only divided the air and 
left no trace behind. The whole aboriginal history, as com- 
pared with other human history, is but the recital of the instincts 
of wild beasts. The savage clung closely to nature, and, so 
far as his own history was concerned, when life closed he be- 
came as much a part of nature as the decaying trunk of some 
giant pine whose boughs had sheltered him when weary from 
the chase. The red men lived for the moment, indulging in 
war and in the hunt, utterly insensible to annals and records : 
consequently we may as well try to catch the spirit of their 
startling ceremonies — the gauntlet, the yells, the shrieks, the 
blows, the brutality, the revolting practices, the savage sacri- 
fices, all — as to summon from a jealous past their surnames 
and their former habitations. Historv is silent when we ask 



136 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

from what tribe hailed the Haverhill butchers, and yet my 
judgment persuades me to class them with the Abenakis and 
the converts over whom the Jesuits had so much influence. 

The war had now lasted several years, and the frontier towns 
bore the brunt of it all. The enemy was too cautious to be 
caught within the lines, notwithstanding that about this time 
the energetic Frontenac had actually begun to plan an attack 
on Boston, which, however, went no further than the planning. 
Affairs along the border were in sad disorder, nor did the future 
promise any respite from flame and massacre. In an address 
to the king only the year before, the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts set forth the exhausted state of the province through 
the languishing and wasting war with the French and Indians, 
and prayed for such assistance as could be had, so that " Can- 
ada, the unhappy fountain" from which issued their miseries, 
might be reduced. 

Haverhill, at the time of our research, might be classed w T ith 
the New Hampshire towns, so far as its sufferings and vicissi- 
tudes were concerned. To the historian, the boundary line 
alone connected it with Massachusetts. The inhabitants w T ere 
on terms of intimacy with those across the line, and what 
augured ill for one augured equally ill for the other. In honest, 
hearty communism were the men of Haverhill with their neigh- 
bors in the adjacent colony. In quoting from Belknap, I am 
confident that we get a faithful account of the general feeling 
prevailing at this time throughout all the settlements. " The 
people of New Hampshire were much reduced, their lumber 
trade and husbandry being greatly impeded by the war. Fre- 
quent complaints were made of the burden of the war, the 
scarcity of provisions, and the dispiritedness of the people. In 
this situation they were obliged to apply to their neighbors for 
assistance, but this was granted with a sparing hand. The 
people of Massachusetts were much divided and at variance 
among themselves, partly on account of the pretended witch- 
crafts which have made so loud a noise in the world. Party 
and passion had usurped the place of patriotism, and the de- 
fence, not only of their neighbors but of themselves, was neg- 
lected to gratify their malignant humors.'* For more than half 



MR. CORNING S ADDRESS. 1 37 

a century Haverhill had been a frontier town, and had suffered 
heroically, but the time did actually come when the expediency 
of abandoning the township was solemnly discussed in open 
meeting. The long persecuted farmers were paralyzed, and 
hearts were like lead. Scarcely a year had passed without an 
Indian assault, leaving anguish and terror in its w r ake. It was 
true that the town had provided six garrison-houses and quar- 
tered in them a considerable command, but the habitations 
were widely separated from each other, and those on the out- 
skirts of the township were always in danger. 

In addition to the garrisons and the houses of refuge, many 
private houses were fortified and strengthened, and even the 
meeting-house had port-holes in its walls and a flanker at the 
east corner. "Most of the garrisons were built of brick, and 
were two stories high ; those that were not built of this material 
had a single layer of it between the outer and inner walls. 
They had but one outside door, which was often so small that 
but one person could enter at a time ; their windows were about 
two feet and a half in length, eighteen inches in breadth, and 
were secured on the inside with iron bars. Their glass was 
very small, cut in the shape of a diamond, was extremely 
thick, and fastened in with lead instead of putty. There were 
generally but two rooms in the basement story, and tradition 
says that they entered the chamber with the help of a ladder 
instead of stairs, so that the inmates could retreat and haul it 
up if the basement story should be taken by the enemy. Their 
fireplaces were of such enormous sizes that they could burn 
their wood sled-length very conveniently ; and the ovens opened 
on the outside of the building, generally at the end, behind the 
fireplace, and were of such dimensions that a sufficient quantity 
of bread might have been baked in them to supply a regiment 
of hungry mouths." The ordinary houses at this time were 
generally two stories high, with the upper story jutting a foot 
or two over the lower. The roofs were high and steep, and 
hipped or gambrelled. The frames were of white oak and of 
large dimensions, and so were the beams and rafters which the 
custom of that day decreed should be left in sight. The win- 
dows were of a medium size, some being made in halves and 



T 



I38 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

some whole, and opened outwardly. To guard against winter, 
the walls were smeared with clay mixed with straw, or over- 
laid with a rude plaster composed of lime made from clam- 
shells. 

The earth about Haverhill furnished an abundance of good 
clay: consequently bricks were commonly used in various wavs 
upon the walls and partitions of the houses, both as a means of 
comfort and security. Shingle or thatch covered the roofs, but 
costly experience soon proved the danger of thatch. The 
savages, quickly perceiving its inflammable nature, promptly 
added fire-brands to their implements of warfare. One large 
chimney, set in the middle of the house, received the smoke 
from the kitchen and other fireplaces, any one of which was 
sufficiently generous to accommodate several weary men and 
women. With a draught like a forging-mill, the consumption 
of wood was enormous, and thirty-five cords of wood, says one 
writer, was not an uncommon supply for family use. 

Every house and building was constructed solely for shelter 
and defence, and the venerable age that attended them proved 
the soundness of the timbers and the thoroughness of putting 
them together. There was no disposition to create the house 
beautiful : only the severest economy was practised, and it was 
not till late in the next century that paint began to be commonly 
used, either inside or outside the dwellings. The furniture 
was rudely made, and the utensils of the kitchen were neither 
numerous nor labor-saving. There was no attempt to lighten 
the hardships of those sturdy men and women, whose daily life 
was a constant struggle with both nature and nature's fiends. 
They lived in the midst of death, ready for the savage alarm, 
and yet full of hope and courage. Picture to yourselves Haver- 
hill two hundred years ago, and read in its lights and shadows 
the annals of every frontier town. 

Scattered houses and log cabins standing against the dark 
shades of the unbroken forests, garrison*Pwith projections and 
flankers, houses of refuge with their rough walls pierced with 
menacing port-holes, and strong men clad in strange costumes 
moving about with guns slung over their shoulders, pausing at 
the slightest noise and alert to know its meaning, were some 



MR. CORNING S ADDRESS. 



*39 



of the sights two hundred years ago. Corn-fields, rescued 
from the wilderness, wave in the breeze, and sing melodies of 
peace ; and yet how solemnly still is the neighborhood ! The 
grand old Merrimack moves on towards the sea, telling the 
gleaming hosts of heaven how beautiful they are, while birds, 
free from care and jealousy, welcome the new comers beneath 
their boughs, and fragrant buds and wondrous flowers perfume 
the air. What a paradise, say you : alas, leaden fear weighs 
on the heart; and the breath is stilled, as if a breaking twig, 
done perchance by a frightened partridge or a frolicsome rab- 
bit, sounds ominously upon the solitude. It is not for us to 
contemplate with any degree of realism the dreadful fate that 
threatened these settlers day after day for more than one hun- 
dred years. What do we know of sufferings like theirs 1 
Could our flesh have borne their trials? would our faith have 
been so serene and unshaken? could we of this dizzy civiliza- 
tion have laid the corner-stones of liberty and right as they laid 
them ? 

The loner series of hostilities between the English settlers and 
the Canadians and Indians, known in history as King William's 
War, was drawing to a close, and a better feeling found its 
way among the poor and bleeding inhabitants of Haverhill. 
Notwithstanding murder and devastation, the stubborn English 
held their own. Not an inch of land had been ceded to the 
enemy, not a penny of indemnity had been promised or paid, 
and yet the frontiers were infested by prowling bands of 
savages whose zeal for massacre was only restrained by cir- 
cumstances. It was now winter, a season most welcome to 
the dwellers along the troubled frontier, for the cold months 
generally brought a cessation of hostilities. Deep snows, and 
the river sealed with ice, were looked upon as a good security 
from attack : so the sorely harassed people of Haverhill breathed 
easier as they saw the woods bend under the snow and the 
Merrimack hide beneath the ice. But savage warfare followed 
no fixed laws, and while the pale-faces began to think of the 
spring planting and other labors, the redskins were planning 
to set out on the expedition that produced the subject of my 
sketch. 



I40 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Indian tactics varied but little, and yet, yearly repetition 
had not made the English entirely familiar with them. The 
savage "kept up his cunning to the last, and suffered nothing in 
the way of lies and false dealings to thwart his purpose. 

In attack they were seldom seen before they did execution. 
They did not appear in the open field, and rarely displayed 
that true courage that the world prizes above rubies. Ambush 
or surprise was invariably the plan chosen, and when the lat- 
ter, it generally took place in the morning. Concealing them- 
selves behind logs and bushes, or the fences leading to the 
door-yard, they quietly awaited their victims. In case of dis- 
covery the garrisoned marksmen found great difficulty in locat- 
ing their hiding-places, and sometimes that could be done only 
by the reports of their guns. The Indian was sparing of am- 
munition, and never discharged his fire unless he had made 
•close calculations on its probable effect. 

When this condition of affairs arose, the Indian waited till 
the going down of the sun, and then made his escape, the 
whites, of course, refusing to pursue. If the Indians thought 
a house would offer a stout resistance, it was generally passed 
by, for the children of the forest never displayed any ambition 
to carry on assaults against a foe well fortified : on the con- 
trary, thev lurked around the place, making themselves ac- 
quainted with the habits of the family, and storing in their 
memory all the details necessary for a successful attack when 
opportunity should offer. 

This, then, may be accepted as a truthful account of aborig- 
inal warfare as practised two hundred years ago, and with this 
preface we now approach the bloody incident that called forth 
genuine public approval then, and a wider but not less hearty 
approval now. 

In the quaint and ancient style of Dr. Cotton Mather, we 
have the only account of the Dustan affair, and from it a score 
■of different versions have been made. This divine had the 
story from the women themselves, and he lost no time in set- 
ting forth the details of the exploit in phrases as odd as his 
mode of living was eccentric. The following is a literal copy 
from Article XXV of "Magnalia Christi Americana." 



MR. CORNING S ADDRESS. 141 

44 A Notable Exploit. Dux Fae?ni?ia Facti. 

44 On March 15, 1697, the salvages made a descent upon the 
skirts of Haverhill, murdering and captivating about thirty- 
nine persons, and burning about half a dozen houses. In this- 
broil one Hannah Dustan, having lain in about a week, at- 
tended with her nurse Mary Neff, a body of terrible Indians- 
drew near unto the house where she lay, with designs to carry 
on their bloody devastations. Her husband hastened from his 
employments abroad unto the relief of his distressed family ; 
and first bidding seven of his eight children (which were from 
two to seventeen years of age) to getaway as fast as they could 
unto some garrison in the town, he went in to inform his wife of 
the horrible distress come upon them. E'er she could get up, 
the fierce indians were got so near, that utterly despairing to do 
her any service, he ran out after his children, resolving that on 
the horse which he had with him he would ride away with that 
which he should in this extremity find his affections to pitch 
most upon, and leave the rest under the care of the divine 
Providence. He overtook his children about forty rod from 
his door ; but then such was the agony of his parental affec- 
tions, that he found it impossible for him to distinguish any one 
of them from the rest ; wherefore he took up a courageous 
resolution to live and die with them all. A party of indians 
came up with him, and now though they fired at him and he 
fired at them, yet he manfully kept at the reer of his little army 
of unarmed children, while they marched off with the pace of a 
child of five years old, until by a singular providence of God, 
he arrived safe with them all unto a place of safety about a 
mile or two from his house. But his house must in the mean- 
time have more dismal tragedies acted at it. The nurse trying 
to escape with the new-born infant, fell into the hands of the 
formidable salvages ; and those furious tawnies coming into 
the house, bid poor Dustan to rise immediately. Full of aston- 
ishment she did so, and sitting down in the chimney with 
a heart full of most fearful expectation, she saw the raging 
dragons rifle all that they could carry away, and set the house 
on fire. About nineteen or twenty indians now led these away* 



HT H MIHMtrt ! m j- i mm * 



142 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

with about half a score of other English captives ; but e'er they 
had gone many steps they dashed out the brains of the infant 
against a tree ; and several of the other captives, as they began 
to tire in the sad journey were soon sent into their long home : 
the salvages would presently bury their hatchets in their brains 
and leave their carcasses on the ground for birds and beasts to 
feed upon. 

"How Ever, Dustan (with her nurse) notwithstanding her 
present condition, travelled that night about a dozen miles, and 
then kept up with their new masters in a long travel of one 
hundred and fifty miles, more or less, within a few days ensu- 
ing, without any sensible damage in their health, from the 
hardships of their travel, their lodging, their diet, and their 
many other difficulties. These two poor women were now in 
the hands of those whose tender mercies are cruelties ; but the 
good God who hath all hearts in his own hands, heard the 
sighs of these prisoners, and gave them to find unexpected favor 
from the master who had laid claim unto them. 

" That indian family consisted of twelve persons; two stout 
men, three women, and seven children, and for the shame of 
many an English family that has the character of prayerless upon 
it, I must now publish what these poor women assure me ; 't is 
this, in obedience to the instructions which the French have 
given them, they would have prayers in the family no less than 
thrice every day ; in the morning, at noon, and in the evening: 
nor would they ordinarily let their children eat or sleep, with- 
out first saying their prayers. Indeed, these idolaters were like 
the rest of their whiter brethren, persecutors and would not 
endure that these poor women should retire to their English 
prayers if they could hinder them. Nevertheless, the poor 
women had nothing but fervent prayers to make their lives 
comfortable or tolerable ; and by being daily sent out upon 
business they had opportunities together and asunder to do like 
another Hannah, in pouring out their souls before the Lord : 
Nor did their praying friends among ourselves forbear to pour 
out supplications for them. 

"Now they could not observe it without some wonder, that 
their indian master sometimes when he saw them dejected, 



...,, ffffc ^K ^ ^ 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 1 43 

would say unto them, 'What need you trouble yourself? If 
your God will have you delivered, you shall be so.' And it 
seems our God would have it so to be. This indian family 
was now travelling with these two captive women (and an 
English youth taken from Worcester, a year and a half before) 
unto a rendezvous of salvages which they call a town, some- 
where beyond Penacook ; and they still told these poor women, 
that when they came to this town they must be stript and 
scourged, and run the gauntlet through the whole body of 
indians. They said this was the fashion when the captives 
first came to a town, and they derided some of the faint-hearted 
English, which, they said, fainted and swooned away under 
the torments of this discipline. But on April 30, while they 
were yet, it may be, an hundred and fifty miles from the Indian 
town, a little before break of day, when the whole crew was 
in a dead sleep, (Reader, see if it prove not so) one of these 
women took up a resolution to imitate the action of Jael upon 
Siseria ; and being where she had not her own life secured by 
any law unto her, she thought she was not forbidden by any 
law to take away the life of the murderers by whom her child 
had been butchered. She hardened the nurse and the youth 
to assist her in this enterprise ; and all furnishing themselves 
with hatchets for the purpose, they struck such home-blows 
upon the heads of their sleeping oppressors, that e'er they could 
any of them struggle into effectual resistance, at the feet of 
these poor prisoners, they bovv'd, they fell, they lay down: at 
their feet they bowed, they fell ; where they bowed, there they 
fell down dead. Only one squaw escaped sorely wounded 
from them in the dark ; and one boy whom they reserved 
asleep, intending to bring him away with them, suddenly 
waked and scuttled away from this desolation. But cutting off 
the scalps of the ten wretches, they came off, and received fifty 
pounds from the General Assembly of the Province, as a rec- 
ompense of their action ; besides which they received many 
presents of congratulation from their more private friends ; but 
none gave 'em a greater taste of bounty than Colonel Nichol- 
son, the Governor of Maryland, who hearing of their action, 
sent 'em a very generous token of his favor." 



144 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Divested of its extravagances, the exploit as described by 
Cotton Mather may be accepted as one of the best accounts 
concerning the extraordinary part played by Hannah Dustan 
in the last years of King William's War. Those who know 
the life of Mather, his strange ideas and stranger actions, may 
excuse his unique phraseology ; but those who for the first time 
peruse the account will experience a certain feeling of doubt 
concerning the deeds of a heroine whose biographer was given 
to such exceeding eccentricity of statement. Mather, how- 
ever, was looked upon as the historian of his time, and was 
considered the best living authority on New England annals. 
That he was one of the characters of his age is everywhere 
conceded ; — he was one whose whims and caprices excited the 
opposition of his contemporaries, and whose habits of keeping 
fasts and vigils caused men to shake their heads, and wonder 
as to his sanity. Rarely have the cloisters of Italy witnessed a 
contrition deeper than that of this Puritan priest. No neo- 
phyte, in his bare and gloomy cell, exceeded him in the sever- 
ity of his devotions. 

With a mind coveting historical food, Cotton Mather was 
prone to magnify the ordinary events of the day, giving to 
them a notoriety not always merited, but still receiving and 
treating them in his way ; and it was to this unusual enthu- 
siasm that we are indebted to-day for that justly celebrated 
book, so teeming with interest and movement, the "-Magnalia."" 
Not wanting in faults, and partly untrustworthy, we turn to its 
venerable pages, and, in the midst of its seeming chaos, dis- 
cover so many good chapters that we forget the author and his 
oddities, and come to regard his work as a master picture of 
the times. 

And so the chapter concerning Mrs. Dustan may be received 
as an illustration of the style and purpose of Cotton Mather's 
historical studies. He possessed some remarkable ideas con- 
cerning the Indians, which, under his treatment, became 
ridiculous. Witchcraft engrossed his days and nights, until 
the devil was uppermost in his thoughts. All the sin and 
cruelty of this sphere, including Indian warfare, was ascribed 
to the doings of the nether monarch ; his potency was acknowl- 



la*********" 



MR. CORNING's ADDRESS. I45 

edged and loudly proclaimed ; and Cotton Mather, as might 
be expected, was in the front of battle. He believed the devil 
to be a linguist, and credited him with fluency in Greek, Latin, 
Hebrew, and Indian. It was in the midst of such mental im- 
pressions that we find Hannah Dustan and her two companions 
in Mather's presence. They had journeyed to Boston, where 
they arrived April 2 1 , only a few weeks after the capture. It 
was at this visit that the story of the captivity and escape was 
told to Mather, as it was to many others ; for the news of the 
deed done by Mrs. Dustan had preceded her to Boston, where 
she was regarded with unwonted curiosity. Her recital of her 
sufferings moved Mather's morbid mind to its profoundest 
depths ; and the longer he pondered over so strange an advent- 
ure, the deeper became his conviction that it partook largely of 
the nature of a miracle. His very words prove that he regarded 
it in the light of a special dispensation of Providence ; and he 
undoubtedly used it in the pulpit, deducing therefrom many a 
lesson, which he sought to impress upon his hearers. 

To Mather's impressionable nature and distorted ideas of 
life may be confidently attributed the remarkable account in 
his Magnalia. If, however, this were the only source of our 
knowledge of the exploit, I should hesitate about receiving it 
in full faith of its literal truthfulness ; but fortunately for those 
who deprecate a skepticism in things historical, an eminent 
man of the same time made an entry in his diary as to the 
whole affair, and gives nearly the same version. This man 
was the Rev. John Pike, one of the celebrated men of his day. 
Only a few years later, Hutchinson, the historian of Massa- 
chusetts Bay, tells the same story ; and about this time, Niles, 
who was authority on Indian warfare, introduces the narrative 
in his works. Besides, the story was notorious, and soon 
became as firmly established as any fact in contemporaneous 
history. It is true that the story has not always been fully 
accepted by scholars and general readers, but the reason has 
not been difficult to ascertain. Like all popular stories, it was 
overdone by its believers. They said too much, brooked no 
difference of opinion, and tolerated no cross-questioning. 
Nothing is more certain to create a school of skeptics than 
6 



146 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

irrational enthusiasm. As the years went on, and Indian 
troubles became rare, those who fully believed the story became 
constantly fewer, and the new generations that took their 
places did not inherit all their legends and beliefs. 

The Indian began to be ridiculous in his utter squalor, and 
the once noble red man served as the theme for wits to play 
upon — an opportunity that was at once accepted : so, long 
before our day, the mention of the aborigines, especially those 
of New England, was calculated to generate a gentle type of 
sarcasm in the public mind, while to the youth of the land an 
intimate acquaintance with the fat and not over cleanly basket- 
makers at the sea-shore did not bring to his mind visions of 
the olden time, when the ancestors of these people challenged 
his ancestors to mortal combat. I confess that in my youth 
these annual visitations of Indians created no enthusiasm in my 
mind, nor did they rouse any feelings other than those of a 
monetary character stimulated by the sight of ingenious baskets 
and highly colored bows and arrows. 

As to the affair of Hannah Dustan and its wonderful details, 
my opinion had never been tested until within a few months. 
In approaching the subject my mind was clearly unprejudiced, 
and I resolved to reach the original sources of the story. In 
seeking these fountains I found numerous obstacles ; and yet 
in searching ancient records, one must be prepared for annoy- 
ances and difficulties without number. As the result of my 
investigations, I have no hesitation in stating my belief in the 
story of Airs. Dustan. There are portions, as detailed by 
Mather, that call for criticism, but, taken together, only the 
most desperate iconoclast can fling stones at it. 

How far the Indians took these women will always remain a 
matter of doubt. The common tradition is, that they went to 
a place on the Merrimack which is now popularly known as 
Dustan's Island, and that there, in the early morning of March 
30th, the deed was done, and the escape made in canoes. Of 
this part of the narrative I am somewhat skeptical. 

When we remember that the attack on Haverhill was made 
in the middle of March, we are forced to consider the probable 
condition of the country at that time. 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 147 

Surely a New England March is the very demon of weather. 
At no period of the year are the skies more uncertain, or the 
signs less auspicious ; none hut the hardiest adventurer dare set 
out on a distant journey at such a time. It was possibly on 
this account that the red-skins chose so inclement a season for 
their assault. They reasoned, that at such a time, when snow 
and ice were at their worst, the settlers would be less watchful, 
and the garrisons might not have their quota of defenders, 
owing to the fact that before this year the Indian attacks had 
usually been made during the warmer months. It is prepos- 
terous to think of the Indians silently paddling in canoes down 
the boisterous Merrimack, and it is equally so to picture the 
escape by means of river navigation. The canoe theory, con- 
sidering everything, is wholly untenable. The band of Indians 
that made this part of New England history, hailed either from 
the mission stations of Canada or from the Eastern Abenakis. 
The tactics of these tribes were very similar, and their methods 
of warfare differed but slightly. 

There is, however, one feature in the narrative that causes 
me considerable perplexity, and I am unable to reconcile it 
with what I have learned concerning Indian customs. Accord- 
ing to history, Hannah Dustan found herself in an Indian fam- 
ily, consisting of two men, three women, and seven children, 
and in this company she remained until the killing. 

Now, it is the custom of Indians when on the war-path to 
leave their women at home, but while on the hunt the whole 
family went along. The Abenakis dkf not take their squaws 
with them when on the war-path, nor did the Iroquois ; there- 
fore I am unable to account for the exception in the case before 
us. If the Indians were on the hunt* it would seem hardly 
probable that they would penetrate the wilderness as far as 
Haverhill in search of game ; so I am at a loss to explain why 
so numerous a following attended the savages on this excur- 
sion. It is not important, however, to spend time over this 
matter, for it is certain that the Indians, whether Abenakis or 
not, or whether on the war-path or the hunt, meant to carry 
the women to Canada and sell them to the French. 

The route intended to be taken was directly through the wit- 



I48 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

derness to some point on or near the Merrimack river, then 
northward toward the lakes of Maine, and thence to the settle- 
ments on the St. Lawrence. An unconquerable fear of the 
Mohawks would keep these savages away from the region 
about Lakes George and Champlain, so their journey was in all 
probability as I have indicated. 

How far they had gone at the date of the escape is mere con- 
jecture, for the Indians when on the hunt — and in this advent- 
ure the hunt enters to some degree — were not rapid travellers. 
When they came to a desirable spot, the women cut saplings 
of birch and spruce, while the men cleared a round place, with 
their snow-shoes for shovels, bending over it the young trees 
and boughs, and covering the sides with rolls of bark. Here 
the nomadic hunter rested for days at a time, — then, abandon- 
ing the rudely made wigwam, moved on until hunger again 
overtook him, when another wigwam was built and the hunt 
resumed. It is probable that the warriors having Mrs. Dustan 
in charge made several halts up to the time when she parted 
company with them. In considering the dates mentioned by 
Mather, the party did probably arrive near Penacook where 
they made their last resting-place. We must bear in mind 
that the term Penacook in those days meant a vast region, 
whose limits cannot at this day be stated with any accuracy. 

At what is now Concord, the river has, since the memory of 
man runneth not to the contrary, described many a geometrical 
figure, and the Indian, observing this, called it Penacook, 
which, being translated, means " crooked place." No other 
race ever equalled the Indian in the fertility of rude imagina- 
tion. He saw all sorts of animals and birds in the rocks, the 
woods, and the skies, and he gave appropriate names to the 
localities where the phenomena had been observed. We have, 
accordingly, Penacook, Minnehaha, Athabasca, Sunapee, and 
hundreds of others, whose significations served the savages in 
place of maps. 

At the period of our investigation, the Penacooks, as the local 
tribe was called, had been completely broken up and sepa- 
rated. It was the terror inspired by the Mohawks that accom- 
plished it. Passaconaway, their most illustrious sachem, was 



MR. CORNING's ADDRESS. 149 

dead, and his sons possessed but little of their father's virtues 
and influence ; therefore, if the Dustan party had camped any- 
where in the vicinity of what is now Concord, they probably 
saw no evidence of rival Indians. At the Haverhill attack 
many other captives were made, but they were soon assigned 
to different detachments, and the wearisome journey com- 
menced without any regard to time or order. In consequence 
of this the parties were separated, and never afterwards came 
together. In one of the parties was Hannah Bradly, and to 
her we are indebted for corroboration of what took place at 
the scalping of the Indians. Her deposition, sworn to at 
Haverhill, June 28, 1739, is as follows: 

"The deposition of widow Hannah Bradly of Haverhill, of 
full age who testifieth & saith that about forty years past the 
said Hannah together with the widow Mary Neff were taken 
prisoners by the indians & carried together into captivity & 
above penny cook, the Deponent who was by the indians forced 
to travel further than the rest of the Captives, and the next 
night but one there came to us one squaw who said that Han- 
nah Dustan and the aforesaid Mary Neff assisted in killing the 
Indians of her wigwam except herself and a boy, herself escap- 
ing very narrowly, Shewing to myself & others seven wounds 
as she said with a hatched on her head which wounds were 
given her when the rest were killed, and further saith not" 

The reason for this deposition is soon explained. Mrs. 
Bradly had secured aid from the General Court of Massachu- 
setts ; so Joseph Neff, Mary's son, was induced to make an 
application to the same body in hopes of securing a bounty for 
himself. To prove his claim he sought the assistance of Han- 
nah Bradly, who willingly contributed the above testimony. 
The General Court was satisfied with Joseph's proof, and soon 
after granted him two hundred acres of Sand. 

I think it probable that the Indians having Mrs. Dustan and 
her two companions in charge reached their final camping- 
place some time near the first of April, for, according to the 
archives and Cotton Mather, the women arrived in Boston 
April 21, carrying with them the gun, tomahawks, and the ten 
scalps as evidence of their sanguinary exploit. The distance 



r : tn,i\^r.'^r^jaimmimwiiiimMt«imttm mimrt '■> n .> » 



I50 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

from Haverhill to Penacook was not great, and could be trav- 
ersed without difficulty in a week or ten days, even in the 
severest weather. 

That part of the story relative to the killing and scalping will 
never be fully believed by a majority of people ; and yet, when 
the deed and the circumstances that led up to it are seriously 
considered, skepticism is considerably lessened. The possi- 
bility of the bloody act being done by helpless and bleeding 
women has long been the subject of doubt and discussion, and 
arguments have been advanced tending to prove its impos- 
sibility. 

How could civilized women and mothers forget the nicer 
impulses of their sex, and become more savage than the sav- 
ages themselves? Whence came that fierce desperation that 
crushed pity in their hearts, and filled their veins with the 
black current of revenge ? How account for that steady nerve 
and unflinching courage that directed the fatal blows and did 
the sickening mutilation? 

In the horrors of the fire-side massacre at home, in the agony 
of beholding innocent infants dashed against rocks or impaled 
on sharp stakes, in the terror of the wretched future, in the 
vengeance of outraged womanhood, and in the holy belief that 
red-skins were devils incarnate, comes the reason. Look upon 
them in the pangs of their captivity, and fancy the terrible sen- 
sations suffered by those captives, — and the deed, marvellous 
and unheard of, loses its doubtful aspects and stands out in 
bold consistency. In the midst of a den of wild beasts, Han- 
nah Dustan, Mary Neff, and the boy Leonardson found them- 
selves, and, with the paralyzed feelings of human beings con- 
demned to torture, they unhesitatingly destroyed every vestige 
of life in order that their own lives might be spared. 

The scalping is not to be marvelled at, for they were only 
skinning creatures of most ferocious nature, whose fierce 
instincts and blood-thirsty practices allied them to the beasts 
of the jungle. The two stout warriors, two squaws, and six 
children were hacked to death, beneath the cold, unsympathiz- 
ing stars, by the frontier women, who had brought themselves 
to believe that they were only doing the will of the Lord in 



O iMlfT fr'^^''"™''-^^'^ 



MR. CORNING'S ADDRESS. 151 

ridding the earth of beasts so cruel. One squaw, as we have 
seen by the affidavit of Mrs. Bradley, and one boy escaped into 
the thicket and were seen no more. Without a moment's 
delay the women began their weird mid-winter journey home 
through the trackless forests, which they reached after an 
absence of less than a month. 

Under the date of June 16, 1697, in the ancient records of 
the Massachusetts General Court, I find the following: " Voted 
in concurrence with the representatives that there be allowed 
and ordered out of the Publick treasury unto Thomas Dustan 
of Haverhill, on behalf of Hannah his wife the sum of twenty 
five pounds. To Mary NefT the sum of twelve pounds ten 
shillings and to Samuel Leonardson the sum of twelve pounds 
ten shillings." 

In view of so much corroborative testimony and circumstan- 
tial evidence, the unprejudiced mind ought to be willing to 
accept as true the part played by Hannah Dustan in King 
William's W r ar. The subsequent history of this woman is 
somewhat vague and uncertain, btit from her sprung an active 
posterity, who have done well their part in the making of New 
England, and particularly of New Hampshire. Not as the 
prototype of the fabled Amazon should we tliink of this woman, 
but rather as a stern, unyielding matron of that epoch whose 
prime conditions were virtue, character, and self-denial. 

On motion of Mr. Woodbridge Odlin, the thanks of the 
Society were presented to the speaker. 

The Society then adjourned to meet again at the same place, 
the 18th of March, instant, at 7 :3c* p. m. 

Amos Hadley, 

Recording Secretary. 



am, «fc7rrt^»WrtwiMMtfffl 



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152 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

FIFTH ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Tuesday, March 18, 1890. 

The fifth adjourned sixty-seventh annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society was held at the Grand Army 
hall this day, at 7 : 30 p. m., the president in the chair. 

Harry G. Sargent, Esq., delivered an address on " The 
Bradley Massacre." 

mr. sargent's address. 

On the north side of the highway leading from Concord to 
Hopkinton, about a mile and a half from the state-house, there 
stands a monument commonly known as the "Bradley" monu- 
ment It is a plain granite shaft, some twelve feet in height, 
and stands on a knoll which commands a view of the country 
that extends toward the south. Originally erected in 1S37, for 
more than half a century it has stood by the roadside, exposed 
to all the rigors of our northern climate ; but it still appears as 
firm and durable as the granite bed from which it was quar- 
ried. On the side facing the highway, somewhat dimmed and 
obscured by the action of the elements, there appears the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

This monument is 

in memory of 

Samuel Bradley, 

Jonathan Bradley, 

Obadiah Peters, 

John Bean and 

John Lufkin, 

Who were massacred, Aug. 11, 1746, 

near this spot 1 

by the Indians. 

Erected 1837, by Richard Bradley, son 

of the Hon. John Bradley, and 

grandson of Samuel Bradley. 

To the traveller as he passes along the highway, and, paus- 
ing, reads the brief record of the event which the monument is 

1 This line of the inscription on the monument is omitted in Bouton's History of 
Concord. 



tfSMfc'it«fflWWi'iiiiW 



n 



mr. sargent's address. 153 

designed to perpetuate, these questions naturally occur. Who 
were these men? Whence came they? Whither were they 
bound? What were the circumstances attending their death? 
To answer these questions we must go backward in point of 
time a period of more than one hundred and fifty years, and on 
another continent seek for the causes which involved all the 
great European powers in a bloody contest, "and which, trans- 
ferred across the Atlantic, brought upon the English colonies 
in America the horrors of Indian warfare. 

44 It is the nature of great events to obscure the great events 
that came before them. The 'Seven Years' War' in Europe is 
seen but dimly through revolutionary convulsions and Na- 
poleonic tempests, and the same contest in America is half lost 
to sight behind the storm cloud of the War of Independence." 
For the same reason, and to a greater extent, the war known 
in Europe as the " War of the Austrian Succession " and in 
America as " King George's War," which involved all the 
great continental powers of Europe and the French and Eng- 
lish colonies in America, is overshadowed and eclipsed by the 
great wars which succeeded it. Yet, if it be measured by the 
results which flowed from it and by the alliances which grew out 
of it, it justly deserves to be ranked as one of the great contests 
of the world. It was the preliminary test of strength between 
England and France which culminated in the " Seven Years' 
War." At the close of that war England had gained control 
of the seas and the mastery of North America and India. " It 
crippled the commerce of her rival, ruined France in two con- 
tinents, and blighted her as a colonial power. It made Eng- 
land the first of commercial nations, and prepared that vast 
colonial system that has planted New Englands in every quar- 
ter of the globe." 

For a period of twenty-six years after the treaty of Utrecht, 
which was signed in 1713, there was a general suspension of 
hostilities upon the part of the European powers, but in 1739 
this truce was broken by a declaration of war made by Eng- 
land against Spain on account of alleged outrages committed 
on English commerce. For two years this war was waged by 
the contending parties with no decided results, and in 1741 it 



154 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

became merged in the great continental struggle known as the 
" War of the Austrian Succession." 

This war originated in the attempt of the Emperor of Ger- 
many, Charles VI, to secure the succession to his throne to his 
eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, who had been married to 
Francis of Lorraine. Although all of the great European 
powers had pledged themselves to maintain the agreement 
which insured to her the crown, yet hardly was Charles VI 
buried when numerous claimants arose. The Elector of Bava- 
ria, Charles Albert, asserted his right to the Austrian states, 
and this claim was supported by Frederick II of Prussia. 
France also took up arms to support him in his efforts to 
obtain the imperial dignity. Numerous battles were fought, 
and Charles Albert was finally elected Emperor of Germany. 

In her distress Maria Theresa appealed to her countrymen 
and to England for relief. Both were prompt in furnishing the 
relief prayed for. The whole country rose in arms. England 
granted her a subsidy, and sent troops to her succor. The war 
was waged with varying results until May, 1743, when Maria 
Theresa was successful, and was crowned in Prague. 

England and France, though taking a leading part in the 
war, had hitherto been engaged only as auxiliaries, and, though 
they had met on many fields during the war, they were still 
nominally at peace. This unnatural state of affairs now termi- 
nated, and in March, 1744, France declared war against Eng- 
land, and the contest that had already devastated the fair fields 
of Europe was transferred to the American continent, and the 
French and English colonies in America were once more 
arrayed against each other in open hostility at the command, 
and to suit the selfish ends, of their European sovereigns. To 
the horrors of ordinary battles, however, were to be added the 
atrocities of Indian warfare. 

The opening of this war greatly increased the alarm and 
anxiety which had hitherto pervaded the colonies ; and particu- 
larly the frontier towns which were most exposed. As one 
means of removing or allaying those fears, an expedition against 
Louisburg, on Cape Breton Island, which was the stronghold 
of the French, was projected and triumphantly executed by 



mr. sargent's address. 155 

the daring enterprise of the New England colonies. The for- 
tress of Louisburg had been twenty-five years building, at an 
enormous expense to the French nation, and its great strength 
had given it the name of "The Dunkirk of America. " It was 
considered as impregnable; yet it was destined to fall before 
the adventurous but determined efforts of raw New England 
militia. 

This expedition originated in New Hampshire. Major Will- 
iam Vaughan, a son of Lieutenant-Governor Vaughan. has the 
honor of its origin. Major Vaughan had been engaged in the 
fishing business upon the "Banks," and had considerable 
knowledge of the eastern parts, which he had obtained from 
fishermen in his employ, and particularly of the harbor and 
town of Louisburg. He first conceived the idea of the capture 
of Louisburg, and proposed the taking of it in the winter when 
the walls, as he supposed, could easily have been scaled by 
means of the immense drifts of snow piled against them in that 
inclement season. Vaughan was tenacious of his opinions, and 
headstrong in carrying them out. Having made up his mind 
that Louisburg could be taken, he set himself about the matter 
in earnest. His first effort was with Governor Wentworth, 
who, whatever he might have thought of the feasibility of the 
project, knew that Massachusetts must take the initiative in 
the measure, and he advised him to lay his plan before Gov- 
ernor Shirley. Shirley was a man of energy and talent, and 
an ambitious man ; he received the communication of Vaughan 
with favor, and determined to bring the matter before the legis- 
lature. In the legislature, the project was rejected ; but mainly 
through the exertion of Vaughan, who went from store to store 
talking up the expedition and obtaining signatures to the legis- 
lature in favor of it, the measure was again taken up, and car- 
ried by one vote only. 

The thing being determined upon in Massachusetts, Governor 
Wentworth entered into the affair with spirit and pressed it 
with all his influence. This was necessary, as the affair 
seemed at first to most men rather quixotic, yet after a time 
men enlisted for the expedition with the greatest alacrity, and 
in the end it acquired all the enthusiasm of a crusade. Governor 



I56 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Wentworth atone time thought seriously of taking command 
of the forces, but his lameness and a timely hint from his friend 
Shirley determined him very wisely to withdraw his claims in 
favor of Col. Pepperell. He continued his interest and influ- 
ence to the utmost, however, as will be seen from the fact that 
New Hampshire furnished five hundred men, or one eighth of 
the troops engaged in the expedition. After incredible hard- 
ships and the most determined valor on the part of all the 
troops, and of those from New Hampshire in particular, among 
whom Major Vaughan was first and foremost, Louisburg fell 
into the hands of the provincial forces, and Governor Went- 
worth received for his services, as trophies taken from the 
fallen fortress, two handsome brass pieces ; while Vaughan, 
pressing his claim for his important services before the British 
court, died of a contagious disease unrewarded ! 

In this expedition, Captain Ebenezer Eastman, of Rumford, 
now Concord, was commander of a company raised in this 
vicinity. In the company which he commanded were Nathan- 
iel Abbott, Isaac Abbott, Obadiah Peters, one Chandler, and 
others whose names are not known. Joseph Abbott, who died 
about 1S50, said he always understood that his uncle, Isaac 
Abbott, was killed at Cape Breton, and that one Mr. Chandler. 
from Rumford, also died there. 1 

The misfortune of the fall of Louisburg excited the French to 
greater exertions, and as their peculiar forte was a border war- 
fare, carried on mainly through the efforts of their Indian 
allies, hordes of Indians were soon hovering around the fron- 
tiers of New England. 

The " Canada Expedition," so called, was then commenced. 
This had for its object the conquest of Canada, and the com- 
plete subversion of the French power upon the continent. 
The plan was, that a squadron of ships of war and a body of 
land forces should be sent from England against Canada ; that 
the troops raised in New England should join the British fleet 
and army at Louisburg and proceed up the river St. Lawrence ; 
that those of New York and the other provinces at the south- 
ward should be collected at Albany, and march against Crown 
1 Potter's History of Manchester. 



mr. sargent's address. 157 

Point and Montreal. The management of this expedition was 
committed to Sir John St. Clair, in conjunction with Sir Peter 
Warren and Governor Shirley. St. Clair did not come to 
America. Warren and Shirley gave the orders while Warren 
was here, and afterward Commodore Knowles, who succeeded 
him, was joined with Shirley ; but as Knowles was part of the 
time at Louisburg, most of the command devolved on Shirley 
alone. 1 

Beside the danger of losing Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, 
there were other reasons for undertaking this expedition. The 
Indians, instigated by the governor of Canada, were ravaging 
the frontiers, destroying the fields and cattle, burning houses 
and mills, and carrying away the inhabitants. Though scouts 
and garrisons were maintained by the governments, yet to act 
altogether on the defensive was thought to be not onlv an 
ineffectual, but a disgraceful, mode of carrying on the war, 
especially after the success which had attended the arms of the 
colonists in their attempt against Louisburg. The continuance 
of such a mode of defence, it was thought, would neither 
dispirit the enemy nor secure the frontier from their depreda- 
tions. 

In this expedition Governor Wentworth entered with his 
accustomed alacrity. The legislature was convened, and the 
governor appealed to their pride, patriotism, and interest; and 
as a result they voted to raise a thousand men for the expedi- 
tion. This was in June, and by the beginning of July eight 
hundred men were enlisted and ready for embarkation under 
Col. Theodore Atkinson, who had been appointed to the com- 
mand. Meanwhile news of the arrival of a powerful French 
fleet and army upon the eastern coast, to retake Louisburg and 
break up the settlements upon the eastern coast of New Eng- 
land, spread consternation among the people, and completely 
diverted the attention of the royal governor for a time, as they 
had enough to do to prepare their defences at home against an 
attack. But the French tleet was dispersed by a storm near 
Cape Sable, many vessels went to the bottom and the others 
returned to France, thus relieving the colonies from their fears. 
1 Bouton's History of Concord. 



1 



I58 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

It was too late to proceed upon the intended expedition, and 
the New Hampshire regiment went into winter quarters upon 
the shores of Lake Winnipesaukee. 

While these troops were being raised and the preparations 
were being made for the invasion of Canada, the Indians were 
not daunted or alarmed. On the contrary, on the 27th of June, 
1746, and while these troops were being marshalled at Ports- 
mouth, they made a successful attack upon a party of five men 
at Rochester, who were at work in a field. These men dis- 
charged their guns at one Indian, who had fired upon them by 
connivance with his comrades, to draw their fire, and then 
were forced by overpowering numbers to take refuge in a 
deserted house. Here they succeeded in keeping their assail- 
ants in check for awhile, but soon the Indians tore off the roof 
of the building and killed Joseph Hurd, Joseph Richards, John 
Wentworth, and Gresham Downs; the fifth, John Richards, 
they succeeded in taking prisoner. The same day they attacked 
another party at work in a field at no great distance, but all 
escaped except a boy, Jonathan Door, whom they captured. 
These attacks, made within twenty miles of Portsmouth, pro- 
duced the greatest consternation, and several scouts were sent 
to protect the frontiers. On July 14, Captain Daniel Ladd, of 
Exeter, was dispatched with a company on foot to protect the 
frontiers at Penacook and Canterbury. He marched with 
about thirty men. He ranged the woods by way of Massabe- 
sic to Penacook, and back by way of Suncook and Nottingham. 
But nothing was seen of the Indians at this time, although they 
were doubtless in the neighborhood in considerable numbers. 
Well acquainted with the swamps and lurking-places, they 
kept out of sight. Captain Ladd returned to Exeter, and on 
the 30th day of July he dismissed his men until the 5th day of 
August. 

While the other settlements in New Hampshire had been 
suffering from the depredations and massacres of the Indians, 
the little district of Rumford, now the city of Concord, from 
the time it was granted in 1725 up to 1742, was singularly 
exempt from all such misfortunes. Originally granted in 1725 
by the Massachusetts legislature as the Plantation of Penacook, 



mr. sargent's address. 159 

it had remained under that name until 1734, when it was 
incorporated as a town under the name of Rumford. The 
origin of this name it is impossible to determine, but it is sup- 
posed to have been taken from that of a parish in England, 
from which some of the proprietors originated. 

The first settlers of Penacook were carefully selected men. 
They were principally from Haverhill, Andover, and Newbury, 
Massachusetts. They were brave, law-abiding, God-fearing, 
and were chosen from among their fellows by a committee of 
the court, to establish a model community. They came to stay. 
They located Main street substantially as it is now, divided the 
land into house-lots and farms, cleared away the forests, and 
built log houses and a meetiug-house. The meeting-house 
was the first building erected, being built in 1727, months 
before the first family moved into the settlement. It was 
intended, said Joseph B. Walker, in his article in the Gran- 
ite Monthly of March, 1SS1, "not only as a bulwark against 
error and ungodliness, but against the fierce assaults of the 
savages as well. 

" Tradition has preserved the location of this, the first meet- 
ing-house in Concord, which stood beneath the arches of the 
primeval forest, upon the north side of the brook now concealed 
beneath the roadway near the corner of Main and Chapel 
streets, on the spot where the store of William P. Ford & Co. 
now stands. Of necessity, and appropriately, as well, it was 
built of logs. It was one story in height, forty feet long by 
twenty-five feet broad, and its rough walls were pierced with 
small, square windows, sufficiently high from the ground to 
protect its occupants from the missiles of Indian foes." 1 

Entirely unmolested by Indians, great progress had been 
made by the inhabitants in their settlement in clearing and cul- 
tivating their lands, and improving the roads and the structure 
of their houses. But in 1739 apprehensions of danger were 
entertained, and the town by vote ordered that a garrison 
should be built around the house of Rev. Mr. Walker, and 
that five pounds should be granted Barachias Farnum, to 

1 Quoted from article of Joseph B. Walker, published in Granite Monthly, March, 



BrarimwniH i niinw ur ■ iii iM i i i«tMMBMW»»<Mitit*MMiM iH'rt i im' i l i i ^rn i ilWOTII^ 



l6o NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

enable him to build a flanker in order to defend his mills on 
Turkey river. 

About the year 1742, according to tradition, the wife of Mr. 
Jonathan Eastman, who resided on the Hopkinton road oppo- 
site the house of Mr. Aaron Shute (very near the place where 
Dr. Coit, of St. Paul's school, now resides), was taken by a 
party of Indians and carried to Canada. She was, however, 
soon redeemed by her husband and restored to her family. 

The reduction of the fortress at Louisburg had only changed 
the scene of war. The Indians poured forth from Canada, and 
with horrible barbarity carried on the work of destruction. 
The inhabitants of Rum ford felt the general shock, and sought 
for means of defence and safety. At each parish meeting, from 
1744 to 1747, they chose some person to represent to the gov- 
ernment, either of New Hampshire or Massachusetts, or both, N 
the deplorable circumstances they were in on account of their 
being exposed to immediate danger both from the French and 
Indian enemy. The language which they instructed their 
agents to use was, u We request of them such aid, both with 
respect to men and military stores, as to their great wisdom 
may seem meet, and which may be sufficient, with the Divine 
blessing, vigorously to repel all attempts of our said enemies." 
In a deposition given by Isaac Chandler and Jacob Pillsbury, 
of Rumford, in the Bow controversy, in 1757, they reveal the 
situation of affairs in the settlement at the period we are 
considering. They state " that there was no way for the peo- 
ple, in their power, to defend themselves against their Indian 
enemies, but by assembling together by common agreement, 
as many families as conveniently could, and first erecting a fort 
or garrison sufficient to contain them, and then building within 
the same a house for each Family to screen themselves from the 
inclemency of the weather. And all this they did at their own 
expense. Moreover, by being obliged to keep watch and ward, 
and to work together in large companies for the greater safety 
during the summer ; and their being frequently called from 
their business — either by some assault, or the discovery of the 
Indians — and other avocations occasioned by the war, the 
deponents really believe that the said inhabitants lost near one 



^rt^^ 



mr. sargent's address. 161 

half of their time during the most busy and valuable part of the 
year." 1 

In answer to the petitions of the settlers, early in 1745 two 
small companies of scouts were raised by authority of Governor 
Wentworth under the direction of Colonel Benjamin Rolfe, 
of which Captain John Chandler, of Rumford, had command 
of one, consisting of ten men, and Captain Jeremiah Clough, 
of Canterbury, had command of the other, consisting of five 
men. The Massachusetts government also sent a small detach- 
ment of men from Andover and another from Billerica, who 
were stationed here in 1745. Under authority of Governor 
Wentworth, garrisons were established at different points in the 
town, and men with their families assigned to them, as was 
most convenient. 

These garrisons, or forts, were built of hewed logs, which 
lay flat upon each other. The ends, being fitted for the purpose T 
were inserted in grooves set in large posts, erectecl at each cor- 
ner. They enclosed an area of several square rods, were 
raised to the height of a common dwelling-house, and at two 
or more of the corners were placed boxes where sentinels kept 
watch. In some cases, several small buildings, erected for the 
temporary accommodation of families, were within the enclosure. 
Houses not connected with garrisons were all deserted by their 
owners, and the furniture removed. In the day-time men went 
forth to their labors in companies, always carrying their guns 
with them, and one or more of their number placed on guard. 
If the Indians were discovered approaching, alarm guns were 
fired, and the report answered from fort to fort. On the Sab- 
bath the men went armed to the house of worship, stacked 
their guns around a post in the middle, and sat down with 
bullet-pouch and powder-horn slung across their shoulders, 
while their pastor, the Rev. Timothy Walker, who is said to 
have had the best gun in the parish, prayed and preached with 
his gun standing in the pulpit. 

The original authority under which the garrisons were estab- 
lished in 1746 was as follows. (It is somewhat lengthy, but on 
account of the many descendants of the original settlers now 

1 Bouton's History of Concord. 
7 



mmitmMi 



l62 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

living in Concord, I have concluded that it would be interest- 
ing to give it in full, including the names.) 

" Province of New Hampshire. 

"We, the subscribers, being appointed a committee of mili- 
tia for settling the garrisons in the frontier towns and plan- 
tations in the sixth regiment of militia in this province, by 
his excellency, Benning Wentworth, Esq., governor, having 
viewed the situation and inquired into the circumstances of the 
district of Rumford, do hereby state and appoint the following 
garrisons, viz. : 

"The garrison round the house of the Reverend Timothy 
Walker to be one of the garrisons in said Rumford, and that 
the following inhabitants, with their families, viz. : Captain 
John Chandler, Abraham Bradley, Samuel Bradley, John 
Webster, Nathaniel Rolfe, Joseph Pudnev, Isaac Walker, Jr., 
and Obadiah Foster, be, and hereby are, ordered and stated at 
that garrison." 

This garrison was located where the house of Joseph B. 
Walker now stands, on North Main street. 

"Also the garrison round the house of Captain Ebenezer East- 
man to be one garrison, and that the following inhabitants with 
their families, viz. : Ebenezer Virgin, Ebenezer Eastman, Jr., 
Philip Eastman, Jeremiah Eastman, Timothy Bradley, Jeremiah 
Dresser, Philip Kimball, Nathan Stevens, Judah Trumble, Jo- 
seph Eastman, Jr., Nathaniel Smith, Daniel Annis, and William 
Curry, be, and hereby are, ordered and stated at said garrison." 

This garrison was located in East Concord, very near the 
spot where the railroad depot now stands. The shell of the old 
building, which constituted the garrison, is still in existence, it 
having been moved from its original location, and now forms 
a part of the Mountain House, kept by Hugh Tallant. 

"Also that the garrison round the house of Mr. Henry Love- 
joy be one garrison, and that the following inhabitants, with 
their families, viz. : Henry Lovejoy, James Abbot, James Ab- 
bot, Jr., Reuben Abbot, Amos Abbott, Ephraim Farnum, Zeb- 
ediah Farnum, Joseph Farnum, Abiel Chandler, and James 
Peters, be, and hereby are, stated at said garrison." 

This garrison was located in what is now the village of West 



.~.^±*a*^u» J ™^^^m* a ,xm* 



MR. sargent's address. 163 

Concord, nearly opposite the brick school-house and on the 
spot where the house occupied by Jeremiah Quinn now stands. 
The house is now owned by the Concord Water- Works. 

1 'Also that the garrison round the house of Mr. Jonathan 
Eastman be one garrison, and that the following inhabitants 
with their families, viz. : Jonathan Eastman, Amos Eastman, 
Jeremiah Bradley, Seaborn Peters, Abner Hoit, Jacob Hoit, 
Timothy Burbanks, and Isaac Citizen, be, and hereby are, 
ordered and stated at said garrison." 

This garrison was located on the Hopkinton road, on the 
south side thereof, and was very near the spot where the house 
of Dr. Coit now stands. This was the garrison to which the 
Bradleys and others were going at the time they were massa- 
cred. 

"Also that the garrison round the house of Lieut. Jeremiah 
Stickney be one garrison, and that the following inhabitants 
and their families, viz. : Jeremiah Stickney, Nathaniel Abbot, 
Ephraim Carter, Ezra Carter, Joseph Eastman, Samuel East- 
man, Joseph Eastman, 3d, William Stickney, Thomas Stick- 
ney, Nathaniel Abbott, Jr., Joseph Carter, Edward Abbot, 
Aaron Stevens, George Hull, Edward West, Lampson Colby, 
James Osgood, Timothy Clemens, Jacob Pillsbury, and Stephen 
Hoit, be, and hereby are, ordered and stated at that garrison." 

This garrison was located where the house occupied by Dr. 
Hiland now stands. 

"Also that the garrison round Joseph Hall's house be one 
garrison, and that the following inhabitants, with their families, 
viz. : Col. Benjamin Rolfe, Joseph Hall, Ebenezer Hall, David 
Foster, Isaac Waldron, Patrick Garvin, Joseph Pudney, Will- 
iam Pudney, Henry Pudney, John Merrill, Thomas Merrill, 
John Merrill, Jr., Moses Merrill, Lot Colby, and Jacob Potter 
be, and hereby are, ordered and stated at this garrison." 

This garrison was located south of the highway bridge which 
crosses over the track of the Concord Railroad near the gas- 
house, on or very near the spot where the new house of Ran- 
som Parker now stands. 

"Also that the garrison round Timothy Walker, Jr.'s house 
be one garrison, and that Timothy Walker, Jr., David Evans, 



— "■- >-.^ 



164 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Samuel Pudney, John Pudney, Jr. T Matthew Stanley, Isaac 
Walker, Abraham Colby, Jacob Shute, Daniel Chase, Daniel 
Chase, Jr., Abraham Kimball, Richard Hazelton, George 
Abbott, Nathaniel Rix, Benjamin Abbott, Stephen Farrington, 
Nathaniel West, William Walker, Aaron Kimball, Samuel 
Gray, James Rogers, and Samuel Rogers, be, and hereby are, 
stated at that garrison." 

This garrison was located on Main street, on the west side, 
just south of the house now occupied by Charles H. Thorndike. 

"And, inasmuch as the inhabitants who reside in the garri- 
son round the house of Mr. George Abbott, the garrison round 
the house of Mr. Edward Abbott, and the garrison round the 
house of Mr. James Osgood, have as yet made no provision for 
house room and conveniences in the respective garrisons where 
they are placed, for themselves and families, and the season of 
the year is so much demanding their labor for their necessaiy 
support that renders it difficult to move immediately — There- 
fore — that they, for the present, and until January next, or 
until further order, have leave, and foe continued in the several 
garrisons in which they now are, and so long as there stated to 
attend the necessary duty of watching, warding, etc., equally, 
as if the same had been determined standing garrisons. 

Joseph Blaxchard ~\ 
Benjamin Rolfe vCom., & c# 
Zacheus LovewbllJ 
"Rumford, May 15—1746." 

The garrison around Edward Abbott's house was located at 
the corner of Main and Montgomery streets where the house of 
Eliphalet S. Nutter now stands. 

The present barn of Mr. Nutter is the original garrison, estab- 
lished in 1746, and built some years prior to that time. It for- 
merly stood where Mr. Nutter's house now stands, but was 
moved to the rear when the house was built. The massive 
white oak timbers inside of the building are apparently as sound 
as when they were hewn. The original door of the garrison is 
now in Mr. Nutter's possession. The first white child ever 
born in Concord was born in this building. 

The garrison around the house of George Abbott was located 



mr. sargent's address. 165 

near the corner of Main and Fayette streets, where the house 
of Mrs. Lund, occupied by Charles G. Remick, now stands. 
The garrison round the house of James Osgood was located on 
the site of the building now occupied by the Daily Monitor 
and the Independent Statesman, at the corner of Main and 
Depot streets. 

In connection with these garrisons, I desire earnestly to urge 
upon the attention of the members of this society and of all 
others who are interested in the early history of our city, the 
propriety of preserving, by durable monuments, the location of 
these old garrisons and the first meeting-house. In the prepa- 
ration of this address, I have found considerable difficulty in 
accurately identifying at the present day their location as they 
existed in 1746. The changes in the ownership of property 
since Bouton's History was written make the references to loca- 
tions there given quite uncertain, and I have been obliged to 
rely upon the memory of the old inhabitants in order to find 
the places there referred to. The garrison around the house 
now occupied by Joseph B. Walker is a notable exception, 
however, as Mr. Walker has caused to be set in the ground on 
the north side of the front entrance to his house a small stone, 
on which is inscribed the fact that this was one of the garrisons 
in 1746, and the names of the people who were assigned thereto. 
I trust that the example which he has furnished in this respect 
may be followed by the owners of property where the other 
garrisons and the meeting-house were located. 

Such was the state of the little settlement of Rum ford, in 
August, 1746. Comprising in all about one hundred houses, 
it extended from below the lower bridge, which crosses the 
river on the south, along the line of Main street, which was 
then located substantially as it is now, to and including the 
village of West Concord on the north. On the west a few 
houses on the Hopkinton road, and on the east a small number 
of houses in the village of East Concord, were scattered. The 
inhabitants, removed from their houses, were housed in the 
garrisons which have already been mentioned. An attack 
from the Indians was daily expected, and a period of tragical 
interest in the historv of the settlement was now at hand. 



m3^^,.±, *,*,..**~Jm k tfi , 



l66 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Indian village of St. Francis, which lay some thirty 
miles above the source of the Connecticut river, was the head- 
quarters of the savages who committed the worst depredations 
on the border towns of New England. 

A large body of Indians, supposed to have come from St. 
Francis, taking advantage of the absence of troops, made prep- 
arations for an attack upon Rumford. Their intention was to 
attack the people while in church on the Sabbath, the ioth 
of August. Meanwhile the most of Captain Ladd's company, 
which had been dismissed at Exeter, July 30, had reassem- 
bled, and came into the town on Friday, a portion of them 
passing on to Canterbury, while others went into the garrisons. 
On Sunday, the ioth of August, the Indians lay in the swamp 
near the meeting-house, waiting to attack the people in the 
church. One party of them was concealed in a thicket back of 
the house where Dr. Samuel Morrill formerly lived, on Main 
street, being the house this side of where John Morrill, the 
jeweller, now lives. Another was hid in the bushes north-west, 
between the meeting-house and where John H. Stewart, the 
tailor, now lives. Some few of the Indians, it is said, were 
seen in the time of worship by a little girl — Abigail Carter, sis- 
ter of the first Dr. Ezra Carter; but she did not make known 
the discovery until the meeting closed, when the people marched 
out in a body with their guns. The presence of Captain Ladd's 
company, and the fact that the men came to church well armed, 
disheartened the Indians, and they retired without making their 
contemplated attack. 

But the next day, Monday, the nth of August, they were 
more successful. Probably anticipating that some of Captain 
Ladd's company were to pass to the garrison of Jonathan East- 
man on the Hopkinton road, they lay in ambush near the path 
for such as might pass that way. On the morning of Monday, 
August nth, Lieutenant Jonathan Bradley of Captain Ladd's 
company, and seven others, started for Eastman's fort, which, 
as we have already seen, was located very near the spot on 
which the house of Dr. Coit now stands. According to tradi- 
tion, thev passed up a road or a path which was located where 
Franklin street now extends, and they had proceeded about a 



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MR. SARGENT S ADDRESS. 167 

mile and a half from the meeting-house, and a few rods beyond 
where the monument now stands, when they were fired on by 
the Indians. One Daniel Gilman had gone forward to fire at a 
hawk seen on a dry stub by the path some distance ahead, and 
the rest of the party were leisurely following, and awaiting the 
falling of the hawk. Obadiah Peters was somewhat in advance 
of most of the party, and had set his gun aside, awaiting the 
approach of the rest of the party. The Indians, supposing they 
were discovered, arose from the ambush and fired upon Peters 
and the others, and a bloody hand-to-hand fight occurred. For 
the details of the fight which ensued we are indebted to the 
journal of Abner Clough, a member of Captain Ladd's com- 
pany, from whose quaint but expressive language I quote : 

" Captain Ladd came up to Rumford town and that was on 
the tenth day of August, and on the eleventh day, Lieutenant 
Jonathan Bradley took six of Captain Ladd's men, and was in 
company with one Obadiah Peters, that belonged to Captain 
Melvin's company of the Massachusetts, and was going about 
two miles and a half from Rumford town to a garrison, and 
when they had gone about a mile and a half, they were shot 
upon by thirty or forty Indians, if not more, as it was supposed, 
and killed down dead Lieutenant Jonathan Bradley and Sam- 
uel Bradley, John Lufkin and John Bean and this Obadiah 
Peters. These five men were killed down dead on the spot, 
and most of them were stripped. Two of them were stripped 
stark naked, and were very much cut and stabbed and disfigured ; 
and Sergeant Alexander Roberts and William Stickney were 
taken captive. It was supposed there was an Indian killed 
where they had the fight, for this Daniel Gilman, who made 
his escape, saith that he was about sixty rods before these men 
when they were shot upon, and he says the Indians shot three 
guns first. He says he thought our men shot at a deer ; he says 
that he ran back about forty rods upon a hill so that he could 
see over upon the other hill, where the Indians lie, and shot 
upon the men ; and he says, as ever he came upon the hill so 
as to see over upon the other hill, he heard Lieutenant Jonathan 
Bradley speak and say Lord have ?nercy on me; — Fight I In 
a moment his gun went off and three more guns of our men 



, ^. m ^.^^^..^.^.^^,^^^,,^,^.>,^^^.., ,..,, „,, ^^^■■^-.. ...., ^..„^. A M j iiMa ar i Ti ia ii ii r i i i m m i ^ii i 



l68 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

were shot, and then the Indians rose up and shot a volley and 
run out into the path, and making all sorts of howling and veil- 
ing, and he did not stay long to see it, he saith. It was sup- 
posed that John Lufkin was upon the front and Obadiah Peters 
upon the rear, and that they shot down this Lufkin and Peters 
the first shot, as they were in the path about twelve or fourteen 
rods apart ; and they shot Samuel Bradley, as he was about 
twelve feet before where this Obadiah Peters lay, and wounded 
him so that the blood started every step he took. He went 
about five rods right in the path, and they shot him right through 
his powder-horn as it hung by his side, and so through his 
body — and there lay these three men lying in the path'; and 
Lieut. Bradley run out of the path about two rods right in 
amongst the Indians : he was shot through the wrist. It was 
supposed he killed the Indian : it was supposed that he fought — 
as he stood there in the spot where he was killed — till the 
Indians cut his head almost all to pieces ; and John Bean run 
about six rods out of the path, on the other side of the way, 
and then was shot right through his body ; — so that there were 
none of these men that went one or two steps after they were 
shot, excepting this Samuel Bradley that was shot as above 
said. And there seemed to be as much blood where the Indian 
was shot as there was where any one of the men were killed. 
It was supposed the men laid there about two hours after they 
were killed before anybody came there. We did not go till 
there came a post down from the fort, three quarters of a mile 
beyond where the men lay and were killed. The reason 
we did not go sooner was because we did not hear the guns. 
I suppose the reason that we did not hear the guns was 
because the wind wa'n't fair to hear. We went up to the 
men, and ranged the woods awhile, after these captives, and 
then brought the dead down to town in a cart, and buried the 
dead men this day. These men, when they went away in the 
morning, said they intended to be at home about twelve o'clock, 
in order to go to Canterbury in the afternoon, or at least to get 
fit to go. It was supposed that these men, some of them, rid 
double on horses when they were killed. On the twelfth day 
[which was the next morning after the massacre] early in the 



WlfTl^ttl^^ 



mr. sargent's address. 169 

morning, went up and took the blood of the Indian, and fol- 
lowed along by the drag and blood of the Indian about a mile. 
very plain, till we came within about fifteen rods of a small 
river, and then we could see no more sign of the Indian, but 
we tracked the Indians along down the river, about twenty or 
thirty rods, and there were falls where they went over. It was 
supposed there could not be less than fifty or sixty Indians." 

The following is the narrative of Mr. Reuben Abbott, who 
drove the cart, that contained the dead bodies, from the place 
of massacre to James Osgood's garrison : 

44 1, with Abiel Chandler, was at work in the Fan, near 
Sugar Ball, making hay, on Monday morning, August nth, 
1746, then in my twenty-fourth year. We heard three guns 
fired at Parson Walker's fort, which were the appointed signal 
of alarm at the approach or apprehension of the Indians. On 
hearing the alarm guns we ran up to the garrison, and found 
the soldiers who were stationed there, and such men as could 
be spared had gone to where the men were killed. We fol- 
lowed on and took the foot path [by Captain Emery's near the 
prison], and arrived at the spot where the bodies lay, as soon 
as those did who went around on the main road. When we 
arrived near the brook that runs through the farm formerly 
occupied by one Mitchell, on the east side of the brook we 
found Samuel Bradley, stripped naked, scalped and lying on 
his face in the road, within half a rod of the bridge over that 
brook. He was shot through the body, and supposed through 
his lungs ; the ball struck and spoiled his powder-horn, which 
the Indians left. He was not otherwise wounded by the Indians 
than shot and scalped. Jonathan Bradley lay about ten feet 
out of the road, on the south side, and about two rods east of 
the brook. He was lieutenant in Captain Ladd's company, 
from Exeter, and a number of years older than Samuel. He 
was not wounded by the Indians in their fire, and immediately 
after the Indians had first tired he ordered his men to fight 
them. As but few of the Indians fired the first time, Jonathan 
supposed that he and his six men could manage them, and they 
fired at the few who had risen up from their ambush. Imme- 
diately the whole body of Indians, about one hundred in num- 



170 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ber, rose up and fired. Jonathan, seeing their number and 
receiving their fire, ordered his men to run and take care of 
themselves. By this time Obadiah Peters, John Bean, John 
Lufkin, and Samuel Bradley were killed. The Indians then 
rushed upon Jonathan Bradley, William Stickney, and Alex- 
ander Roberts, — took Stickney and Roberts prisoners, and 
offered Jonathan Bradley good quarter. But he refused to 
receive quarter, and fought with his gun against that cloud of 
Indians, until they struck him on the face repeatedly with their 
tomahawks, cut a number of gashes in his face, one large 
gash running obliquely across his forehead and nose dow T n 
between his eyes, another on the side of his head, and one on 
the back part of his head, which entered his skull and brought 
him to the ground. The Indians then dispatched him, took 
off his scalp, and stripped him nearly naked. Obadiah Peters 
we found shot through the head. Bean and Lufkin were shot, 
and ran from the brook toward the main road about six rods 
and fell within a rod of each other on the north side of the road 
as now travelled. Four of the Indians were killed, and two 
wounded who were carried away on biers. The soldiers from 
the garrison were too late to avenge the lives of these brave 
men. Before their approach, the Indians fled like cowards, 
leaving many of their packs and various things which the sol- 
diers took." 

Mr. Abbott further relates that the bodies of the dead were 
laid side by side in a cart, which had been sent up, with a yoke 
of oxen, to convey them down to the main street. As all 
others refused, Mr. Abbott himself drove the team down to 
Mr. James Osgood's garrison. There was a great multitude of 
men, women, and children collected to see the dreadful sight: 
they wept aloud. Mothers lifted up their young children to see 
the dead bodies in the cart. 

The next day they were all buried in two graves near what 
was then the north-west corner of the old burying ground. The 
Bradleys were buried in one grave, and Lufkin, Peters, and 
Bean in another. Bouton, in his history of Concord, published 
in 1856, says, — " The spot where the bodies were buried cannot 
now be exactly identified, but it w r as very near the place now 



mr. sargent's address. 



171 



enclosed and occupied as the burial plat of the Bradley and 
Ayer family." 

Philip Eastman, son of Captain Ebenezer Eastman, married 
Abiah Bradley, sister of the Bradley s who were killed, and at 
that time lived on the farm where John L. Tallant now lives. 
When the news of the massacre reached them, Mr. Eastman 
hastily saddled his horse, rode up to his door and said, " Come, 
Abiah, let us go." She replied, ^ I am ready," and at a single 
bound sprang upon the horse's back behind her husband, and 
then they rode on full canter down to Capt. Eastman's fort. 
It was a common saying in those times, "ft takes a hard blow 
to kill a Bradley." 1 

Lieutenant Jonathan Bradley was a son of Abraham Bradley, 
who came from Haverhill, Massachusetts, to Penacook in 
1730. He married Susanna Folsom, of Exeter, and at first 
settled on the farm with his father, but afterwards disposed of 
his property in Penacook, and moved to Exeter a year or two 
before the time of the massacre. He was a lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Daniel Ladd's company, and only two weeks before, as 
appears from Clough's journal, had been very sick, and was 
not yet entirely recovered. He was a brave man, about thirty 
years of age, and when he met the Indians would neither flee 
nor fall alive into their hands. His ancestors and relatives in 
Haverhill had had a bitter experience of Indian cruelty. The 
house of his grandfather, Joseph Bradley, was burned by the 
Indians, February 8, 1704, and his wife, Jonathan's grand- 
mother, was carrred into captivity, and suffered nameless cruel- 
ties. Knowing the sufferings which his immediate ancestor 
had experienced, it is no wonder that he refused to receive 
quarter, and that he chose death rather than captivity. 

Samuel Bradley, brother of Jonathan, resided at Rumford 
with his father, Abraham, after Jonathan removed to Exeter. 
He was a young man of great enterprise and promise. The 
anguish of his wife, on hearing of his death and seeing his 
mangled body, was intense and overwhelming. His little son, 
John, then less than four years old, was shown the bloody 
bodies of the slain as they lay together at Osgood's garrison, 
1 Bouton's Historv of Concord. 



172 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and retained through life a lively impression of the scene. The 
impression was so strong that a terror of the Indians haunted 
him for many years afterwards. 

Obadiah Peters was of Rumford, a son of Seaborn Peters, 
one of the first settlers. • He had been out in the Louisburg 
expedition, and was at the capture of Cape Breton the year 
before his death, one of Captain Ebenezer Eastman's company. 
About the time he was killed he appears to have been a soldier 
in the Rumford company of militia commanded by Captain 
Nathaniel Abbott, as he is named in his muster roll, and his 
death is there recorded. Peters's father and family lived near 
Eastman's fort, to which the party were going at the time they 
were attacked and massacred by the Indians. 

All that is known of John Bean is T that he was from Brent- 
wood, and of John Lufkin, that he was from Kingston. 

William Stickney, who was taken captive, was a son of Cap- 
tain Jeremiah Stickney of Rumford, and a brother of Colonel 
Thomas Stickney. After about one year's captivity in Canada, 
he found means to escape with a friendly Indian, and proceeded 
on his way home to within about one days journey of the 
white settlement, when they fell short of provisions. The Ind- 
ian directed Stickney to light a fire and encamp, while he would 
go in quest of game. After Stickney had prepared his camp, 
he also went out to hunt, and, in attempting to cross a river on 
a log, fell in and was drowned. This was the story the Indian 
told when he came to Rumford ; but from the circumstance of 
his being dressed in Stickney's clothes, many were led to doubt 
the truth of it. 

Alexander Roberts, who was captured, made his escape after 
being carried to Canada. On his return to Rumford the next 
year, he stated that four Indians were killed and several wound- 
ed — two mortally, who were conveyed away on litters and soon 
after died. Two they buried in the great swamp, under large 
hemlock logs, and two others in the mud, some distance up the 
river, where their bones were afterwards found. Roberts 
claimed a bounty from the government for having, as he said, 
killed one of the Indians at the time of the attack, whose bones 
he afterwards found. On the 19th of November, 1747, the 



aim.rtuvi «mh, 



MR. SARGENT S ADDRESS. 1 73 

General Assembly of New Hampshire passed the following 
resolution, which was approved by the governor: 

" Whereas, Alexander Roberts and others have been care- 
fully examined upon oath, of and concerning a human skull 
bone, which said Roberts and company found at or near the 
place where said Roberts supposes he killed an Indian man, 
and where he saw said Indian buried ; and, inasmuch as it 
appears to the House, upon the evidence produced, that the 
said skull is really the skull of the aforesaid Indian : Therefore, 

" Voted, That there be paid, out of the money in the public 
treasury, unto the said Alexander Roberts and company, the 
sum of seventy-live pounds, in the following proportions, viz : 
To the said Alexander Roberts, fifteen pounds ; to Daniel Gil- 
man, seven pounds, ten shillings; to the widows of Jonathan 
and Samuel Bradley, each eleven pounds, five shillings ; and 
to the heirs or legal representatives of Obadiah Peters, John 
Lufkin, John Bean, and William Stickney, each seven pounds 
and ten shillings." 

The initials of the names of the persons who were massacred 
were soon after marked on a large tree which stood near the 
spot, and this was the only monument of the event for many 
years. The monument which now stands as the memento of 
the tragic affair was erected in 1837 ^y Richard Bradley, grand- 
son of the Samuel Bradley who was killed, and father of the 
present Moses Bradley. For several years previous to its erec- 
tion, it lay in the field on the south side of the road, on account 
of a dispute between Richard Bradley and Mr. Kimball, who 
was at that time the owner of the land on which the massacre 
occurred. Bradley endeavored to purchase the land, but Kim- 
ball refused to sell the exact tract desired, and the monument 
was finally erected a few rods east of the actual location of the 
massacre, and on the opposite side of the road. 

The exercises attending its erection took place August 22, 
1837, which was the ninety-first anniversary of the massacre. A 
large number of people from Concord and the surrounding towns 
were present. A hymn composed by the Reverend John Pier- 
pont was sung, and after prayer by Reverend Nathaniel Bouton, 
an eloquent address was delivered by Mr. Asa McFarland. 



174 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The original petition of the inhabitants of Rumford, to the 
governor, council, and assembly, for succor against the Indians, 
was read by Richard Bradley. An historical ballad, by Mrs. 
Mary C. Clark, of Concord, was read. The exercises con- 
cluded with prayer by Rev. E. E. Cummings, who was for so 
many years the pastor of the Pleasant St. Baptist church, and 
who has recently deceased. 

Such is the story of the tragedy which the monument on the 
Hopkinton road commemorates. In its statement I can claim 
no credit for originality. Its history has been written by those 
who were much nearer, in point of time, to the event than we 
are at the present day. I have endeavored to give a plain and 
simple narrative of the facts and the circumstances surrounding 
them, with no attempt at embellishment or oratorical display. 
If I have succeeded in presenting to your minds a picture of 
the little settlement of Rumford as it then existed, and of the 
circumstances which led up to and culminated in the massacre, 
I have accomplished my undertaking. 

Near a century and a half has elapsed since that morning in 
August when the brave defenders of Rumford went forth to 
their death. Within a short distance of the spot which is con- 
secrated with their blood, institutions of learning lift their tow- 
ers to the morning breeze. The forests, through which the 
wild beasts and the savage Indian prowled, have been cleared 
away, and the products of civilization are seen on every hand. 
The town of Rumford has become the capital city of a state 
which since then has become one of the pillars of a great and 
prosperous nation. The power of France on this continent is 
extinguished, and no more can she sound the tocsin of war that 
shall summon to arms the people of New England. The prob- 
lem of the red man and the white man has been solved, and the 
very name of Indian is almost a tradition in this part of the 
country. But although these mighty changes have taken place. 
and although in due course of time the monument which records 
their fate will dissolve and crumble into dust, yet these brave 
men will not be forgotten. More enduring than any monument 
of granite or of bronze is the memory of their deeds in the 
hearts of a grateful people. 



rmrniaimv mxtetAJumma 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



175 



Isaac W. Hammond, chairman of Committee on New Mem- 
bers, nominated the following persons to be members of the 
Society, who were elected by ballot by the requisite constitu- 
tional majority : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Albert Edward Bod well, Concord ; Charles Henry Sanders. 
Penacook ; Haven Palmer, m. d., Plymouth. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Rev. Henry Allen Hazen, a. m., Auburndale, Mass. 
The Society then adjourned to meet again at the call of the 
president. 

Amos Hadley, 



Recording Secret a r 



O 



'}'■ 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



Concord, Wednesday, June 11, 1S90. 

The sixty-eighth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held in the Society's building this day. 
at 11 o'clock a. m., the Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, president, in 
the chair. 

The records of the proceedings of the Society's meetings for 
the past year were read by the recording secretary, and, on 
motion, were approved. 

The report of the recording secretary was read, and, on 
motion, approved. 

the report. 

The recording secretary reports that during the past year the 
following named persons have signified acceptance of member- 
ship in the Society : 

resident members. 

George E. Todd, Mrs. Annette M. R. Cressv, "J". T. Maha- 
ney, Charles R. Morrison, Frank P. Andrews, Cornelius E. 
Clifford, John Ballard, Mrs. Harriet Newell Eaton, Concord ; 



I76 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Walter M. Parker, Frederick Sm\#, Mrs. Marion Smyth, 
Marshall P. Hall, Manchester; Janes W. Patterson, Han- 
over ; George Peabody Little, Pemkoke ; W. A. Fergusson, 
Lancaster ; Alvah W. Sulloway, Franklin ; Mrs. Anne E. 
Baer, Salmon Falls; Haven Palmer, si. d., Plymouth. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Edward H. Elwell, Portland, Me.;: George E. Littlefield, 
Boston, Mass. ; John Edwin Mason, 3Ld., Washington, D. C. ; 
Rev. Henry Allen Hazen, a. m., Auhirndale. Mass. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Mellen Chamberlain, William W. Clapp, Boston, Mass. ; 
Prof. Oliver P. Hubbard, New York,N. Y. ; W. Noel Sains- 
bury, B. F. Stevens, London, England!. 

Respectfully presented : 

Amos Hadley, 

Recording Secretary. 

On motion of Hon. John Kimball, the president appointed 
a committee, consisting of John Kimkdl, Lyman D. Stevens, 
and S. G. Gould, to nominate officers for the ensuing year. 

Hon. Amos Hadley, recording secretary for the past sixteen 
years, declined a renomination for said office. 

The president presented a communiiation from Hon. George 
L. Balcom, declining a renomination as vice-president of the 
Society. 

On motion, J. E. Pecker, Sylvester Dana, and Charles R. 
Morrison were appointed by the preskenta committee to nom- 
inate new members. 

Mr. J. B. Walker offered the folbwing resolution, which 
was adopted : 

Resolved, That we sincerely regret the absence from our 
meeting this day of Mr. Isaac W. Hammond, our librarian, 
and we hereby tender to him our sinceae sympathy in his pres- 
ent severe illness. 

The report of William P. Fiske, tieasurer, was read, and, 
on motion, accepted and placed on file. 



.£g^ jij & m gg mg Emamm*mmmmMmmi*m 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 



177 



To the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

The treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures for the year ending June 10, 1890: 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance June 10, 1889, 
Cash received from initiation fees, 
" " assessments, 



i " " interest of funds, 

" u bond paid, 

" " books and pamphlets 

sold, 
" " state appropriation, 

EXPENDITURES. 

To paid I. W. Hammond, salary, 

u labor on vol. 9, 

R. P. Staniels & Co., insurance, 
investment and accrued interest, 
* B. F. Stevens, London, Eng., 
Ira C. Evans, printing vol. 9 Pro- 
ceedings, 
Crawford & Stockbridge, 
Republican Press Association, 
Otis G. Hammond, 
Ira C. Evans, 
Siisby & Son, 

Democratic Press Association, 
postage, 

books purchased, 
rent of hall, 
sundries, 



$10,019.40 
45.00 
363.00 
582.46 
1,000.00 



90-73 
500.00 



$12,600.59 



$267.50 
65.00 
45.82 

1,014.75 
100.00 

463.00 

81.25 

2 3-79 

8.25 

*7-75 
75.12 

14.00 

4.00 

8.50 

15.00 

12.50 



Permanent funds, 
Current funds, 



$9,090.18 
1,294.18 



$2,216.23 
$10,384.36 



$10,384.36 
Wm. P. Fiske, Treasurer. 

Concord, N. H., June 11, 1S90. 
I have this day examined the accounts of William P. Fiske, 
treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, and find 
them correctly cast and properly vouched for. 

Isaac K. Gage, Auditor. 
8 



nnr mm mmmnma'miimmidmiL. 



178 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The report of Isaac W. Hammond, librarian, was read, and, 
on motion, accepted and placed on file. (The meagreness of 
the report is owing to the illness of the librarian.) 

Acquisitions i?i the year 1889-90. 

By purchase, bound volumes, 8 

" 44 pamphlets, 292 

44 donation, bound volumes, 182 

44 exchange, %4 20 

44 44 pamphlets, 18 

Box of N. H. newspapers from Gen. B. F. Butler. 

Whole number for the year of bound volumes, 210 

Whole number of bound volumes in the library, II ?3 I 4 

Isaac W. Hammond, Libraria?i, 
by Otis G. Hammond. 

Hon. J. B. Walker, of the standing committee, submitted 
an oral report concerning the boundaries of the Society's lot, 
and, on motion, it was accepted. 

Hon. Charles H. Bell, who had been constituted a commit- 
tee to procure the 44 Sullivan Papers" from the estate of the 
late Thomas C. Amory, of Boston, submitted an oral report, 
which, on motion, was accepted ; and also presented these 
resolutions, preamble, and votes, which were, on motion, 
passed : 

W r hereas, Miss R. A. Amory, of Boston, Mass., a grand- 
niece of Gen. John Sullivan of the Revolution, has generously 
determined to carry out the intentions of her brother, the late 
Hon. T. C. Amory, by giving to this Society, on certain con- 
ditions, the Four Volu?nes of MaJiuscript Corresponde?tce of 
said Gen. Sullivan; — therefore, 

Voted, That this Society gratefully accept the gift of said 
manuscripts upon the said conditions, and agree to perform 
the same, viz., — 

I. The said manuscripts are to be kept always, when not in 
use, in a fire-proof safe or vault in the building occupied by 
the Society, and not to be allowed out of the building to which 
said safe is connected, at any time whatever. 

II. The said manuscripts, or any of them, are not to be 
allowed out of the possession of the Society. 

III. The relations or connections of Gen. Sullivan may have 
free access to said manuscripts at all reasonable times. 



^^■rtfi*^^*****^™'**** 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. 1 79 

IV. The said manuscripts, or any of them, shall never be 
lent, sold, or otherwise disposed of by the Society ; and a 
breach of any of these conditions shall work a forfeiture of said 
gift, and said manuscripts shall be thereupon returned, upon 
request, to Miss R. A. Amory, or those claiming under her 
will, or as her next of kin. 

Voted, That the thanks of this Society be presented to Miss 
R. A. Amory for her valuable donation of papers so important 
to a correct understanding of the history of the state and the 
country, and especially of the eminent New Hampshire patriot 
and soldier, who was one of the first to take up arms in the 
cause of liberty, and gave the best of his life to the military and 
civic service of state and nation. 

On motion of Hon. Charles H. Bell, it was voted that an 
attested copy of the foregoing preamble and vote be conveyed 
to Miss R. A. Amory, of Boston. 

Hon. John Kimball, from the committee to nominate officers 
for the ensuing year, made the following report, which, on 
motion, was accepted, and the nominated gentlemen were sev- 
erally elected by ballot according to the by-laws : 

President. 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman. 

Vice- Pres ide n ts . 

Hon, John J. Bell, 
Amos Hadley, Esq. 

Recording" Secretary. 
Hon. Charles R. Corning. 

Corresponding- Secretary. 
Hon. Sylvester Dana. 

Treasurer. 
William P. Fiske, Esq. 

Librarian. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan. 



l8o NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Necrologist, 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker. 

Libra ry Com nzittee . 

John C. Ordway, Esq., 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 
J. E. Pecker, Esq. 

Publishing Committee. 

Hon. Charles H. Bell, 
Isaac W. Hammond, Esq., 1 
Hon. George L. Balcom. 

Standing Committee. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
J. C. A. Hill, Esq., 
Gen. Howard L. Porter. 

Auditor. 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq. 

Hon. John J. Bell presented the following resolution, which 
was, on motion, adopted : 

Resolved, That the president appoint a committee of three 
to select an orator for the next annual meeting, and to provide 
for such other literary exercises as may be deemed advisable 
during the coming year. 

The president appointed as such committee, Hon. John J. 
Bell, Hon. Lyman D. Stevens, Amos Hadley, Esq. 

On motion of Mr. J. B. Walker, it was voted that an assess- 
ment of three dollars be levied on each member for the current 
year. 

Discussion ensued concerning the care of the " Sullivan 
Papers," and, on motion of Hon. Sylvester Dana, the presi- 
dent appointed a committee of three to take the matter into 
consideration and report to this meeting. 

i Died September 28. 



•ffl iitifiiilBff^ ^"**^ii™^ mniirrinmrrr 



ANNUAL MEETINGS. l8l 

The committee consisted of Hon. Sylvester Dana, Hon. 
Charles H. Bell, J. E. Pecker, Esq. 

Hon. Sylvester Dana, from the committee to nominate new- 
members, made the following report, which was, on motion, 
accepted, and the persons therein named were duly elected 
members of the Society by ballot: 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Rev. Elijah Russell Wilkins, Harry G. Sargent, Esq., Henry 
A. Kimball, Concord ; Col. Richard M. Scammon, Joseph C. 
A. Wingate, Stratham ; Hon. Charles H. Means, Manchester ; 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter, Concord ; Joseph Pinkham, Newmar- 
ket. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

Mrs. Jennie Bouton Fogg, South Weymouth, Mass. ; W. 
Howard Tucker, Hartford, Vt. ; Miss Hetta M. Hewey, New 
Bedford, Mass. 

On motion of Hon. John J. Bell, it was voted that when the 
meeting adjourns this noon, it be adjourned to meet at 2 o'clock 
this afternoon. 

On motion of J. E. Pecker, Esq., it was voted that the pres- 
ident appoint a committee to arrange for a Field Day at 
Hampton, sometime during the month of September, passing 
the night, if practicable, and that the committee have an appro- 
priate address prepared. 

The president appointed as such committee, J. E. Pecker, 
Esq., Edward H. Spalding, Esq., Isaac K. Gage, Esq. 

On motion, the Society adjourned until two o'clock p. M. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The meeting of the Society was called to order at two o'clock 
p. M. by the president. 

Hon. Sylvester Dana, from the Committee on the " Sullivan 
Papers," submitted an oral report, which was, on motion, 
accepted, and the following resolution adopted: 



■—— 



1 82 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Resolved, That until otherwise ordered the " Sullivan Pa- 
pers" shall be kept at all times in the lire-proof vault, and shall 
be open to inspection only in the presence of the librarian or 
his assistant, or upon a special written application, approved in 
writing by the president or one of the vice-presidents, and a 
majority of the standing committee, which application and 
approval shall be preserved in the files of the Society. 

Hon. John J. Bell then delivered the 

ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

It was at a late date that I was asked by your committee to 
give you the substance of an address originally prepared for, 
and delivered at, the quarter-millennial celebration of the town 
of Hampton. The time then at my disposal would not permit 
my preparing a new address upon that subject. All I have had 
time to do has been to leave out the purely local allusions, and, 
in a few places, to insert something which I thought might add 
to the story as formerly told. So much I may say, not so 
much in excuse, as to account for my giving you the warmed- 
over dish of a former repast, when you might not unnaturally 
expect something prepared especially for the present occasion. 

The rise and growth, modification and decay, of municipal 
institutions offer a fruitful field for study by the thoughtful 
investigator into the progress of human government. It has 
seemed to me that in the history of the New England town, in 
its origin and the forces which have modified its development, 
and those other forces which are even now essentially changing 
its character, lav a field of interesting inquiry. To trace the 
growth of municipal institutions, as of all other methods and 
forms of civil government, from primeval man through the 
various stages of development, under the differing environments 
in which the various races of men have been placed, and thence 
the early evolution and later growth of human government, 
while enticing in itself and doubtless profitable in its results, 
would open too broad an inquiry for our present purpose, and 
might lead to speculation in which imagination, rather than 
observation, would furnish the data from which our conclusions 
would be drawn. 



r_- I , l ii i i<h i B Ti i«* r Wf at °-' ^'^*»--— ^™~-"-""^^ , lf i TT ^ ^g|u 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 1 83 

For our present purpose we need go no further back than to 
the town, the burgh, of the Middle Ages, nor wider than the 
domain of western European progress. What connection 
these municipalities may have had with the early Greek cities. 
or with the prototype of the communal system which has ex- 
isted in European society as one of its prime movers, we need 
not here trouble ourselves about. It is enough for us sim- 
ply to remark upon the fact that the spirit of civil libertv, 
which seemed elsewhere in Europe to be crushed out, was 
maintained and preserved in these petty municipalities. I say 
of civil liberty, for the idea of individual freedom was hardly 
as yet conceived in the heart of man. While these towns 
and boroughs preserved to us the memory and the existence 
of that civil liberty which was the original right of all of 
European race, yet it was in too many cases with entire dis- 
regard of the individual right. Liberty, in the light of that 
time, was rather that of the citizen as the member of a free 
community, than of the freeman free in his own right. 
Within the community itself the individual was scarcely more 
free than the serf without : for him the authority of his town 
or borough or city stood very much in the place of that of the 
baron or king without the walls. Nor did this freedom, such 
as it was, enure to all inhabitants : it belonged to the freeman, 
the citizen ; and all others, although they might be under the 
town's protection, were allowed no voice in the determinations 
to which these little republics might come. 

Imperfect as such government was, it was a great advance 
upon the condition of the ordinary subject, who had scarcely 
any rights at all, certainly few that he could protect against 
arbitrary power. The extent to which this civil freedom 
might an d C \' K \ encourage the sense of individual freedom of 
thought and action of course varied as other forces helped or 
hindered. In some, it was closely connected with the sense of, 
and desire for, religious freedom ; in others, it was checked by 
the greater power of the feudal lords, which required the 
united action of the whole community for the common defence. 
Or, through the ever corrupting influence of party spirit, both 
individual and civil liberty became the prey of the demagogue ; 



184 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

or, to prevent this, it yielded to the seeming necessity for a stron- 
ger government, either through the forms or on the ruins of the 
municipal institutions. Yet it was in the towns that the hope 
of liberty, civil and individual, was preserved : as they grew 
stronger, better governments, and freer, ruled ; as they were 
weakened, arbitrary power increased. And generally through 
the towns the strength of free principles, stimulated by the suc- 
cessful revolt against spiritual tyranny, was making itself felt 
throughout Europe, at the time of the early American settle- 
ments, and something of their character and limitations was 
brought over to us here. 

That we may appreciate the modifications which municipal 
institutions met with on American soil, we need to call to mind 
the men among whom these institutions were to grow. For, 
from the character of those who are to administer any human 
society, will that society receive an impress which will alter 
the character and the results of the society itself. In a broad 
way we may thus describe the early settlers in New England. 
The first of English birth to make permanent settlements on 
this coast, as they w r ere close upon the tracks of the earl} 7 ex- 
plorers, were the hardy fishermen and fur traders, those who 
came for the pursuit of gain only. In their religious character 
they were a feeble reflection of the views of those from whom 
they sprang at home, conforming, doubtless, to the forms of 
religion to which they had been accustomed, or to which their 
friends and neighbors adhered in far-off England. 

It was of the descendants of such that the story is told, true 
to the life, whether or not true in fact, that when Whitefield at 
Portsmouth would have aroused his audience by reminding 
them that their ancestors came over to preserve a true and pure 
religion, interrupted him with the declaration, ^ Our ancestors 
came over for no such purpose, but to catch fish and deal in furs." 

But to them the great end of life was found in hardy adven- 
tures and in the profits of the then new and teeming fisheries, 
with such incidental profits as might come from the purchase 
of the Indians' collection of peltries. From the nature of 
their occupation they were individually free when here, 
although at home they probably knew little of what we should 



I'fir-ii ffi m-~m iimm*v ii »^ : W"-> - -■■ -^-■•- ^*»^*>*»±---"- 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 1 85 

understand as liberty. Some of them were there townsmen, 
and claimed to be freemen as such ; most of them probably 
were not. Here on this coast they acknowledged neither lord 
nor town, and yielded a nominal rather than deep-seated 
allegiance to the crown. They were Englishmen, and as such 
claimed the protection of English authority, but probably did 
not feel very strongly the correlative duties. These men made 
settlements on convenient and easily defensible spots, for the 
convenient prosecution of their trade. They were not known 
to, or recognized by, any legal authority. If not interfered with, 
they probably would have gradually received corporate rights, 
and grown to be towns, like the medieval ones, and much after 
the medieval pattern, but their settlements were hardly to be 
called permanent, and were not recognized by any of the gran- 
tors under the authority of the king. There is no record of 
any town having arisen from them, although it is not certain 
that some may not have done so. The nature of their life and 
business naturally made them not only free as individuals, but 
also little regardful of authority collectively, and they made 
much trouble for the more settled communities which later 
came over. Yet the influence of this class upon the develop- 
ment of civil institutions here has been ignored, as has their 
very settlement itself. It was, however, by no means a small 
element in either. 

The hardy and enterprising spirit which at first took them 
from home, their relative isolation here and the consequent 
necessity for greater reliance upon self and less upon the 
strength arising from combination, fostered and developed a 
sturdy "sense of individual liberty which little brooked the 
restraints of law, whether as the representative of a power above 
and beyond them, or as the mutual concession of a social com- 
pact. While this in many instances weakened the power of 
the struggling colonists, it did very much to modify the char- 
acter of the town as here established, and much more in New 
Hampshire, which remained without even the form of govern- 
ment between the town or the factor and the crown, during 
a large part of the formative period of our town governments. 

The second were the settlements commenced with hopes of 



mm— minimum ii mi 



1 86 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

gain by the adventurous cavaliers about the court, who received 
grants of lands here, as others of them did in Ireland, with 
equal disregard of the rights of the natives in either case. In 
Ireland they simply attempted, with more or less success, to 
wring from the unwilling natives the means for their enjoy- 
ments near the court. Here there were no inhabitants from 
whom such revenues could be derived : if anything was to be 
made out of their grants, it must be by bringing over the settlers, 
who were to till the soil or dig in the mines for the wealth they 
desired from their grants. Hangers-on about the court, their 
religious views were those of the court itself— nominally Church 
of England, but with a decided leaning to the more ancient 
faith. Those whom they brought over were like themselves 
in their religious faith and in their political attachments. To 
successfully establish such settlements required an amount of 
capital which few of them possessed. And they received as 
partners the rich citizens of the towns, who sent over, as fac- 
tors to care for their interests, citizens with the religious and 
political characters that were prevalent in their towns. In all 
these settlements, like those farther south, in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia and the Carolinas, the religious and political tenets were of 
the Cavalier rather than of the Roundhead type, yet far enough 
removed to render them equally desirous of freedom from 
king and parliament in politics, while the settlement, not hav- 
ing any religious propaganda at its back, sadly needed religious 
instructors, and perhaps deserved the Puritan taunt of godless. 

Yet, as with the same class at home in England, their relig- 
ious sentiment was not so much wanting, as differing from 
that of their neighbors and critics. The first church in New 
Hampshire was, with little doubt, of the Church of England, 
and some of the low mounds, which are still to be seen in its 
churchyard at Odiorne's Point, as I believe, antedate the Pil- 
grim at Plymouth. In the subsequent subjection to Massachu- 
setts, the exercise of their religious forms was rigidly sup- 
pressed, and the state of their church at home denied them 
such support as a generation later would have given them. 

The exigencies of the civil wars at home, and the want of 
needed capital, credit, and prestige, sooner or later crippled 



. - - , if i m&$ffiM^^Wr---r : r ■ -^fiim^&mmmimfmM 






ANNUAL ADDRESS. 1 87 

these settlements, while the Puritan settlements, sustained by 
strong religious feeling and partaking more of the character 
of a national movement, disregarded their grants, and swal- 
lowed up their settlements and, largely, their people. Those 
who remained loyal to their Planters were soon left to shift 
for themselves by the needs of their home lords, and they drew 
together in a few localities, and finally succumbed to the supe- 
rior life of the Puritan settlements. The Piscataqua had early 
been one of their chief places, and when at last it yielded to 
Massachusetts Bay, it secured by treaty certain rights which 
had not before been granted to Massachusetts towns. Massa- 
chusetts wisely neglected to see many things which in her own 
towns she would not have permitted, trusting to time and the 
influence of her people and polity to correct them. Yet the 
influence of this diverse element was by no means small in 
introducing a change of type in the Puritan town. 

The third in order of time was the Pilgrim of Plymouth. Of 
him the common remark that our ancestors came over to estab- 
lish or to find religious freedom was so far true, that they came 
to save themselves and their children from what they deemed 
the contaminating influences which surrounded them either in 
England or in Holland. They were sincere enthusiasts for their 
religiou? views, willing to be martyrs if need be ; God-fearing 
men, full of the sweetness of Christ's Gospel, as they under- 
stood it ; ready, as they felt that they had received a new light 
which those about them had not, in theory to acknowledge that 
all God's light might not have come to them, and that they 
were to expect and welcome any new light that might be vouch- 
safed to them ; yet so satisfied with their own, that it is not 
likely that the evidence would readily be found which would 
convince them of the new light; — withal, they were not of the 
great men, as this world counts greatness ; they were no doubt 
wilful and opinionated, their vision was no doubt capable of 
measurement, and their minds were, it may be, narrow ; but 
they had the strength of character which comes from sincere 
conviction, — and, in the progress of time, we are more willing 
to identify ourselves with them than with any other of the 
types of character which could be found among the early set- 



iSS NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

tiers of New England. Their influence was scarcely felt di- 
rectly in New Hampshire, and they themselves, notwithstand- 
ing their efforts to send down through their posterity their own 
cherished faith, were eventually swallowed up by the stronger 
Puritans. 

The latest type of New England settler, that for our present 
purpose it is necessary for us to consider, was the Puritan of 
Massachusetts Bay. Men they were, in whose hearts burned a 
zeal for their own religion which left no room for the belief 
that any new or different light could ever come to themselves 
or to the world — intolerant of all other beliefs to a degree which 
almost rivalled that of the Church of Rome. Yet withal it was 
more a religion of the head than of the heart, and it was accom- 
panied with a form of assertion which seemed to their un- 
friends to savor more of policy than of truth. They were not 
simple-minded souls who found their all in their religious faith, 
but shrewd, hard-headed men of the world : their eye was al- 
ways open to the main chance. If their settlement here was 
founded, professedly, to form a community whose God w T as the 
Lord, and in which His worship should be, and remain, pure 
and undefiled, there was also the hope of founding a common- 
wealth in which they were to find their temporal interests 
duly served. To them are to be ascribed the qualities, largely, 
which go to form the idea conventionally received of the Yan- 
kee. They were backed by a strong business, religious, and 
political party at home in England, and in their history the alter- 
nating supremacy of each of these interests may be traced. 
Similarity of views led them to a strong feeling of common in- 
terest with the parliament party in the civil war then raging in 
England, as the Cavalier element did with that of the King. 
Their settlement had been largely recruited from those who 
would escape the pow r er and authority of the royal prerogative, 
and they received the countenance of the parliament party in 
their efforts to establish a commonwealth which practically 
should include all New England. Having come to found a 
commonwealth in which they and theirs were to be the chief 
rulers, their polity was such as seemed to them likely to make 
that commonwealth a success. They encroached upon their 



MmiiH^*.Ml>r*rU;-j.eM:j*iaM.K* 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 1 89 

neighbors on either hand : they swallowed up the earlier settle- 
ments. Plymouth, Mariana, New Hampshire, New Somerset 
ceased almost to have a name. If their religion had not the 
sweetness of that of Plymouth and its Pilgrims, it was to the 
full as dogmatic and assertive as it, while in its influence upon 
the control of the life it was quite as successful as that the Cava- 
lier element brought with it. They brought with them the 
germs of a church polity which soon grew into a very perfect 
system of the forms of religion, and by maintaining those forms 
seemed to itself, and to the careless observer, to have more of 
the reality of religion than any of the other settlers except the 
Pilgrim, who was thereby the easier absorbed. Filled with 
their dream of a Christian commonwealth, they would seem to 
have the spirit, even though they may never have placed it in 
form, of the resolutions of which we have heard, as passed by one 
of their churches : 

Resolved, That the Earth is the Lord's and the inheritance thereof. 
Resolved^ That the inheritance belongs to the Saints. 
Resolved, That we are the Saints. 

It was much in the spirit of these resolutions that their colony 
was carried on under their charter. Let us not judge them too 
harshly : their faults, such as they were, were those largely of 
the age in which they lived, while in many respects they 
builded better than they knew. They introduced municipal 
government into New England. Not the democratic govern- 
ments which are commonly ascribed to them : that theory, like 
that of religious liberty, was far in advance of them. The gov- 
ernment, the political power, was in the hands of the freemen 
alone, and in the towns the primary ownership of the land 
and the political power were in the hands of the original gran- 
tees, and of those whom they admitted as freemen and settlers 
with them. In accordance with the fundamental idea of their 
religious commonwealth, every freeman must be a member of 
their church, or, rather, of one of their association of churches. 
And those who professed a different faith were not worthy of 
trust. How could they be, when they denied the very foun- 
dation on which their civil government was, in their minds at 
least, reared ! 



ritfiiiMr M ^^ 



I90 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

In thus attempting to point out the character, or types of the 
character, of these early settlers, let me not be supposed to be 
drawing any individual portraits, or to deny that a finer analy- 
sis might show intermediate types, or to assert that all these 
characteristic traits were to be found in any one person. 

You have all heard of the too susceptible and unfortunate 
young man, who, seeing the photograph of apparently a beauti- 
ful girl, fell deeply, madly in love with her, and when he 
sought the original, found it was one of those composite pictures 
of some sixty young girl graduates of Smith College, or Vassar, 
or some other, — and, look among them all as he would, no one 
of them was the ideal original of the portrait, although the pho- 
tograph of each and every one was there. It is thus I have at- 
tempted, feebly, I know, to present the composite picture of the 
different types of early settlers, out of whom and others like, 
and from no one of whom, has come the strength of New 
England. 

Of our New Hampshire towns, Portsmouth was formed very 
largely of the first two classes I have named, and of the depend- 
ents which those classes brought with them. After the death 
of Mason there was a large Puritan addition, and the struggles 
between these parties may yet be dimly discerned in what the 
victors in the struggle have suffered to come down to us of 
the record of those times. Dover, with less of the Cavalier and 
more of a modified Puritan character, yet both in civil and 
religious affairs, was by no means in full accord with the Puri- 
tans of the Bay. Exeter, with an admixture greater or less of 
the earlier or fisherman element, was chiefly regarded by 
Massachusetts, as it was in fact, as the hostile settlement of the 
banished Wheelwright and his followers. Banished ! not for 
religious but for political nonconformity, although the former 
was made the pretext for the arbitrary act. 

Hampton was in its inception a Piiritan town granted by 
Massachusetts on the ground she intended to claim, and the 
frontier toward the banished and assumed heretical Exeter 
and the loose-living, half-Cavalier, half-fisherman of Portsmouth 
and Dover. 

The original settlers of the four New Hampshire towns, 



jftjjfr^iiaaii^ 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 191 

though poor in this world's goods, though, from the hard con- 
ditions under which life was presented to them, they had little 
time to write history or tell the story of their struggles and 

J on 

aspirations: yet as we lookback through the distorted medium 
through which most of what we know of them has been pre- 
served to us, we cannot but be struck with the fact that their 
leaders would have been eminent in any community. And 
though the victorious Massachusetts Puritan may still persist in 
belittling them, yet they not only have greatly modified the 
character of New England town governments, but have con- 
tributed, not less than Massachusetts herself, to make New Eng- 
land's fame and character ; and we who claim descent from 
them may look upon their lives and their acts as a constant 
stimulus to remember the adage ascribed to the French nobili- 
ty of the olden times, that t; Noblesse oblige." The world 
has the right to expect and to claim of us as their descendants 
a higher patriotism, a purer life, than of those to whom it can- 
not point an equal ancestry. But their numbers were too few to 
cope thoroughly with other social forces about them. The 
annexation of Portsmouth and Dover, and, later, of Exeter, the 
combining them with the county of Norfolk, brought them 
with Hampton into (for the perpetuity of the Puritan type of 
town) dangerous contact with other elements, notwithstanding 
the effort successfully made to Puritanize (if I may be allowed 
to coin a word) the New Hampshire towns. In Portsmouth 
and Dover the requirement of church membership, through 
politic management, was not insisted upon. The failure of the 
Wheelwright church in Exeter, and the prohibition of the gene- 
ral court ** that the people of Exeter proceed no farther in the 
settlement of a pastor till a further order of this court," which 
left Exeter without settled religious instruction for several 
years, probably produced the same result there. The require- 
ment could not long have been maintained in Hampton. The 
frequent interchange of inhabitants between the four towns 
would of necessity have obliterated this, as well as the other 
distinctions of freemen in each. Hampton ceased to be wholly 
Puritan as the other towns became partially so. The greater free- 
'domofthe two northern towns permeated the more southern 



^^xvrtaxKXm)*^^ 



I92 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ones, both religiously and politically : and before the Massachu- 
setts rule was set aside, and the province of New Hampshire 
established, in these four towns little distinction was made 
between 'those who were after the Puritan manner freemen, 
and those who were not ; and these towns were democratic 
republics, owing a certain allegiance to the central power, but 
not recognizing many distinctions to which the Massachusetts 
towns proper were subject. In this way, as I conceive it, the 
type of New England town government, as distinguished from 
Massachusetts Bay Puritan towns, came into being. It was 
not created by the superior wisdom of our ancestors, but. like 
Topsy, it " growed," and that, too, in that part of New England 
where the necessary influences were most potent. Had it not 
been for this fortunate chance, which threw four such commu- 
nities together as the four New Hampshire towns, it is not 
improbable that the growth of the municipal system, originally 
introduced in Massachusetts Bay, would have been different, and 
it is quite possible that, refusing to yield to the advancing sen- 
timent of freedom, it might have ceased to be one of the great 
forces of our civilization. 

These New Hampshire towns exercised, — I was about to say 
claimed, but it was rather that without any thought of claim 
or its denial, — they simply exercised without question many 
powers which the stronger government of Massachusetts never 
would permit to towns under that government. Hence, when 
men, learned in the law-books, but not so deeply learned in 
the history of our New Hampshire towns, were called to 
decide upon the authority of the towns, they not infrequently 
erred, as did the supreme court of New Hampshire when it 
decided, in the War of the Rebellion, that the towns had no 
authority to raise money to pay in bounties to encourage the 
enlistment of soldiers — a thing which the New Hampshire 
towns had done unquestioned in every preceding war. The 
decision would have been in accordance with the precedents 
in Massachusetts, from whose cases it was probably taken. 

I do not wish to be understood as claiming for the mere 
form of town government, thus established, the origin of the 
greater freedom of the individual which distinguishes our mod-* 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 1 93 

em systems of political thought. The recognition of the right 
of the individual to a personal freedom, as distinguished from 
that of the social system of which he might be a member, was, 
undoubtedly, the necessary result of wider acting causes, and 
would sooner or later have come had the New England town 
never existed. But there can be no doubt that these towns 
were the means of introducing that sentiment to the political 
society of which they formed a part without the shock which 
elsewhere was caused by it, and that they formed a convenient 
medium for making known to the world as a practical force 
this great truth. 

The position of the New England town and its town-meet- 
ing in the civil polity is not, I fear, at all times fully remem- 
bered ; — in truth, even in Massachusetts, much the larger 
share of political power was in the towns. It was not so much 
that the towns exercised the powers which the general court 
granted them, as that the general court did such things as the 
towns directed them to do. All public business was debated 
and considered in town-meeting as much as, if not more than, in 
the general court itself. On the other hand, no officer of the 
town presumed to do anything until the town-meeting had con- 
sidered and directed it ; the smallest act required a town-meet- 
ing before the selectmen should act. If this sometimes caused 
a vacillating policy and consequent waste of energy and of 
money, it at least rendered every citizen cognizant of the town 
affairs, and gave him a power to judge of the wisdom or other- 
wise of the town's acts, of which few modern citizens can boast. 
These little democracies did much to create, or at least to foster, 
that spirit of self-reliant strength which made the name of Yan- 
kee famous. 

Leaving now the past, let us look forward, with what pre- 
science we may possess, into what shall be the future of the 
influence of the New England town system upon the progress 
of the race. For I assume that, with all that has been done, 
no thoughtful man believes that the great problem of successful 
human government has yet been solved. Our most advanced 
•systems are yet but experiments, out of the repeated failures of 
whicu we are as yet to find only buoys to mark out the false 
9 



194 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

tracks which have been heretofore followed, as well as to 
indicate the direction in which progress is for the present least 
impeded. That these New England towns possessed, for 
them, a far better system of government than had ever 
before been known, and probablj better for them than any we 
are likely to find, will, I think, compel the assent of every care- 
ful and truth-seeking inquirer into political truth. Not that 
they were perfect, as none of the works of man can be, but 
that the evils are more than counterbalanced by the gain over 
all other systems ; but that the system, which in our smaller 
towns, where there is great practical equality of knowledge, of 
virtue, of social standing, and of wealth, has been productive 
of so much that is desirable, if not all that is essential, in good 
government, may fail when applied to other communities where 
no such practical equality exists, — where, on the contrary, great 
extremes of knowledge and ignorance, of public and private 
virtue, of vice and crime, of refinement and vulgarity, as well 
as of wealth and indigence, separate the community into classes 
and cliques, among whom great jealousies of each other will 
necessarily exist, often rising into enmity, — is a priori highly 
probable, and in many instances has directly or indirectly come 
very near making wreck of all t3i-e good which elsewhere has 
come from it in communities like those where it originated. 
Again : The growth of population, the diversities of business. 
the greater accumulation of capital, and the consequent increase 
of the scale on which our business enterprises are carried on, 
have brought together bodies of men in the same community far 
too large to transact business in town-meeting, and have rendered 
some other system a necessity. In what way, then, shall this 
necessary growth of the body politic be provided for? In the 
government of national affairs, which in the earlier times of 
political history were little more than the quarrels between 
towns, and which, as these towns coalesced into states, were pro- 
vided for by more or less arbitrary government, modern example 
has provided representative government, and the so far success- 
ful working of representative governments has, in this country, 
led to the adoption of similar governments in cities, not, how- 
ever, with that complete satisfaction in its working, which we 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 1 95 

might desire ; so that now in many of our large cities there is a 
growing sentiment, practically, although almost unconsciously, 
in the direction of arbitrary power — a result which would seem 
in other nations to be very generally resorted to. While these 
experiments have been making in the government of our hetero- 
geneous cities, they have reacted unfavorably upon our town 
governments, and they have been changing from the democratic 
republic of the New England types of towns, in which the 
body of the inhabitants determine the course of public action, 
into representative governments, in which, not the town but 
executive officers, originally designed merely to carry out the 
views of the citizens as declared by them in town-meeting, 
have assumed the power of direction of the town's policy. In 
both cases our experiments seem now to be failures. What 
then ? The method of arbitrary government — no matter how 
variously our body politic may be made up, or how extensive 
or how complicated the details of the government may be — is 
highly repugnant to all our notions and prejudices, and almost 
equally so to our well informed judgment. The conundrum is 
one that day by day is pressing us for solution, and every day 
we are giving it up as too hard for us ; while all the time there 
are many who think they see, in the failure of representative 
government in cities, the evidence of its eventual failure in 
state and national affairs. I am no pessimist : I believe the 
world to-day has profited by the experience of the ages ; and as 
our control over the forces of nature has largely increased our 
natural powers, as our increased incomes have greatly en- 
larged our means of material happiness, as our greater knowl- 
edge has extended the term of earthly existence, as our mod- 
ern systems of government have furnished greater protection 
to the individual from arbitrary power, so we have reason to 
trust that in each of these, and in other directions, we shall 
from generation to generation grow not only stronger and 
richer, but wiser and better, and this though we may in some 
directions grow worse. Yet I am not so much of an optimist 
as to shut my eyes to dangers which are plainly before me. 
While there is much which I cannot see, I fully believe in the 
democratic basis of our town system of government. I believe 



196 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

that the encroachments of mere agents upon the province of 
the town should be resisted and cured, not so much by legisla- 
tion as by a higher sense of public duty in each citizen. 
Representative institutions are a makeshift oniv. to do that 
which the Demos is too unwieldy to perform. Their tendency 
is, to steal the power from the many and deposit it with the few : 
still they are, so far as can now be seen, indispensable. The 
dangers arising from them are to be met by increased sense of 
responsibility in the elector, and increased jealou \y of unneces- 
sary legislation, — in short, by greatly increased public spirit. 
We should endeavor, so far as possible, to res; the causes 
which are making the great inequalities in our modern societv, 
by increasing the intelligence and learning of th ; e who are 
behind in the race ; by the promotion of pubii .nd private 
virtue among those who lack ; by the cultivation of th ; higher and 
more refined feelings among those who now are c se and vul- 
gar ; and by the more equal distribution of wealth -that homo- 
geneity, which has made the success of the New England town, 
may be in great part restored. I know the many difficulties 
which beset any attempt to do any of these thiftgs, but I feel 
well assured that if the wise and learned remain in willing, as 
they seem now to me to be, to make the elevation, of their fel- 
low-men the first and the highest exercise of the powers and 
energies which the Creator has implanted in them ; if the vir- 
tuous and the religious portion of the community remain satis- 
fied with their own freedom from vice, and, like the Levite and 
the priest in the parable, pass by on the other side their brothers 
and sisters who form the dangerous classes in society ; if the 
refined continue to recoil from the coarse and vulgar, and to 
appear at least to believe themselves made of better clay than 
others ; if the rich continue to trust in their wealth, and to 
increase it by methods which can hardly pass the golden rule 
of doing unto others as you would have others do to you, while 
entirely falling short of the Saviour's rule of love, not as we 
love ourselves but as He loved us ; — if all these classes make no 
more effort, than in my time they have done, to reduce and 
minimize the differences between different rank- in societv, 
our representative institutions, like our system of town govern- 



1 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. I97 

ments, will prove a failure, and the tendency I have adverted 
to, to resort to arbitrary government, will become too strong 
to be resisted, and in some way, it would be presumptuous 
even to guess what, the spectre which has been felt rather than 
seen, which we sometimes speak of as " the man on horse- 
back' 1 will brood over us, sapping our very national life. 

But the proverb that Man's extremity is God's opportu- 
nity has very much of truth, and to Him I am willing to trust 
the future of our beloved country, always remembering the 
story of Mahomet, who, when one of his fanatic followers in 
his presence said " I will now loose my camel, and trust him 
to God," replied, " Friend, tie thy camel, and trust him to 
God." 

In thus calling your attention to the relation of our early New 
Hampshire history to some of the problems of good govern- 
ment, and trying to impress upon you my sense of some trials 
and some dangers, which seem to me impending, and the duties 
which we as thinking men should try to be prepared to meet, 
I can hardly flatter myself that I have, in either, done what it 
was in my heart to impress upon you, or perhaps to make clear 
the truth either of my history or my sense of duty. 

Thanking you for your kind attention, I ask you to remember 
what may be worth remembering, and to forget all that may 
seem to you trivial and false. 

Hon. Charles R. Morrison offered the following resolution, 
which, on motion, was adopted : 

Resolved, That this Society views with great satisfaction the 
joint resolution of the last legislature for the statue of General 
John Stark, and expresses the hope that the undertaking will 
be carried to a successful conclusion. 

On motion of Hon. L. D. Stevens, the thanks of the Society 
were voted Hon. John J. Bell, for his address. 

On motion of Hon. Charles H. Bell, the thanks of the Soci- 
ety were voted Amos Hadley, Esq., for his long and faithful 
service of sixteen years as recording secretary. 

On motion of Amos Hadley, Esq., it was voted that when 



^......^.a^ia ^ ^f 



I98 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the annual meeting adjourns, it be to meet at the call of the 
president. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned at 3 o'clock in the after- 
noon. 

Charles R. Corning, 

Recording Secretary. 



ANNUAL FIELD DAY. 

Concord, September 8, 1S90. 

The Committee on the Annual Excursion and Field Day of 
the N. H. Historical Society, through its chairman, sent out to 
the members the following announcement : 

''The Annual Excursion and Field Day of the members of 
the N. H. Historical Society and their friends will be to Hamp- 
ton Beach, on Thursday, September 11." 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Thursday, September 12, 1S90. 

The Annual Field Day of the N. H. Historical Society was 
held in the town of Hampton, according to the arrangements. 
The members assembled at the Boar's Head House, kept by 
Col. Stebbins H. Dumas, where they partook of dinner, and 
in the afternoon enjoyed drives in the neighborhood, some going 
to Hampton Falls to visit the Gov. Weare house, and to view 
his monument. At half past seven in the evening the Society 
was called to order by its president, Hon. S. C. Eastman. In 
the absence of the recording secretary, Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
was chosen recording secretary pro tern. 

Mrs. Myron J. Pratt entertained the company with selections 
on the piano, some of them being her own composition. 

President Eastman delivered an address on the Northmen in 
America, and the discovery of this country by them. 

The stone, supposed by Mr. Aber to indicate the grave of the 






ANNUAL MEETING. 1 99 

celebrated Thorvald, and found on the land of William Lee. 
was a subject of discussion by Hon. James W. Patterson, Mr. 
Joseph B. Walker, Rev. James H. Fitz, Mr. Woodbridge 
Odlin, Albert Leavitt, Esq., Charles M. Lamprey, Esq., and 
others. 

Charles M. Lamprey, Esq., thanked the Society, on behalf of 
the people of Hampton, for honoring them by this Field Day. 

On motion of Hon. Amos J. Blake, the subject of the Thor- 
vald stone was postponed to the next annual meeting of the 
Society. This motion was laid on the table. 

On motion of Mr. J. B. Walker, it was voted to appropriate 
one hundred dollars for the use of the library committee, to 
buy books. 

On motion, Mr. Charles C. Danforth, of Concord, was elected 
a resident member of the Society. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned, subject to the call of the 

president. 

Isaac K. Gage, 

Recording Secretary, fro tern, 
A true copy : 

Charles R. Corning, 

Recording Secretary. 



_ZT" TW *m [i j h4m m r . v* ,a 



LIFE MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, 
JUNE ii, 1890. 



MRS. CORA K. BELL, 

HON. CHARLES H. BELL, 

HON. JOHN J. BELL, 

REV. W. R. COCHRANE, . 

JOSEPH C. A. HILL, Esq., 

HON. GEORGE A. PILLSBU1Y, 

MRS. ALMIRA RICE TAPPAN, 

REV. CHARLES LANGDON TAPPAN, 



Exeter. 

Exeter. 

Exeter. 

Antrim. 

Concord. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Concord. 

Concord. 



RESIDENT MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY, 
JUNE ii, 1890. 



Francis L. Abbot, 

Henry Abbott, 

Judge W. H. H. Allen, 

Frank P. Andrews, 

Clinton S. Averill, 

F. D. Ayer, D. D., 

Hon. Charles H. Amsden, 

Gen. Henry M. Baker, 

Hon. George L. Balcom, 

Dr. Jesse P. Bancroft, 

Hon. Daniel Barnard, 

Rev. John E. Barry, . 

Mrs. Caroline B. Bartlett, 

James W. Bartlett, . 

Mrs. Annie E. Baer, . 

John Ballard, 

Hon. Amos J. Blake, . 

Albert E. Bodwell, . 

Mrs. Pauline L. Bowen, 

E. R. Brown, 

Alvin Burleigh, . 

Judge Alonzo P. Carpenter, 

Mrs. Julia R. Carpenter, 

Rev. Nathan Franklin Carter, 

Dr. William G. Carter, 

Charles S. Cartland, 

Hon. William E. Chandler, 

Hon. William M. Chase, 

Horace E. Chamberlain, 

George B. Chandler, 



Concord. 

Winchester. 

Claremont. 

Concord. 

Milford. 

Concord. 

Penacook. 

Bow. 

Claremont. 

Concord. 

Franklin. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Dover. 

Salmon Falls. 

Concord. 

Fitz william. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Dover. 

Plymouth. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Dover. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Manchester. 



202 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Prof. Bradbury L. Cilley, 

Harry B. Cilley, 

John B. Clarke, . 

Cornelius E. Clifford, 

P. Brainard Cogswell, 

Ira Colby, . 

Hon. Charles R. Corning, 

Cephas B. Crane, D.D., 

Mrs. Annette M. R. Cressey, 

Hon. David Cross, 

George N. Cross, 

Gen. George T. Cruft, 

Hon. Moody Currier, 

Hon. Sylvester Dana, 

Lewis Downing, Jr., 

Hon. Warren F. Daniell, 

Isaac B. Dodge, . 

Albert S. Eastman, 

Charles T. Eastman, . 

Edson C. Eastman, 

Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 

Mrs. Harriet N. Eaton, 

James A. Edgerly, 

Alfred Elwyn, 

Charles A. Farr, 

John L. Farwell, 

Francis C Faulkner, 

William P. Fiske, 

Rev. James H. Fitts, . 

John C. French, . 

John S. H. Frink, 

John E. Frye, 

W. A. Fergusson, 

Isaac K. Gage, 

Enoch Gerrish, . 

Rev. J. Bradley Gilman, 

Sylvester C. Gould, . 

Mrs. Maria L. Gove, . 

John C. Goodenough, . 

Wallace Hackett, 



Exeter. 

Concord. 

Manchester. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Claremont. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Manchester. 

Exeter. 

Bethlehem. 

Manchester. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Franklin. 

Amherst. 

Hampstead. 

Littleton. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Somersworth . 

Portsmouth. 

Littleton. 

Claremont. 

Keene. 

Concord. 

South Newmarket. 

Manchester. 

Greenland. 

East Concord. 

Auburn, Me. 

Penacook. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Manchester. 

Concord. 

Littleton. 

Portsmouth. 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



203 



Frank W. Hackett, . 
William H. Hackett, 
Marshall P. Hall, 
Hon. Daniel Hall, 
John R. Ham, 
Mrs. Martha W. Hammond 
Hon. Amos Hadley, 
Miss Amanda B. Harris, 
Miss Alma J. Herbert, 
Edson J. Hill, 
Paul R. Holden, 
Moses Humphrey, 
Hon. Chester B. Jordan, 
Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball, 
Henry A. Kimball, 
Mrs. Myra T. Kimball, 
Mrs. Mary E. Kimball, 
Hon. John Kimball, 
Dr. John R. Kimball, 
Samuel S. Kimball, 
Seneca A. Ladd, 
Hon. William S. Ladd, 
Francis E. Langdon, . 
Dr. M. C. Lathrop, 
Hon. John C. Linehan, 
George P. Little, 
Mrs. John C. Long, 
Mrs. Lydia F. Lund, . 
John M. Mahany, 
Anson S. Marshall, 
Charles T. Means, 
William H. Mitchell, 
Hon. Charles R. Morrison, 
Hon. Leonard A. Morrison, 
Mortier L. Morrison, 
John N. McClintock, . 
Albert O. Mathes, 
Hon. John W. Noyes, 
Eliphalet S. Nutter, 
John P. Nutter, . 



Portsmouth. 

Portsmouth. 

Manchester. 

Dover. 

Dover. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Warner. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

West Concord. 

Concord. 

Lancaster. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Lebanon. 

Concord. 

Suncook. 

Concord. 

Meredith Village. 

Lancaster. 

Portsmouth. 

Dover. 

Penacook. 

Pembroke. 

Exeter. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Manchester. 

Littleton. 

Concord. 

Windham. 

Peterborough. 

Concord. 

Dover. 

Chester. 

Concord. 

Concord. 



mtmm,mm u t ^MiMmiiaMmitmtr<sm ■- * ^,^^ .^.,.~.. «*j isffitf t .- 



204 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Rev. James E. Odlin, 




Goffstown. 


WOODBRIDGE ODLIN, 




Concord. 


George Olcott, . 




Charles town. 


John C. Ordway, 




Concord. 


Dr. Haven Palmer, 


. 


Plymouth. 


Walter M. Parker, . 




Manchester. 


Rev. E. G. Parsons, 




Derry. 


Jonathan E. Pecker, 




Concord. 


John T. Perry, 




Exeter. 


Parker Pillsbury, 




Concord. 


Joseph Pinkham, . 




Newmarket. 


Gen. Howard L. Porter, . 


Concord. 


Mrs. Alice Rosalie Porter, 


Concord. 


Myron J. Pratt, 


Concord. 


Abraham J. Prescott, 


Concord. 


Hon. Benjamin F. Prescott, 


Epping. 


Hon. Dexter Richards, 


Newport. 


Hon. Henry Robinson, 


Concord. 


Frank W. Rollins, 


Concord. 


William H. Rollins, . 


Portsmouth. 


Charles H. Sanders, . 


Penacook. 


Mrs. Louisa J. Sargent, 


Concord. 


Hon. Charles H. Sawyer, . 


Dover. 


Mrs. Elizabeth P. Schutz, 


Concord. 


Daniel F. Secomb, 


Concord. 


Hon. Arthur W. Silsby, 


Concord. 


George H. H. Silsby, 


Concord. 


Hon. Frederick Smyth, 


Manchester. 


Mrs. Marion Smyth, . 


Manchester. 


Hon. Isaac W. Smith, 


Manchester. 


John B. Smith, 


Hillsborough 


Jeremiah Smith, . 


Dover. 


Edward Spalding, 


Nashua. 


Edward H. Spalding, 


Wilton. 


Charles B. Spofford, 


Claremont. 


Paul A. Stackpole, 


Dover. 


Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, 


Rindge. 


Hon. Lyman D. Stevens, 


Concord. 


Mrs. Frances C. Stevens, . 


Concord. 


Henry W. Stevens, 




Concord. 



^mrn^^m^ 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



205 



Mrs. Ellen Tuck Stevens 
William S. Stevens, . 
Joseph A. Stickney, 
Hon. Alvah W. Sulloway 
John C. Thorne, . 
Titus Salter Tredick, 
Hon. A. S. Twitchell, 
Prof. Isaac Walker, . 
Charles R. Walker, . 
Mrs. Elizabeth L. Walker 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Dr. Benjamin S. Warren, 
Dr. Irving A. Watson, 
John T. Welch, . 
Mark H. Went worth, 
John A. White, . 
B. B. Whittemore, 
Joseph C. A. Wingate, 



Concord. 

Dover. 

Somersworth. 

Franklin. 

Concord. 

Portsmouth. 

Gorham. 

Pembroke. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Concord. 

Dover. 

Portsmouth. 

Concord. 

Nashua. 

Stratham. 



mmmmm ®mw m mmm*^ * mm®M*&®* m&&»-* - ^^mm^m*^ 




m 



-m 




mm 



§Jlfe 






^Lc^A^ J^T^L^ 



HON. CHARLES H. BELL 



The New Hampshire Historical Society was incorporated 
and organized in 1823. Charles Henry Bell was born the 
same year. The good works of the man and the life of 
the society are closely intermingled. Mr. Bell became a 
resident member of the society at the annual meeting in 
June, 1859, anc * a life member in 1874. Through all these 
years the society has enjoyed the benefit of his sound advice, 
and of his willing and efficient service. He was frequently 
appointed to committees, and discharged all the delegated 
trusts with zeal and ability. In 1S68 he was elected president 
of the society, and by annual reflections was continued in that 
office nineteen years. 

I. John Bell, the emigrant ancestor of a distinguished fam- 
ily, was born near Coleraine, in the county of Antrim, Ireland, 
1678. He settled in Londonderry, N. H., 1720, and two years 
later he returned to Ireland for his wife and two infant daugh- 
ters. His homestead was in Aiken's Range, within the pres- 
ent town of Derry. He married Elizabeth Todd, a daughter 
of James and Rachel (Nelson) Todd, and a sister of Col. 
Andrew Todd. He died July 8, 1743. His wife survived 
him, and died August 30, 1 771 . They had two sons and four 
daughters. 

II. John Bell, the son of John and Elizabeth (Todd) Bell, 
was born in Londonderry, August 15, 1730. He married, 
December 21, 175S, Mary Ann Gilmore, a daughter of James 



.■.:..■-•■■ 



J 

2IO NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and Jean (Baptiste) Gilmore of Londonderry. He was a rep- 
resentative in 1776 and 1777, and again in 1792 and 1793, and 
a state senator four years, beginning June, 1786, and in 1791 
he completed the unexpired term caused by the resignation of 
Oliver Peabody. He was a colonel in the militia, and August 
10, 1785, he was appointed a special justice of the inferior court 
of common pleas. He died November 30, 1825 ; his wife died 
April 21, 1822. They had four sons and five daughters. 

III. John Bell, a son of John and Mary Ann (Gilmore) 
Bell, was born in Londonderry, July 20, 1765. He married, 
December 25, 1803, Persis Thorn, born December 14. 177S, a 
daughter of Dr. Isaac and Persis (Sargent) Thorn. He was a 
member of the house of representatives in 1799 and 1S00, and 
of the senate in 1S03. Beginning; in June, 1S17, he was five 
years a member of the executive council, and from 1S23 to 
1828 the sheriff of Rockingham county. Pie was governor for 
the official year iS2S-'29. He died in Chester. March 23. 
1836; his widow died in 1S62. Charles Henry Bell was the 
youngest of their ten children. Samuel Bell, a younger son of 
John and Mary Ann (Gilmore) Bell, was born February 9, 
1770. Dartmouth college, 1793. He was governor of New 
Hampshire, iSi9~'23, and United States senator, iS23-'35. 
Died in Chester, December 23, 1850. 

IV. Charles Henry Bell, a son of John and Persis 
(Thorn) Bell, was born in Chester, November iS. 1S23. 
Dartmouth college, 1S44. LL. D., 18S1. He was a lawyer 
practising in Chester, Somersworth, and after 1S54, in Exeter. 
Beginning in 1S56, he was ten years solicitor of Rockingham 
county. He was a member of the house of representatives in 
1858, 1859, J S6o, 1S72, and 1S73, a "d m tms sery i ce ne was 
twice appointed chairman of the judiciary committee, and was 
also a member of the committees on elections, state library, 
and normal school. In 1S63 and 1864 he was a member of the 
senate, and was appointed to the committees on judiciary, banks, 
and state institutions. In i860 he was speaker of the house, 
and in 1S64 president of the senate. 

In March, 1S79, Governor Prescott appointed him United 



CHARLES H. BELL. 211 

States senator, to serve until an existing vacancy was filled by 
the legislature the following June. In November, 1SS0. he 
was elected governor for the term extending from June. 1SS1. 
to June, 1883. In the constitutional convention of 1SS9 he 
was a member, and was president of the body. For many 
years he was a trustee of Phillips Exeter academy, and a con- 
siderable part of the time he was president of the board. 
Retiring from the active practice of his profession in 1S6S. 
when not employed in official duties, Mr. Bell has been wholly 
engaged in literary and historical pursuits. He died in Exeter. 
November 11, 1893. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



Concord, Wednesday, June 10, 1891. 

The sixty-ninth annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held this day, at the Society's rooms, 
at 11 o'clock a. m., the Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, President, 
in the chair. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Hon. Charles R. 
Corning, Rev. C. L. Tappan, Librarian, was chosen Secretary 
pro tern. 

The proceedings of the last annual meeting having been 
printed, the reading of the same was dispensed with. 

The Hon. Sylvester Dana, Corresponding Secretary, made 
a verbal report, which was accepted. 

On motion of Hon. John J. Bell, a committee of three, 

Hon. Sylvester Dana, 
Woodbridge Odlin, Esq., 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 

was appointed to recommend new members. 

On motion of Hon. Amos Hadley, a committee of three was 
appointed by the chair to nominate a list of officers for the 
ensuing year, as follows : 

Hon. Amos Hadley, 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Rev. N. F. Carter. 

The President presented the following communication from 
Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball : 

To the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

The name of La Fayette stands out prominently among the 
great men of the world. 

His intense love of liberty and freedom of speech caused 
him, in the hour of our greatest need, to ofter himself to the 



rt||lwyrB ^U£AM*»«arii^^ 



214 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

cause of the American colonies. He sacrificed his country, 
family, and friends to this one thought of his life, because he 
felt it a duty. How well he performed this self-imposed duty, 
the result, the veneration, and the respect in which he is now 
held testifies. 

After the great question of liberty had been settled, he re- 
turned to visit the country for which he had spent so much of 
his time, energy, and fortune, and to congratulate its people on 
having so successfully accomplished their independence. 

New Hampshire was one of the states which had the honor 
of receiving a visit from him, and of expressing to him their 
appreciation of his services. 

My high esteem and fondness for the life and character of 
this noble man, prompted me, during my recent visit to France, 
to obtain a cast of the bust by Houdon, which the state of Vir- 
ginia presented to France as a token of its appreciation of his 
valuable services to this country. This bust crowns the en- 
trance to the Assembly Hall at Versailles, where the republic 
of France was born, and where Thiers, Gambetta, and other 
leading statesmen battled with their arguments for the same 
cause for which General La Fayette fought with his sword in 
our country. I now take the pleasure of presenting this bust 
to this Society. 

B. A. Kimball. 

Concord, N. H., May 30, 1891. 

Note. The pedestal has some historical associations which 
may be of interest to the Society. The shaft is of Africano 
marble, called Bigio Africanoto, and was found at the Mar- 
morata. the wine and marble wharf of ancient Rome, on the 
banks of the Tiber, in excavating for the abutments for a bridge, 
and came from the island of Scio, in the Grecian Archipelago. 
The cap and base are of Porto Venere, a marble mentioned by 
Pliny as coming from the island of Rhodes. 

The communication was referred to a committee of three, 
appointed by the President, — 

Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
Hon. J. B. Walker, 
Judge Sylvester Dana, 

who subsequently reported the following resolution, which was 
adopted by a unanimous vote : 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be hereby tendered 
to the Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball for his remembrance of the 



teeM^m****** 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 215 

Society during his travels in foreign lands, and for his generous 
gift of a bust of General La Fayette, as well as of the marble 
pedestal, of classic interest, upon which it stands, and that his 
communication in relation to the same be spread in full upon 
the records of the Society. 

The annual report of the Treasurer, William P. Fiske, Esq., 
was read by the Librarian, and by vote accepted and placed on 
file. 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

To the N. H. Historical Society, Concord, N. H. : 

The Treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures for the year ending June 9, 1S91 : 



Bv 


KJlLfiiriS. 

balance . . . . . 


$10,384.36 


By 


cash 


received for initiation fees 


55.00 






assessments 


426.10 






books and pam- 








phlets 


80.24 






interest on funds 


534o9 






from state 


500.00 






from state, for state 








papers in London 


500.00 
$12,530.29 






EXPENDITURES. 




To 


paid 


salary of Librarian 


$500.00 






balance due I. W. Hammond 


175.00 






for postage .... 


4.00 






water-works 


4.00 






Republican Press Association 


243.84 






freight 


1.50 






Ranlet & Marsh, coal . 


22.25 






Eastman & Merrill, insurance 


2082 






W. C. & I. T. Chesley, cur- 








tains .... 


7.04 






C. L. Tappan, for books pur- 








chased .... 


59-54 






incidental expenses 


39 53 






E. B. Hutchinson, repairs . 


44-45 



$1,121.97 
$11,408.32 



■——I " ' - '■ "■ -*-" ■^■--^-'•v^-V"'" 



2l6 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Balance : 
Permanent funds .... $9,500.00 

Current funds 1,408.32 

Funds to pay for state papers in London 500.00 

$11,408.32 

Respectfully submitted : 

William P. Fiske, Treasurer. 

I hereby certify that I have examined the account of William 
P. Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 
and find the same correctly cast and sustained by proper 
vouchers. 

Isaac K. Gage, Auditor. 

Concord, N. H., June 9, 1S91. 

The annual report of the Librarian, Rev. C. L. Tappan, was 
read, presenting important suggestions, and on motion accepted 
and placed on file. 

report of the librarian. 

To the Annual Meeting of the N. H. Historical Society : 

The Librarian respectfully presents his annual report for the 
year ending June 10, 1S91. 

The library has been open from 9:30 a. m., to 12 m., and 
from 1 : 30 to 4 : 30 p. m., every day through the year, except 
Saturday afternoons and the two " Field Days " spent at 
Hampton. 

Many have availed themselves of the privileges of the library ; 
many more have come out of curiosity to see the Indian relics 
and other curios, which really form no legitimate part of the 
library, and ought not to be here. They serve only to waste 
valuable time, as the librarian should always be present with 
visitors in the library, so that books may not be mutilated or 
purloined. 

The small room in the south-east corner on the first floor has 
been fitted with shelves under the direction of the Chairman of 
the Standing Committee, on which are arranged all the Colo- 
nial and State Papers and the publications of the Society which 
are held for sale, making it much more convenient than before, 
and giving more shelf room in the library proper. More room 
is still needed. One alcove on the third floor is used for the 
storage of books and other things which do not belong to the 
Society. There is space sufficient for two or three alcoves at 
the south end of the third floor. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 



2I 7 



The library has been increased during the past year by the 
addition of So bound volumes and 94S reports and pamphlets. 

Bound volumes in the library, as reported last year, 11,314. 
Bound volumes in the library, as reported this year, 1 1.394. 
Books purchased during the past year: 
Town histories — 

Fitzwilliam .... 

Hancock, 2 vols. . 

Hopkinton .... 

Washington . 



Marlborough 

New Hampton 

Sutton, 2 vols. 

Newburyport (Smith) . 

Newburyport (Coffin) . 

Beverly, Mass. 
Genealogies — 

Morrison Family . 

Bellows Family, Walpole 
History of the First Regiment 
Historical Magazine, 61 numbers (making the 
set very nearly complete) . 



$4.00 
4.00 
2.50 

3-5o 
4.00 
2.50 
5.00 
2.25 
2.00 
1. 00 

3.00 
3.60 
2.00 

14.50 

$53-^5 



The library has received free, — Magazine of America?! His- 
tory, from Hon. P. B. Cogswell ; New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, from Historical and Genealogical 
Society ; Boston Daily Advertiser, from Mr. Joseph B. 
Walker ; Veterans' Advocate, Asylum Record, Littleton 
Courier, Plymouth Record, Exeter Gazette, Haverhill 
Courier, Weekly People and Patriot, Mirror and Par- 
mer, Canaan Reporter, Great Falls Pree Press, and Weekly 
JVeios of Woodsville, from their several publishers. 

Mrs. E. H. Greeley, through D. F. Secomb, has presented 
to the library the original " Records of the Church of Christ 
in East Kingston," from 1739 to about 1790. 

Several boxes of papers and pamphlets from the library of 
the late Judge Nesmith, were presented by his daughter, Miss 
Anne Nesmith, and Daniel Webster's boots, by John S. 
Walker, Esq., of Claremont. 

Allow me to speak of the needs' of the library. More shelf 
room is a necessity — one that is growing from year to year ; 
and should be provided for as soon as it can conveniently be 
done. There is another want not so easily met. More room 



_....,_ , jxmmmi mmmmm 



^^^,^^..^a^^^^ '--^niiiiiiMiiiiii 



218 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



is needed. There ought to be a clutter- or work-room for 
empty boxes, newspapers, unassorted pamphlets, and for other 
purposes for which there is no room now. To meet this want, 
an enlargement of the building would be necessary, which it is 
hoped may be done in the near future. 

Provision should be made for the purchase of books when 
they can be obtained, as many desirable and valuable historical 
books are increasing in price, or passing beyond, reach. Every 
old or new historical or genealogical book on New Hampshire, 
and perhaps all New England and New England people or 
families, should be put in the library as soon as they can be 
obtained. A liberal policy in this regard would enrich the 
library and keep it abreast of the times. 

For at least six months in the year the library can be used 
only in a limited degree, it not being heated at all save the 
office on the first floor. A good furnace seems to be a neces- 
sity for the good of the library and the comfort of those who 
use it. 

Respectfully submitted : 

Charles L. Tappax, 

Librarian. 

A verbal report was made by the Library Committee through 
its chairman, John C. Ordway, Esq., and accepted. 

The report of the Publishing Committee was presented, and 
on motion accepted and placed on file. 



REPORT OF PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 



To the New Hampshire Historical Society: 

The Committee of Publication respectfully make the follow- 
ing report : 

Part 2 of Vol. II of the Proceedings of this Society has been 
published, and is ready for distribution to the members of the 
Society. It contains 144 pages. Its contents are, — 

The records of the meetings of this Society from June 12, 
1889, to June'To, 1891. 

Address by Rev. Edmund F. Slafter, D. D., of Boston, sub- 
ject, " The Discovery of America by the Northmen," delivered 
before the Society, April 24, 188S. 

Annual address, June 12, 1SS9, by Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, of 
Rindge, subject, "The Offering of Lunenburg, Mass., to 
Cheshire County, N. H." 



^•■mtwmmmiMmim 



REPORT OF THE PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 219 

A paper read June 12, 1SS9, by Isaac W. Hammond, Esq.. 
of Concord, subject, '* New Hampshire under the Federal 
Constitution." 

Address, delivered before an adjourned meeting of the Soci- 
ety, March 3, 1S90, by Hon. Charles R. Corning, of Concord, 
subject, "An Exploit in King William's War: Hannah 
Dustan." 

Address, delivered before an adjourned meeting of the Soci- 
ety, March iS, 1S90, subject, "The Bradley Massacre," by 
Harry G. Sargent, Esq., of Concord. 

Annual address, June n, 1890, by Hon. John J. Bell, of 
Exeter, subject, " Early Town Government in New Hamp- 
shire." 

The names of life and resident members of the Society. 

The Society has in its vault the original Records of the Pro- 
prietors of Concord. Would it not be well to publish them? 

Charles H. Bell, 
Charles L. Tappan, 
George L. Balcom, 
* Committee of Publication. 

On motion of Col. J. E. Pecker, the Recording Secretary- 
was instructed to call quarterly meetings of the Society. 

The Hon. Amos Hadley, from the Committee appointed to 
Nominate Officers for the ensuing year, made the following 
report, which, on motion, was accepted, and the gentlemen 
named were severally elected by ballot, according to the provi- 
sions of the by-laws of the Society : 

President. 
Hon. John J. Bell. 

Vice- Presidents. 

Hon. Amos Hadley, 

Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball. 

Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway, Esq. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Hon. Sylvester Dana. 



e**twan»mmhi*to>»,mrtm,rn> . itnftm.fMHrtfr. i m , , - .itrm.ti tSnfafwrrt v. , n i. <i*'(t«+-tl*»iiM H t,ilm****mt* ,» ^mi 



220 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Treasurer. 
William P. Fiske, Esq. 

Librarian. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan. 

Necrologist. 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker. 

Library Committee. 

Hon. John J. Bell, 
Col. J. E. Pecker, 
Rev. N. F. Carter. 

Publishing Co??imittee. 

Hon. Charles H. Bell, 
Hon. Benjamin F. Prescott, 
Hon. George L. Balcom. 

Standing Committee. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Joseph C. A. Hill, Esq., 
Gen. Howard L. Porter. 

Auditor. 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq. 

President Bell, on taking the chair, returned thanks for the 
distinguished honor conferred. 

The Recording Secretary was duly sworn by Hon. John J. 
Bell, a justice of the peace. 

On motion of Hon. S. C. Eastman, 

Voted, That an assessment of three dollars be levied upon 
each resident member of the Society, for the ensuing year. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 



PROCEEDINGS ANNUAL MEETINGS. 221 

Resolved^ That a committee of three be appointed by the 
chair to invite such persons throughout the state, as have 
manuscript records of the several churches in their custody, 
and are disposed to do so, to deposit the same in the fire-proof 
vault of this Society, on such terms as may be agreed upon by 
said committee and the present custodians, the same to be open 
to the examination, under the rules of the library, of parties 
wishing to consult the same. 

President Bell subsequently appointed as such committee : 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Hon. George L. Balcom, 
Edson C. Eastman, Esq. 

Rev. N. F. Carter offered the following resolution, which, 
after some discussion, was adopted : 

Resolved^ That a committee be appointed to investigate in 
regard to the things deposited here for safe keeping or storage, 
and make such disposition of the same as they shall think best ; 
and fix a proper rental for those that are allowed to remain. 

Under this resolution the President appointed as such com- 
mittee : 

Rev. N. F. Carter, 
Hon. Amos Hadley, 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq. 

The following is the action taken by said committee: 

Concord, July 15, 1891. 
The special committee, appointed under a resolution adopted 
at the last annual meeting of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, " to investigate in regard to the things deposited here 
for safe keeping or storage, and make such disposition of the 
same as they shall think best, and fix a proper rental for those 
that are allowed to remain," have, after investigation, reached 
the following conclusions: 

1. That, in view of the crowded condition of the Society's 
rooms, it is not expedient that they be used for the mere safe 
keeping or storage of property not belonging to the Society. 

2. That the librarian is hereby instructed to collect rent on 
articles so stored, except books and manuscripts intended ulti- 



^■Timrnfird-iintti -..■--■ 



mm 



mmm^mm^i&^mmv^MmdmM^^ . 



222 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIET" 



mately to come into the possession of the Societ, . 
For a box, five dollars per annum; for an alcove. 
dollars per annum. 

N. F. Ca. 
Amos H. 
Isaac K 
C> 
On motion of Mr. John C. Ordway, it was 

Voted, That the recommendations of the 1: 
reference to heating the building, be referred to 
Committee, with full power to carry such re: 
into effect. 

Hon. George L. Balcom introduced the follow 
which was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee is here 
to erect two or more alcoves at the south end of c 
and offer them to the religious denominations of tJ 
with their publications, of local historical characl 
to be the property of the Historical Society, but 
accessible at reasonable times to all. 

On motion of Hon. Amos Hadley, — 

Voted, That a committee on literary exerciser 
speakers, etc., be appointed. 

The President named as such committee, — 

Hon. Amos Hadley, 
Hon. Lyman D. Stevens, 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman. 

On motion of Col. J. E. Pecker, a committee of 
appointed to make the necessary arrangements for 
field-day, consisting of 

Col. J. E. Pecker, 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

and subsequently, George L. Balcom was added 
mittee, on motion of Mr. Walker. 

Voted, That when we adjourn, it be to meet 
o'clock this afternoon. 



s follows : 
■ eaty-five 

LEY, 
•AGE, 

■mittee. 

an, with 
Standing 
nidations 

solution,. 

ithorized 
Ird floor, 
.te to fill 
he same 
vs to be 



procure 



ree was 
a annual 



.he com- 



;\m at z 



Voted to adjourn. 



MR. EASTMAN S ADDRESS. 22^ 

AFTERNOON. 

The meeting of the Society was called to order by the Presi- 
dent at 2 o'clock, and the retiring President, Hon. Samuel C. 
Eastman, delivered the annual address, taking for his subject, 
44 Tendencies toward Socialism." 

ADDRESS OF HON. SAMUEL C. EASTMAN. 

The sphere and scope of a historical society is generally 
regarded as embracing the collection of books, papers, and 
memorials relating to events that have already occurred and 
are now occurring in the development of our social and politi- 
cal institutions. It is as a recorder of what is done, rather than 
as a factor in the conflicts of the day, that it has its chief mission. 
As such a recorder and gatherer of the materials from which 
future generations, freed from the prejudices of the partici- 
pants, may e*nter a judgment upon the results as well as upon 
the contributions of individuals or parties to those results, it is 
very comprehensive and catholic in its aims. Nihil humani 
alienum — "Nothing which belongs to humanity is foreign" — 
is its motto. 

It is to this avoidance of active participation in the strifes 
and contentions of contemporary life that we owe the quiet 
and seclusion of societies like ours and the harmony which 
pervades them. 

I desire, however, to-day to break away from the customary 
bounds, and to ask your attention to a few suggestions bearing 
upon questions which are being forced upon our attention at 
every turn. 

There have been many great changes wrought in the social 
and civil relations of mankind by violent overturning of the 
existing order. Such crises in the world's history are appro- 
priately characterized as revolutions. The abruptness of the 
reform, the surprise with which it overwhelms its victims, the 
dramatic culmination of the events, all conspire to call the at- 
tention of the world to the great principles which seem to be 
underlying the acts and to be their producing cause. 

But there are other revolutions, no less marked in their 
11 



224 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

results and no less instructive in the principles which they 
teach, which require a series of years for their growth and 
development, and whose progress is so slow that it is almost 
impossible to say when their culmination and general accept- 
ance is reached. Yet the results of these revolutions — evolu- 
tions they might, and perhaps should, be called — are no less 
momentous and important to our social and political growth 
than are those decided and marked changes which are accepted 
as turning-points in human development 

Such a change has been silently, but steadily and surely, 
accomplished in our own state in legal procedure. A short 
generation ago we were tied hand and foot by that complex 
and arbitrary system of special pleading inherited from our 
English progenitors, the acquisition of which in its entirety 
demanded years of study. To-day all that learning, like the 
rules of the school-men, is nearly obsolete, and no one can 
tell when it was done. 

In our reverence for a written constitution it may be that we 
neglect to see whither certain tendencies of the age are leading 
us, and we may be in danger of continuing to cherish certain 
formulas long after we have ceased to act upon the principles 
which they inculcate. 

Without discussing at the present time the expediency or 
desirability of the theory which is the ground-work of this 
school of thought, I desire to call your attention for a few 
minutes to one phase of this drifting process, and to ask you 
to consider whether one of these silent revolutions has or has 
not begun. Because we disapprove of a principle in theory 
it by no means follows that we are not adopting it in practice. 
Use reconciles us to many things that we fancy we abhor, and 
enables us to discover a little good where to our more distant 
vision only evil prevailed. 

We are accustomed to say that our forefathers came here to 
obtain a degree of freedom and liberty that was denied to them 
at home. We believe, and have been taught to believe, that 
while government formerly consisted in the control of the 
masses by and for the benefit of the favored few who ruled, 
our constitution is founded on the liberty of every individual 



mr. Eastman's address. 225 

and his freedom from control by any class. As has sometimes 
been said, we recognize that man retains all rights except 
those surrendered to society to enable men to live together. 
Really the abstract statement is broad and elastic, and it is 
only the application that need occasion difference of opinion. 

Herbert Spencer, very much in the spirit of the framers of 
our constitution, gives his conception of liberty as that state of 
things where "every man has freedom to do all that he wills, 
provided he infringes not the like freedom of any other man." 
If "all men are created equal," and if every man has a right to 
"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," as our Declaration 
of Independence so proudly declared, then it is the claim of 
men like Herbert Spencer, that the state has no right to inter- 
fere with the liberty of a man to do what he likes except so far 
as to prevent his interfering with the like rights of others. 
The more common way of expressing it is, that each man 
surrenders some of his rights to society to enable society to 
exist and to prevent the encroachment by the strong upon the 
weak, but this always with the limitation that it is for the 
purpose of the protection of the rights not surrendered. 

On the other hand we have a class of reasoners and reformers 
who contend for quite a different theory of society and govern- 
ment, while they object equally with the most strenuous advo- 
cate of individual liberty, to any divinely constituted or heredi- 
tary ruler, whether it be of a class or of a single man like the 
Czar of Russia. They say that the proper scope of society as an 
organized whole is to do all that can be done by organization. 
One class would leave to individual action everything except 
that which must be done by society or by government, for in 
this connection the words are almost synonymous. The other 
would have everything done by society that can possibly be 
done by concerted action, leaving, to the individual, freedom 
of action in those things only which the state cannot control. 

We give the name socialism to the faith which looks towards 
the latter result. It has had many apostles and there have been 
many abortive attempts to realize its ideal. Sometimes they 
have been united with a peculiar religious faith like Shakerism 
and Mormonism, and sometimes with an entire absence of any 



226 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

religious faith like Fourierism and the plans of some of the 
other French socialist leaders. 

The most striking literary presentation of socialistic ideas of 
the present day carried out to the full logical result, is to be 
found in Bellamy's entertaining story, " Looking Backward," 
while among the more thoughtful books upon the same subject 
are Henry George's " Progress and Poverty" and Gronlund's 
kl Cooperative Commonwealth," or " Modern Socialism." 

Without considering the question as to which of the two 
theories of social science is the more preferable, or the very 
interesting problem of how the nature of mankind is to be 
reconciled with the actual realization of the socialist theory, let 
us examine a little into the tendency of the present age. Are 
we, in fact, in this country, which we fondly believe to be the 
sacred home of liberty, acting on the theory that the state shall 
intervene to limit the freedom of the individual only when it 
must do so to preserve the rights of other individuals, or are we 
tending more and more to the conclusion that this, that, and 
the other thing shall be done by the state, because thereby the 
good of the whole number is better secured? 

The first duty of the state is to protect the. individual in his 
life and property. On the theory of individual freedom of 
action laid down by Spencer, the state has done its whole duty 
when by its police and its criminal courts it has either prevented 
injuries to person and property, or furnished a prompt punish- 
ment for the infraction of laws made for their prevention. The 
individual, prevented from injuring other individuals, is left free 
to secure his subsistence and his happiness as he can. He may 
deal with others or not, as he likes. If he does contract with 
others, he does so at his own peril. But we do not confine 
ourselves to this very narrow construction of liberty, but extend 
the protection of our courts so far as to compel every man to 
do as he agrees. 

What more is left for the independent theory of individual 
freedom? Is not the whole of interference by the state in 
domestic matters entirely comprised in this one direction of 
preventing us from using our liberty to the injury of our 
neighbors? 



MR. EASTMANS ADDRESS. 227 

Society is not impossible on this theory, however imperfect 
would be its development. In the early stages of settlement, 
when population is widely scattered, there are, and have been, 
in our own land vast tracts of territory and great numbers of 
individuals who came in contact with the state only when there 
was a violation of some of their rights by others. 

The very next step towards social progress is one of coopera- 
tion, and cooperation, too, under the guidance and control of 
the state. Man is a social being, and longs for social inter- 
course. No man can produce all that he needs for the comfort 
and happiness of himself and of his family. Roads by which 
he may seek others, for society or trade, are an absolute neces- 
sity. One man may build one road for his own use, but one 
road does not suffice. Individual action simply sanctioned by 
the state may build some turnpikes. It is soon found that even 
these great thoroughfares can be built and maintained more 
economically by the state, and at once the construction of com- 
mon highways is taken from the individual and managed by 
society as a whole. 

It is not enough to say to the individual (on the theory of 
individual freedom) that his money is wanted as a highway tax 
because it can thus be made to produce better results. His 
answer is, That may be, but my rights of freedom, my right 
of doing as I like provided I don't injure my neighbor's like 
lights, forbid your taking my money without my consent, even 
if I ought to believe and do actually know that you will spend 
it to my advantage. 

The socialist is ready with his answer : You are a member 
of the community, and the state is your guardian. Ail men 
must contribute to the common good, and all have certain 
common rights of protection and benefit. 

Then again, to take up a branch of service cognate to that 
of roads, individuals could and would have provided for the 
transportation of letters. But as a result in part, doubtless, of 
the increased facility of transportation, the state in all civilized 
countries has taken upon itself the delivery of letters, and even 
excluded the individual from entering into competition with it. 
The universally accepted and satisfactory reason for this is 



228 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

that by means of this compulsory cooperation conducted by 
the state in behalf of its citizens, the duty is performed better 
and more economically than it could be if it were left to indi- 
vidual enterprise. It is not because the service cannot be per- 
formed by individuals, for we see the cognate service of carry- 
ing small parcels promptly and efficiently executed without 
governmental control and at reasonably satisfactory rates. 

The socialist says that every individual is entitled to his fair 
share of the products of the labor of all, and one of his dreams 
is that in some way there shall be an equal distribution accord- 
ing to the needs of each. The independent individual freedom 
theory, on the other hand, will have each man to hunt for him- 
self. The weak and inefficient must necessarily have a smaller 
share of the good things of this world than the strong and nat- 
urally gifted can acquire. But we have made concessions to 
this demand of the socialist by providing for state aid to those 
who for any cause are unable to support themselves, to the 
extent at least of such food, shelter, and clothing as will sup- 
port life. This does not satisfy the socialist, for he claims it 
as a right, without the deprivation of social and political rights 
which are everywhere the concomitant of pauper aid. If a 
man reduces himself to the need of asking for state aid by his 
own self-indulgence, by refusing to contribute his labor to the 
common good, by drunkenness, or by any offence against 
society, the state, even from the true socialist standpoint, is 
justified in punishing him as a criminal. But for the morally 
sound but unfortunate the socialist claims the aid and support 
of the state as an honorable right. 

Even in this direction, the legislation of to-day is taking steps 
that a century ago would have been regarded as strides. Set- 
ting aside the homes for the aged, the hospitals, the asylums, 
and the numberless charities provided by voluntary private 
enterprise, we have the state homes for soldiers, and the state 
asylums for the insane, and other places of refuge in our land. 
Even more is done in the countries of Europe, which we have 
been too wont to regard as lacking a true spirit of governmental 
regard for the weaker classes. Germany, under the guidance 
of Bismarck, adopted a kind of national insurance against the 



mr. Eastman's address. 229 

wants of old age. Last winter Denmark, a constitutional 
monarchy, passed a law giving to every workman who has 
reached sixty years a comfortable support, without loss of any 
political rights, provided that for ten years prior, he has sup- 
ported himself by his labor and has not been punished for 
crime. This is a recognition of socialist theories in a quarter 
where it was to be least looked for. 

For the state, from a social standpoint, or what is the same 
thing, a subdivision of the state to furnish water for the people, 
is now so common that it is almost recognized as a duty. 
Justification for this invasion of individual freedom, can be 
found only by recourse to the assertion that governmental 
cooperation in this direction is for the good of all, and there- 
fore that all ought to contribute it according to their ability, 
and share according to their needs. 

The common education of the children at the public cost 
may, and does, have an additional reason, namely, that the 
state, for its protection, must secure intelligent citizens ; but 
it has also its root in part, in the state cooperation, more 
advantageous to the whole, than individual action. 

The socialist also calls attention to the fact that the present 
century has witnessed a great revolution in all branches of 
production. There is hardly a single industry in which success 
is not dependent upon the fact of division of labor and intelli- 
gent combination of the results. To secure the best results, 
and avoid the waste which follows independent efforts, enter- 
prises must be conducted on a large scale. To take those 
branches which are most familiar to us, it is sufficient to note 
that only the large cotton mills, where the cost of supervision 
is distributed over a vast production, are able to show profits 
corresponding to the outlay, while the smaller concerns strug- 
gle on in hopeless efforts to maintain their existence. 

It seems to be a natural result of this law of combined effort, 
that we have the gigantic trusts, which have produced the 
enormous fortunes of the age, while at the same time reducing 
the cost of the product to the consumer. It is one of the 
boasts of the Standard Oil Trust, that under its rule, the price 
of oil has steadily and regularly fallen, while the quality of its 



23O NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

product has as steadily and regularly improved. It is not 
strange, that in spite of the prejudice of the public against 
monopolies, even when they are not created by special privi- 
leges such as characterized the Elizabethan period and earlier 
periods of English history, this example has been imitated, and 
the Sugar and other trusts have been developed as if by magic. 

In the West, also, on the fertile prairies where it seems as if 
only an abundant supply of rain was needed to secure a bounti- 
ful crop, the best results have been obtained on large farms of 
thousands of acres under one management, where the opera- 
tions are conducted simply with a view to getting the largest 
returns, regardless of the development and growth of the state. 

Then, on the other hand, we have the so called Trades 
Unions and other associations of individual laborers, whose aim 
is to enable them to meet on more equal terms those who con- 
trol these large industries. While the aim of the managers is 
to secure the profit to themselves, the object of the laborers, by 
their combinations, is to secure a larger share of the profit to 
those whose labor forms such an essential part of the result. 
It is true, that controlled as they sometimes are by men of little 
wisdom and of selfish aims, they often, by injudicious strikes, 
do more harm than good to the cause they have at heart. 
There are not wanting cases, however, where, as in the Broth- 
erhood of Locomotive Engineers, they have profited by their 
experience, and learned to direct their efforts towards ends 
which are productive of good to their calling and to society. 

Without this cooperation or combination, many of the bene- 
ficial enterprises of the age would be impossible. How but 
by the agency of some such organization as the Pullman Com- 
pany could we have the sleeping-car, running in the uninter- 
rupted course so essential to the use half way across our conti- 
nent? How, except by governmental interference, could we 
have good service around the globe by the telegraph? The 
telephone would lose the larger part of its value, were it not 
for the combination of its users in the Exchange. 

In whatever direction we turn, the fact stares us in the face, 
that more and more we are drifting away from the principle of 
individualism. Everyone is compelled constantly to surrender 



mr. Eastman's address. 231 

his own control over his interests and to become a part — and 
commonly a small and insignificant part — of some great whole. 
Just as fast as we get away from that condition of life where 
man cultivates his own farm with his own hands and those of 
his family, is his own carpenter, blacksmith, and tailor, and 
even weaves the cloth for his clothes out of the products of his 
soil, he becomes a unit, whose identity is absorbed and swal- 
lowed up in the great mass of humanity, and is dependent 
upon the labors and efforts of his fellow men. If we look back 
for a century — nay, for a half century — at the departure from 
the liberty of the individual and the progress towards the com- 
bined action, which is as yet the dream of the socialist, and the 
stride is marvellous. 

It is not my object at this time to espouse the cause of even 
the more moderate and less exacting apostles of socialism. 
Even the most advanced among them differ widely from the 
anarchist, with whom they are frequently found associating, 
and with whom they are therefore naturally confounded. Both 
classes are dissatisfied with the present organization of society, 
and want to see it destroyed — the one because they think we 
have too much government and want less, and the other be- 
cause they think we have too little and want a more active 
interference in all departments of human labor. The socialist 
is willing to recognize differences in the capacities of the human 
race, but claims that the state should so control affairs that 
neither accident nor ability should enable the few to deprive 
the many of their just share of the rewards of labor. 

We all admit the justice of the demand, but appalled by the 
difficulties which beset us in the constitution of man's natural 
disposition, we shrink from applying the remedies of the theo- 
rists, who see nothing but light in the development of their 
plans. Yet even the socialist does not demand the immediate 
acceptance of all his theories, while maintaining their sound- 
ness. One will begin his reform by state ownership of land, 
and sugars taxation under the name of rent. 

Others ask for state ownership of telegraphs, and on theory 
what answer can we make, when we accept the administration 
of the postal service as an essential part of our policy? An 



232 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

eminent railroad magnate declares that if he could have the 
sole management of all the railroads in the United States, he 
could reduce rates, pay dividends on the whole capital invested 
in them, and have a handsome surplus. This means that he 
would save the waste from misdirected effort. The socialist 
demands that the state assume the control of railroads for the 
public good. What answer is there to his demand on theory, 
while we admit that ordinary roads are properly constructed 
by the state ; and what shall be said to his claim of general 
benefit, when we consider the admission of the manager just 
spoken of? 

If cooperation, rendered possible as it is by the great inven- 
tions of the century, produces such surprising results in the 
cheapening of the cost of so much that is now regarded as a 
necessary part of our daily life, what answer shall be given to 
the demand that the profit from this cooperation belongs to the 
people whose combined labor creates it, and that to secure it 
to them it must be under the direction of the state. 

We all know the objection, that administration of public 
affairs is corrupt ; that we cannot afford to extend the domain 
of the office holder ; that we are merely transferring the power 
from one set of men to another ; that the people as a whole are 
weak and unfit to rule. » 

I wish to ask if each and every one of these excuses is not a 
confession of failure, an acknowledgment of our inability to 
grapple with the real difficulties of government and rise supe- 
rior to them. 

But whatever conclusion we may come to as to the possibility 
and desirability of a change in our fundamental ideas of society, 
are we not to-day confronted with something more than a 
theory, with a condition, a tendency to which we are silently 
submitting ; and should we not be led to examine into our 
beliefs, and be prepared to give the reasons for our faith when 
asked to adopt or reject the wider applications of social coop- 
eration under the rule of the state? 

On motion of Hon. J. B. Walker, 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 233 

Eastman for his able and interesting address, and that a copy 
of the same be requested for preservation or publication. 

On motion, voted (3 p. m.) to adjourn to the call of the 
President. 

John C. Ordway, 

Recording Secretary. 



FIRST ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING AND 
FIELD-DAY. 

Concord, Wednesday, September 30, 1891. 

The first adjourned sixty-ninth annual meeting of the Society 
and annual field-day was held at Claremont and at Charles- 
town, September 29 and 30, 1891. 

The members of the Society, under arrangements made by 
a special committee consisting of 

Col. J. E. Pecker, 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
Hon. George L. Balcom, 

left Concord at 11 a. m. the 29th inst., arriving at Claremont 
about 1 p. m. 

The visiting members of the Society were received at the 
station by Hon. George L. Balcom, and escorted to the rooms 
of the Tremont club and the rooms of the Major Jarvis Post of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, both of which had been gen- 
erously tendered for the occasion. In the rooms of the former 
the members were presented to a large number of the ladies 
and gentlemen of Claremont, from whom a cordial greeting 
was received, and with whom an hour was passed in pleasant 
conversation. The company then proceeded to Grand Army 
hall, on the same floor, where a most appetizing collation had 
been prepared by our generous host, Mr. Balcom. President 



234 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

John J. Bell officiated as master of ceremonies, and grace was 
said by Rev. James B. Goodrich. 

Following the collation, Major Otis F. R. Waite delivered 
an exceedingly interesting address upon 

THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF CLAREMONT. 

Mr, President, Ladies and Gentlemen : I have been kindly 
asked to say something about the early history of Claremont. 
What is offered has been gathered from sober records, written 
history, and tradition. If not absolutely correct, there is no 
one living to contradict it, and it must therefore be accepted 
as a true story. 

The early history of Claremont is not unlike that of other 
towns in New Hampshire. The privations and hardships 
endured by the first settlers here were about the same as those 
experienced by all who started out in the early days to subdue 
the forests and make for themselves and those dearest to them 
homes in the wilderness. But it is well for us to contrast our 
times and circumstances with those of our ancestors a century 
and a quarter ago. 

The first settlement of Claremont was made in 1762, by 
Moses Spafford and David Lynde. On October 26, 1764, a 
township by this name, six miles square and containing 24,000 
acres, was granted by George III, through authority delegated 
to Benning Wentworth, governor of the province of New 
Hampshire, to Josiah Willard, Samuel Ashley, and sixty-eight 
others, a considerable number of whom came from Connecti- 
cut. It received its name from the country seat of Lord Clive, 
an English general . 

The conditions of the grant were that every grantee, his heirs 
or assigns, should within five years, for each fifty acres con- 
tained in his share, cultivate and improve five acres, and con- 
tinue to improve and settle the same. 

That all pine trees within the township fit for masts for the 
royal navy be carefully preserved for that use, and none to be 
cut or felled without the crown's special license for doing so 
first had and obtained, under a penalty of forfeiture of the 



MAJOR WAITE'S ADDRESS. 235 

right of the offending grantee, his heirs and assigns, and other 
punishments prescribed by parliament. 

To pay for ten years annually for each share the rent of 
one ear of Indian corn, when lawfully demanded ; and from 
and after the expiration often years, one shilling proclamation 
money, for every hundred acres held by each proprietor, at the 
council chamber at Portsmouth. This was to be in lieu of all 
other rents and services whatsoever. 

This grant was divided into seventy-five equal shares. Gov- 
ernor Wentworth reserved to himself five hundred acres, which 
was accounted two shares ; one share for a society for the prop- 
agation of the gospel in foreign parts ; one share for a glebe 
for the Church of England ; one share for the first settled min- 
ister, and one share for the benefit of schools. 

The first meeting of the grantees was held at Winchester, on 
the 2d day of February, 1767. 

The proprietors found a few squatters upon their grant, 
among them Moses Spafford and David Lynde. They, with 
the others, were content to receive for the improvements 
they had made, each a deed of sixty acres of land, in such loca- 
tion as the proprietors might select. 

In the course of the following summer a considerable num- 
ber of the proprietors arrived, made settlements, and erected 
cabins on their respective shares. 

The first town meeting was held on the 8th of March, 176S, 
at the house of Capt. Benjamin Brooks, in the vicinity of Town 
Hill, latterly better known as Jarvis Hill. Ten voters were 
present. There were twelve families in town at that time. 
At an adjourned meeting Benjamin Brooks and Benjamin 
Sumner were chosen a committee to lay out a highway to 
Newport. 

In the spring of 1767, Benjamin Tyler, a millwright and an 
ingenious and enterprising mechanic, came from Farmington, 
Conn., to Claremont on foot. In March of that year the pro- 
prietors voted him two acres of land on Sugar river for a mill- 
yard, with the privilege of the stream, on condition that he 
build a mill or mills and keep them in repair for ten years. 
That summer he built the first dam across that river, at West 



236 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Claremont, in the same place where the Jarvis and Coy dam 
now is, and then returned to Farmington. The next March 
he brought his wife, six children, and his household effects 
here on an ox sled. There being no roads, he came on the ice 
of Connecticut river from Bellows Falls. He was delayed at 
Montague, Mass., several days by a snowstorm, and in the 
time made a pair of cart wheels for the tavern-keeper, to pay 
for his entertainment. 

In the summer of 1768 Mr. Tyler built, in connection with 
his dam, saw- and grist-mills, on the north side of the river. 
At the raising of the frame of the grist-mill, which was no 
common event, the settlers in the vicinity were present to help, 
some of them coming twenty miles. Mr. Tyler had brought 
with him from Connecticut half a barrel of West India rum for 
this occasion. It was not tapped until the work of raising the 
frame was finished. Any kind of spirituous liquor was a rarity 
in town in those days, and some of the men indulged so freely 
as to be overcome by it, were unable to reach their homes that 
night, and slept by the side of fallen trees in the forest. Mr. 
Tyler got out lumber at his saw-mill and superintended the 
building of many framed houses and barns in the next few 
years. He was chosen one of the selectmen in 1768, was re- 
elected several times, and held other offices in the town. He 
was the grandfather of John Tyler, a widely known mill- 
wright, now living here. 

The first English child born in town was a son to Moses 
Spafford, in 1763. 

In 1769, the settlement of the town had so far progressed 
that husbands who had provided cabins, sent for their wives 
and children, and single men began to consider the subject of 
matrimony. Barnabas Ellis and Elizabeth Spencer were the 
first couple married in Claremont, according to the usages of 
civilized society. There being no one in town empowered to 
perform the ceremony, the Rev. Bulkley Olcott of Charlestown, 
was sent for to officiate. There were no roads through the 
wilderness, and a brother of the bride was sent to act as pioneer 
for the clergyman, and to procure new rum for the wedding. 
All the people in town were invited. The ceremony was per- 



MAJOR WAITE'S ADDRESS. 237 

formed in a log cabin — the largest and best adapted one in the 
neighborhood for such a gathering. It contained three rooms, 
and a chamber which was reached by means of a ladder made 
of spruce poles. The guests were seated upon benches, stools, 
and blocks of wood. In front of the happy pair was a stand, 
upon which was a bible, hymn book, and a full tumbler of the 
beverage provided. The parties being in order, the minister 
approached the stand, and with becoming dignity, took up the 
tumbler and after a generous sip of its contents, said, " I wish 
you joy, my friends, on this occasion." A chapter from the 
bible was read, a hymn was sung — the minister reading a line 
and those present singing each line as read. The marriage 
knot was then solemnly and duly tied, a long prayer offered, and 
the ceremony was complete. Then followed toasts, jokes, and 
merriment, interspersed with black-strap. 

Mr. Ellis was one of the early settlers. He filled several town 
offices, was a -lieutenant in the Continental army, and was with 
Ethan Allen's expedition against Forts Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, in 1775. He purchased a tract of land on Town Hill, 
where he lived, honored and respected, and died in 1837, at 
the age of ninety-five years. The farm continued the home of 
his youngest son, William Ellis, until his death, in 1880, and is 
now owned by his grandson, William B. Ellis. 

Rev. George Wheaton was called to settle here in the Gospel 
ministry, agreeably to the Congregational, or Cambridge, plat- 
form, and was ordained on February 19, 1772, the exercises 
being performed in a building on Town Hill, 30 by 40 feet, 
covered with rough boards, with rude benches for seats, and a 
floor of earth. This building was used for a school and place 
of worship. Mr. Wheaton died on June 24, 1773, at the age 
of twenty-two years. He is said to have been pure and upright 
and possessed of considerable ability. 

By a law in force in early times, at least two tithing-men in 
each town were annually chosen, whose duty it was " to inspect 
all licensed houses and inform of all disorders therein committed ; 
and also to inform of all idle and disorderly persons, profane 
swearers, and Sabbath breakers.'' Each of these functionaries 
was required to carry a black staff two feet long, tipped at one 



238 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

end with brass or pewter, about three inches, as a badge of 
office, the same to be provided by the selectmen, at the expense 
of the town. Either by virtue of their office or by common 
consent, these tithing-men seemed to have been invested with 
power to inflict punishment at once upon such as they might 
find engaged in any misdemeanor during public worship or 
between the morning and afternoon services on the Sabbath. 
On one occasion, when meetings were held in the south school 
house, John, a son of Thomas Gustin, was sentenced "to stand 
strate upon the bench during the singing of the last psalm, and 
there to remain until the meeting is dismissed and the people 
have left the house, fo'r turning round three times, and for not 
paying attention to Mr. Wheaton while he is preaching." 

Rev. Augustine Hibbard, the second minister over the Con- 
gregational church and society, was ordained on the 18th of 
October, 1774, and continued eleven years. During the Revo- 
lutionary War he was ardently devoted to the cause of liberty. 
So fearful was he that he should in any way give countenance 
to the Royalists, that when an infant was brought to him for 
baptism, he refused to administer the rite, because he suspected 
the father — one of the most reputable citizens of the town — 
was a Tory. In some ways Mr. Hibbard was not just what a 
minister of the Gospel should be, and the cause of religion did 
not prosper under his ministration. In 1777, he was appointed 
chaplain on Col. David Hobart's staff, and subsequently, of 
Gen. John Stark's brigade, and was in the Battle of Bennington, 
on August 16, of that year. 

In 1773, the Rev. Ranna Cossit commenced his labors as 
rector of the Episcopal church, at what is now known as the 
West Parish. He was a firm and outspoken Royalist, which 
did not accord with the sentiments of a large majority of his 
society, by reason of which his pastorate, which continued 
about twelve years, did not result in much good. 

That year the frame of the Episcopal church — known as 
Union church — at West Claremont, was erected, and the build- 
ing partly finished. In 1800, the tower and belfry were added. 
In 1806, a bell, weighing 682 pounds, was hung, and soon after 
an organ — the wonder of the time — was placed in the gal- 



MAJOR WAITE'S ADDRESS. 239 

lery. This church is now used regularly for religious services. 
The Rev. Daniel Barber succeeded Mr. Cossit. After a 
pastorate of nearly twenty-four years, Mr. Barber made a 
public confession of having embraced the Roman Catholic 
faith, and was dismissed in 1818. 

In 1823, the Rev. Virgil H. Barber, a son of the Rev. Daniel 
Barber, having become a Roman Catholic priest, bought land 
and commenced the erection of a church, with school-rooms 
and dwelling connected with it, just across the way from Union 
church. A school was kept up there, and was quite successful, 
for several years. The building was used for a parish church 
until 1866, when the new Catholic church in the village was 
ready for occupancy. 

The first mass in Claremont — and believed to have been the 
first in New Hampshire — was celebrated by the Rev. Dr. 
French of New York, in 1818, at the house of the Rev. Daniel 
Barber. 

In 1779, it was agreed on all hands, that there was need of a 
new meeting-house for the Congregational society, but there 
was much difference of opinion as to its location. The subject 
was discussed at several town meetings without any agreement 
being reached. In 17S5, a meeting-house' was built about 
three quarters of a mile east from Claremont Junction. It was 
taken down and its timbers and boards removed to the village 
in 1790, put together again, and was occupied for religious 
services and for town meetings, until 1S35, when the new Con- 
gregational meeting-house on Pleasant street was built. Since 
that time, with various additions and improvements, it has been 
our Town Hall. 

In 1 791, Dea. Matthias Stone, at his own expense, erected a 
meeting-house near where the before named one was first 
located, and asked the people to accept it as a gift, which, for 
some reason that does not appear by the records, they, in town 
meeting, voted not to do. 

The Claremont Congregational Society was formed in 1806, 
and held its first meeting on June 9, of that year. Up to this 
time parish meetings had been called by the selectmen of the 
town, and the records kept by the town clerk. 
12 



24O NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

In 1776, a Baptist church of seventeen members was consti- 
tuted, and in 1785 it was voted by the town that '■'* those peo- 
ple who call themselves baptists pay no more rates to the Con- 
gregational order for the future." Rev. John Peckins labored 
for a time with this church, and after he left they had only 
occasional preaching until 1829, when the Rev. Leonard Tracy 
became first settled pastor, and continued eight years. The 
church in 1S27 built a small chapel on High street, which they 
occupied six years, and in 1834 erected their present meeting- 
house. 

In 1 80 1 the Methodists formed an organization here, which 
was included in the circuit of Hanover. This was a result of 
the preaching of Lorenzo Dow, once in four weeks, in the 
winter of 1798. He was then but about twenty years old. 
Just prior to 1806, the Rev. Elijah Willard preached for a 
time with marked success, and was followed by the Rev. Caleb 
Dustin, who was preacher in charge for quite a number of 
years, and was also successful as a pastor. Up to 1815 meet- 
ings were held at private houses. In that year the Methodists, 
Baptists, and Universalists united and erected a meeting-house 
on the spot where Trinity church now stands, and occupied it 
alternately. In 1821 the Baptists and Universalists sold their 
shares to the Episcopalians, who, having become owners of 
two thirds of the property, at once fitted it up for their own 
exclusive use, and effectually dispossessed the Methodists. In 
1826 the Methodists built for themselves a chapel on Sullivan 
street, the land for which was donated by Mr. Austin Tyler. 
They occupied this chapel until 1853, when it was sold, con- 
verted into dwellings, and the present church building on Cen- 
tral street was erected. 

The Universalists, as appears from the foregoing, had some 
kind of an organization and occasional preaching prior to 1820. 
A church was organized in 1S32, and the Rev. VV. S. Balch 
was settled over it. He continued until March, 1836, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. J. G. Adams. Their church edifice, on 
Broad street, was built in 1832, and dedicated on October 24 
of that year. 

After the termination of the French and Indian War, in 1760, 



MAJOR WAITE S ADDRESS. 24 1 

the Indians did not trouble the settlements along Connecticut 
river. Game and fish were abundant, and they occasionally 
resorted in small numbers to their old hunting-grounds in this 
vicinity, but their visits were few, short, and peaceful. A sol- 
itary Indian, of immense size and great strength, by the name 
of Tousa, who was said to have been chief of a tribe, and was 
known to have been conspicuous in the bloody raids into 
Charlestown, Keene, and other places, lingered about the west 
part of the town and claimed certain territory there as his hunt- 
ing-ground, on which he mostly stayed. He seemed deter- 
mined not to relinquish the possessions of his ancestors to the 
aggressive pale-faces. He was inflated with that jealousy 
against the whites peculiar to his race. He had frequently 
warned the white hunters not to trespass upon his ground, and 
they had generally heeded his warning. He was present at 
the raising of the frame of Union church in 1773, and expressed 
deep indignation at the erection of so large a building, appear- 
ing to regard it as an encroachment upon his rights. He be- 
came crazed with too much fire-water, was boisterous, and 
loudly threatened to shoot any white hunter who should intrude 
on his territory. One Timothy Atkins, a full match for Tousa 
in size and strength, between whom and the Indian a bitter 
enmity had long existed, hearing these threats, determined to 
hunt on the forbidden ground. One morning he went off in 
that direction alone, with his gun heavily charged, after which 
Tousa was never seen or heard of, and his sudden disappear- 
ance was a mystery. In 1854, Josiah Hart, now living, in 
digging on the territory claimed by Tousa as his hunting- 
ground, unearthed a skeleton, which from its great size was 
believed to be that of the last Indian habitue of Claremont. 

In 1775 it was the general belief that by reason of the oppres- 
sive acts of the British parliament, war with the mother coun- 
try was inevitable. Much the greater part of the people of 
Claremont were in favor of open hostility with England, while 
some regretted the existence of the difficulty, and a few avowed 
themselves firm Royalists, furnished aid and comfort in various 
ways to the king and his army, and were denominated Tories. 

In 1776 sixteen citizens of Claremont were serving in differ- 



243 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ent capacities in the Continental army. Joseph Waite, who 
had won distinction in the French and Indian War, and also 
as captain in Rogers's famous corps of Rangers in 1759, com- 
manded a regiment raised for the purpose of invading Canada. 
He died at Castleton, Vt., on September 13, 1776, a few days 
after his arrival there, of fever, said to have been induced by 
wounds, and was buried with military honors. 

Samuel Ashley, one of the grantees of the town, was a vol- 
unteer aid, with the rank of colonel, on the staff of General 
Stark, and was in the Battle of Bennington on August 16, 1777. 
On the 2 1 st of July of that year, twenty-three Claremont men 
enlisted in Capt. Abel Walker's company of Col. David Hobart's 
regiment, and all of them participated in that famous battle. 

During the Revolutionary War a number of others enlisted 
and fought on the side of liberty. Several men, suspected of 
being friendly to the British, left town, going to Canada and 
elsewhere. Among them was John Brooks, who actually 
joined the British army and served with it until the end of the 
war. His farm and all his other property in town was confis- 
cated and sold. After the close of the w r ar and treaty of peace 
with Great Britain, he returned, and his property was restored 
to him ; but he was treated with coldness, ridicule, and insult 
by his old neighbors, was greatly mortified, and soon sold his 
farm and effects and left town. 

No favor was shown by the mass of the people to Tories, or 
those suspected as such, and suspected persons were in immi- 
nent danger of the loss of liberty and even life itself, without the 
formality of legal proceedings. A small company of resolute men, 
among whom were Timothy Atkins, before named, and two 
or three of his brothers — all men of unusual size and remark- 
able strength, activity, and courage — formed a determination to 
rid the town of all Tories. They solemnly promised to give 
each other information immediately if a Tory was seen lurking 
about, and to pursue him instantly ; and if capture was impos- 
sible, to shoot him, if that could be done. During the war, 
and especially in the warm seasons, secret agents of the British 
were scouring the remote parts of the country, picking up 
whatever information they could and communicating it to their 



MAJOR WAITES ADDRESS. 



243 



employers. Scattered along the route from New York to Can- 
ada were certain places of rendezvous, where any one of them 
on his mission might safely be concealed and find means of 
communication with his compatriots in the neighborhood. 
About one mile below Claremont village, near Sugar river, 
is a place famous in Revolutionary times as a resort for Tories, 
and has since been known as " Tory Hole." So perfectly was 
this spot adapted to the purposes of its occupants that for a 
long time they had assembled there without exciting the least 
suspicion of the active and vigilant Colonists. The Tories in 
the neighborhood conveyed thither provisions and whatever 
might be needed by the transient visitors to the place. On 
one night in the autumn of 1780, a man with a huge pack on 
his shoulders was seen passing along the road in the vicinity, 
whose singular movements attracted attention, and he was 
closely watched. He turned into the woods, and was instantly 
out of sight. Information of the fact was circulated, and quickly 
several men assembled at the spot, the ground was reconnoi- 
tered, and the secret discovered. The night was very dark, 
and further search was postponed until daylight next morning. 
A watch was posted by the path, with instructions to seize or 
shoot any one who should attempt to pass. Before sunrise a 
party gathered and renewed the search. As they approached 
the rendezvous, two men suddenly started up and ran toward a 
ravine in a dense forest. They were tracked, however, to Con- 
necticut river, where they swam across. The pursuers fas- 
tened their guns upon their backs, swam the river, found the 
tracks of the fugitives, and followed them to the top of Ascutney 
mountain, where they were discovered asleep. They were cap- 
tured, and gave their names as Johns and Buel. Having 
arms with them, they could not be treated as spies, and were 
therefore held as prisoners of war. They were taken to Charles- 
town, from there to Boston, and afterward exchanged. Soon 
after this, one Kentfield was pursued from Tory Hole into 
Vermont, but he returned in a few days, was captured, taken 
to Charlestown, where he was confined for some time, and, as 
he could not be convicted as a spy, was released, joined the 
Continental army, soon deserted, was apprehended, and hung. 



244 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Elihu Stevens came to town in 1775. He was a justice of 
the peace, an ardent Whig, and was frequently called to sit 
at the examination of persons arrested on suspicion of being 
Tories. His prejudices against that class were very strong, 
and persons complained against were oftentimes held by him 
on very slight proof. His presumption in all such cases was 
in favor of guilt. Most of those held by him were acquitted 
by the higher tribunal. Ichabod Hitchcock, who had been 
known as an active Colonist, was represented by some mis- 
chievous person to Mr. Stevens as having become disaffected, 
and Mr. Stevens ordered his arrest. Mr. Hitchcock was a 
master builder, and his services as such were so much needed 
that he did not enter the army ; but it was shown on trial that 
he had employed and paid three persons for service at different 
times in the war, and he was discharged. 

One William McCoy had long been suspected of Toryism, 
without anything being proved against him. One evening he 
was seen going toward Tory Hole in company of a stranger, 
was arrested, and taken before Mr. Stevens for examination. 
The proof against him was by no means such as would, in 
ordinary times, against an unsuspected person, be considered 
sufficient to warrant his being held to answer further, but it 
was enough to satisfy Mr. Stevens. He found McCoy guilty 
of treason, and ordered him to be confined in the jail at Charles- 
town to await trial at the next term of the supreme court. The 
before named Ichabod Hitchcock, acting as sheriff, was ordered 
to convey McCoy to prison. He asked the justice if he had 
prepared a mittimus, who, with some impatience, replied, 
"Take my horse and carriage; if they will hold out long 
enough to get him to jail, it is all the mittimus he deserves." 

Oliver Ashley of Claremont was a member of the First Pro- 
vincial congress, which assembled at Exeter, on May 17, 1775. 
He was an ardent Whig, and very active in devising means for 
the defence of the Colony. In December of that year, Capt. 
Joseph Waite was chosen a representative of Claremont, in 
that congress. 

In accordance with an order of the Provincial congress, the 
census of New Hampshire was taken in 1775, which required 



MAJOR WAITE'S ADDRESS. 



245 



a return of the number of inhabitants; the number of fire-arms 
in each district fit for use, and the number needed to complete 
one for every person capable of using them ; and selectmen 
and committees of safety were enjoined to prevent all persons 
from burning powder in shooting at birds and other game. 
The return from Claremont was : 



Males under 16 years of age 

Males from 16 to 50, not in the army 

All males over 50 years of age . 

Persons gone in the army . 

All females ..... 

Total 

Number of fire-arms fit for actual service 
Number wanting .... 



148 

125 

18 

i 
231 

523 

60 
65 



At a meeting of the town held on the 15th of June, 1775, 
Capt. Joseph Waite, Ensign Oliver Ashley, Thomas Gustin, 
Asa Jones, and Jacob Roys were appointed a committee of 
safety and invested with almost absolute powers in certain cases. 
In a sudden emergency they might adopt such measures as they 
deemed conducive to public safety ; take arms and ammunition 
wherever found, when needed for the equipment of soldiers ; 
arrest and imprison, without warrant, all Tories, and com- 
municate with the general committee of safety in all matters 
pertaining to the public welfare. 

In March, 1776, the Continental congress recommended to 
the several assemblies, conventions, and committees of safety of 
the United Colonies, to immediately cause all persons in their 
respective colonies, who are notoriously disaffected to the cause 
of America, or who have not associated, and refuse to associate, 
to defend the arms of the United Colonies against the British 
fleets and armies, to be disarmed. In compliance with this 
recommendation, the selectmen of Claremont made a thorough 
canvass. Of male inhabitants of twenty-one years of age and 
upward, eighty-four signed a declaration or pledge to defend, 
by arms, the American colonies ; sixteen had taken up arms 



246 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and were actually in the Continental army, and thirty-one 
refused to sign. 

We have it from the Rev. Dr. Batchelder's History of the 
Eastern Diocese, that the committees of safety of the towns of 
Hanover, Lebanon, and Cornish, met with the committee of 
safety of the town of Claremont and organized as one general 
committee to examine sundry persons, inhabitants of Claremont, 
suspected of being inimical to the liberties of America, who had 
been cited to appear before the Claremont committee. Twenty- 
five of those persons who had refused to pledge themselves to 
the American cause, responded to the summons, among them 
being Capt. Benjamin Sumner, Samuel Cole, Esq., and the 
Rev. Ranna Cossit. 

Mr. Cossit being called upon said, 4t I believe the American 
colonies, in their dispute with Great Britian, which has come 
to blood, are unjust ; but will not take up arms either against 
the king or country, as my office and circumstances are such 
that I am not obliged thereto. " Witnesses testified to seditious 
words of Mr. Cossit. 

Samuel Cole, Esq., on examination, said, "It is rebellion to 
take up arms and fight against the king or his troops in the 
present dispute. Yea, it is more ; it is treason to fight against 
the king, in addition to which I am bound by my oath not to 
fight against the king." Witnesses were called to prove sedi- 
tious acts and language of Mr. Cole. 

Capt. Benjamin Sumner, on examination, said, "As to the 
proceeding and conduct of the American colonies in this con- 
test with Great Britian, upon the whole, I cannot agree with 
them ; but I will not take up arms on either side, and if either 
of you gentlemen can, in private or public debate, convince me 
of my error, no man on earth shall be more ready to hear than 
myself." 

Several others of the accused declared their sentiments to be 
the same as those expressed by Captain Sumner, and all said 
that they would not take up arms on either side, except the^ 
before named John Brooks, who said, H I feel for the kirrg's 
troops and against the Colonists." 

After deliberation the committee voted " That it appears to 



MAJOR WAITE'S ADDRESS. 247 

us on examination, that Capt. Benjamin Sumner, Samuel Cole, 
Esq., and the Rev. Ranna Cossit, have been chief advisers and 
dictators to those other persons who have been under examina- 
tion ; and it is our opinion that they might with propriety be 
confined as having endeavored to stir up sedition in the town of 
Claremont, and also were against the United Colonies ; and 
their names ought to be returned to the Honorable Provincial 
Congress for their determination, which the Clerk is hereby 
directed to do ; which we believe may as well serve the general 
cause as to confine all these persons examined by us." 

The persons charged and examined were requested volun- 
tarily to resign their fire-arms and ammunition into the hands 
of the Claremont committee, which they all agreed to do, and 
did at once. 

In January, 1776, the Provincial Congress appointed a com- 
mittee, consisting of Benjamin Giles, Esq., Maj. John Bellows, 
Capt. Nathaniel Sartell Prentice, Mr. Thomas Sparhawk, and 
Elijah Grout, to examine and try Capt. Benjamin Sumner, 
Samuel Cole, Esq., and the Rev. Ranna Cossit, of Claremont, 
and Eleazer Sanger, of Keene, persons reported to be enemies 
to the liberties of the country ; and on conviction thereof to 
inflict such punishment or punishments as should seem fit, — not 
to exceed fine and imprisonment. 

On the 10th of the following April, this committee met at 
Charlestown, and after hearing the accused parties and the evi- 
dence offered, gave it as their opinion that the charges were 
sustained, and '* that Benjamin Sumner, Ranna Cossit, and 
Samuel Cole, be from and after the 12th day of that month, 
confined within the limits of the town of Claremont during the 
present contest between Great Britain and the Colonies, unless 
they shall give bonds for their good behavior ; and that neither 
of them should be seen conversant together upon any occasion, 
except meeting together at public worship. And if either of 
them shall not strictly abide by this sentence, and being con- 
victed of a breach of it before the Claremont Committee of 
Safety, they shall be committed to the common jail, there to 
abide until released by order of this Committee or the General 
Assembly of this Colony. Provided, nevertheless, that if Mr. 



248 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Cossit shall be called by any of the people of his persuasion 
specially to officiate in his ministerial office in preaching, bap- 
tizing, or visiting the sick, this order is not intended to prohibit 
him therefrom." 

Prior to 1778, and until about the close of the war, there 
were but two school-houses in town — one on Town hill and 
the other near Union church. The Whigs sent their children 
to the former, and the Tories sent theirs to the latter. 

In the War of 1S12 Claremont did her full duty. Many of 
her men entered the army, and served for different periods, in 
different organizations, and at various places. 

The War of the Rebellion is of such recent date, that the 
events connected with it, and what each town in New Hamp- 
shire did in relation to it during its continuance, are subjects 
familiar to us all. It is enough to say that Claremont may 
justly be proud of the part she performed in that great drama. 
Her men made for themselves and for the town an honorable 
record. Our quota of troops under all calls from 1861 to 1S65, 
was 413, and we were credited in the army and navy accounts 
with 449, or 36 men in excess of our quota. Sixty-seven of 
our young men were killed in battle, or died of wounds or dis- 
ease in the service. To commemorate their services and death 
the grateful people of the town have erected a handsome mon- 
ument in the public park. It is a granite pedestal seven feet 
high, surmounted by a bronze figure, of heroic size, of a volun- 
teer infantry soldier at rest. Marble tablets were also placed 
in the town hall, on which their names, in imperishable letters, 
are inscribed. In our cemeteries are the graves — some of them 
yet green — of many others who have died since their discharge, 
of wounds or disease incurred in the service during the four 
years of that cruel war. 

In 17S7, Josiah Stevens, a son of Elihu Stevens, before 
named, and father of the late Paran Stevens, the famous Amer- 
ican hotel proprietor, commenced trade with a small stock of 
such goods as he thought the inhabitants most needed, in a 
rude building at the north side of the river, about half a mile 
from where the town hall now stands. He brought a hogshead 
of molasses and chest of tea into town, which some of the citi- 



MAJOR WAITE's ADDRESS. 



2 49 



zens declared was a piece of foolish extravagance that would 
certainly lead to no good. In a few years Mr. Stevens moved 
his building across the river on the ice, and located it near 
where the Claremont National Bank building now is. He 
increased his stock from time to time, built up a large business, 
for many years was the leading merchant in the vicinity, and in 
many ways contributed to the growth and prosperity of the 
town. 

Gov. Benning Wentworth died in 1770, leaving no children. 
In his declining years he married a young woman, to whom he 
bequeathed nearly all of his estate, instead of making his 
nephew, John Wentworth, his principal legatee, as was sup- 
posed he would. John Wentworth had succeeded his uncle in 
the office of governor of the province of New Hampshire in 
1767. He attempted to have his uncle's will set aside, and 
turned his attention to the reservations made by the latter in 
township grants. In the grant of Claremont the governor's 
reservation of five hundred acres to himself embraced the tract 
long known as the Hubbard farm, in the south-westerly corner 
of the town, and the islands in Connecticut river opposite to it. 
The question as to whether these reservations vested the title 
to the lands in Benning Wentworth, was submitted to the 
council at Portsmouth, and it was decided in the negative. 
The next thing to be done was to dispossess ail who had 
derived their titles to the reserved lots from the late governor. 
This was undertaken through officers of the government by 
various means. A few, alarmed by threats of law suits, repur- 
chased their titles, while the most of them determined to resist 
the claim set up by the new governor. Lieut. George Hubbard, 
father of the late Isaac Hubbard, Esq., was the owner of the 
governor's reservation in Claremont, and had made consider- 
able improvements upon his lands. He was a just and reso- 
lute man, and was not to be deluded, driven, or persuaded to 
acceptance of the terms held out to him to vacate in favor of 
the existing governor. His uniform reply to all overtures was, 
" The law sustains me, if law is common-sense ; and neither 
the governor nor His Majesty King George shall drive me from 
the soil." An appeal was finally made to the king, and it was 



si 



250 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

determined that the late governor had full power to convey the 
lands in question. This tract has been in the possession of 
Lieut. George Hubbard and his descendants since it was con- 
veyed to him. 

In former generations Claremont had for citizens some able 
and distinguished statesmen, soldiers, and business men. 

George B. Upham and his brother Jabez came to Claremont 
in 1797, and opened a law office in the west part of the town, 
located a short distance south of the Breck house, and about a 
hundred rods east of Claremont bridge across Connecticut river. 
They were born in West Brookfield, Mass., sons of Phineas 
Upham, and brothers of Phineas Upham, Jr., a merchant 
prince in Boston in the early part of the present century, who 
lived in a large and elegant mansion on Mt. Vernon street, 
directly back of the state house. Jabez Upham remained here 
but a very few years, when he left his law practice to his 
younger brother, George B., returned to West Brookfield, was 
representative in congress from 1S07 to 1810, and died in 181 1. 
George B. Upham removed his office to the village, where he 
continued in the practice of his profession until his death. He 
was born in 1769, and graduated at Harvard college in 1789. 
He served a number of years in the New Hampshire house of 
representatives and was its speaker in 1809, and again in 1815 ; 
elected a member of congress in 1 801, and declined a reelection. 
He also declined an appointment to the supreme court bench. 
Early in Mr. Upham's term in congress an incident occurred 
illustrating the difference in temper and spirit of the northern 
and southern character, even in those early days of the republic. 
The eccentric and irascible John Randolph of Roanoke, had 
an offensive way of making all New England members whom 
he could intimidate by his insolence turn out for him on side- 
walks or wherever he should chance to meet them. Mr. 
Upham had heard of this, and soon after his arrival in Wash- 
ington, met Mr. Randolph on a narrow sidewalk and deter- 
mined to come to an understanding with the arrogant Virginian 
then and there. He planted himself on the inside of the walk 
and they met face to face. Mr. Randolph instantly took the 
measure of the large and powerfully built New Englander, and 



MAJOR WAITE's ADDRESS. 25 I 

perceiving something in his eye that boded trouble if he per- 
sisted, stepped aside and let Mr. Upham pass, not a word 
being uttered by either of the gentlemen. Ever after that, Mr. 
Randolph treated Mr. Upham with marked politeness. Mr. 
Upham had the reputation, for many years, of being one of the 
best lawyers and safest counsellors in this part of the state. By 
his practice and economy he accumulated what was for his 
time a large fortune. He died on February 10, 1848, at the 
age of seventy-nine years. 

Caleb Ellis was born at Walpole, Mass., in 1767, and grad- 
uated at Harvard college in 1793. He settled in Claremont 
about 1800, and opened a law office. He was elected member 
of congress in 1S04, and reelected in 1S06; was a member of 
the executive council in 1809 and 1S10; presidential elector in 
181 2. In 1813, he was appointed one of the judges of the 
supreme judicial court of this state, which position he held 
during the remainder of his life. He died on May 9, 1816, at 
the age of forty-nine years, leaving, by his will, five thousand 
dollars to the Congregational society of Claremont. On the 
occasion of his funeral, the Rev. Stephen Farley, the Congre- 
gational minister here, took for a text, Proverbs x : vii, " The 
memory of the just is blessed," and from it delivered a most 
eloquent discourse, in which he said, — 44 In private life Mr. 
Ellis was eminently inoffensive, amiable, and exemplary. He 
wronged no one ; he corrupted no one ; he defrauded no one ; 
he slighted no one ; he injured no one. His native superiority 
of mind was improved by very extensive cultivation. His 
learning was various, profound, and general." At the opening 
of the supreme court at Haverhill, in May, 1816, Chief-Justice 
Jeremiah Smith said, among other things, of Judge Ellis, — 
" His mind was too lofty to enter into any calculations foreign 
to the merits of the cause in the discharge of his official duties ; 
neither the merits nor demerits of the parties, nor their con- 
nections, however numerous or powerful, could have any influ- 
ence with him. I am sensible that this is very high praise — 
a praise that could not, in truth, be bestowed on all good men, 
nor even on all good judges. But it is praise which Mr. Ellis 
richly merited." 



252 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Rev. James B. Howe, who succeeded the Rev. Daniel 
Barber as rector of the Episcopal church, was born at Dorches- 
ter, Mass. For several years preceding his ordination, he was 
a successful classical teacher in Boston. He settled over this 
church in 1819, and continued until 1843. Mr. Howe was a 
man of imposing appearance ; always wore the long stockings 
and short clothes of the olden time ; was a true gentleman of 
the old school, and a conspicuous figure and prominent char- 
acter of the town for many years, highly respected for his 
ability and goodness by all who knew him. He was the 
father of Bishop Willian B. W. Howe, of South Carolina. He 
died of apoplexy, in a railroad car, at Albany, N. Y., on 
September 17, 1844. 

Dea. Matthias Stone settled in Claremont about 1770. He 
was moderator of town meeting in May, 1774; selectman in 
1775 and 1776; in 1781, he was a delegate in the conventions 
held at Charlestown and Cornish, for the purpose of organizing 
an independent state, composed of the towns between the 
Masonian line in New Hampshire and the ridge of the Green 
Mountains in Vermont, known as the New Hampshire grants, 
and was a member of the New Hampshire convention that 
adopted the Federal constitution in 1788. He had sixteen 
children, fourteen of whom came to maturity. He owned the 
farm known for many years as the Eli Draper farm, about 
three fourths of a mile from Claremont Junction. He removed 
to Cabot, Vt., about 1795. 

Dr. Leonard Jarvis was born in Boston, in 1774. He took 
the degree of doctor of medicine in 1795, and being in impaired 
health, in the autumn of that year he started on horseback into 
the country, without any particular destination in view. After 
several days he found himself in Claremont. He was so much 
pleased with Connecticut river valley, that he bargained for the 
large and valuable farm on Town Hill, owned by Judge San- 
ford Kingsbury. For several years he had an extensive practice 
as a physician. About 1S10, when the Spanish Merino sheep 
were first imported into this country by his cousin, Consul 
William Jarvis, he bought a large flock and engaged in breed- 
ing them and growing fine wool, and also in manufacturing 



MAJOR WAITE'S ADDRESS. 253 

woolen goods. This business he continued until his death, in 
February, 1S48, at the age of seventy-four years. 

Capt. Joseph Taylor was engaged in the Cape Breton war, 
in 1745, in the French and Indian War, in 1755, and in the 
Revolutionary War. He was captured by the Indians in 1755, 
taken to Canada, and sold to the French. For a long time 
he was kept so closely confined that his friends could learn noth- 
ing of him. He finally succeeded, after several attempts, in 
making his escape, wandered through the woods, subsisting upon 
what he could find, and after an absence of several years, reached 
his home. He was one of the selectmen of Claremont in 1773, 
and for several succeeding years, and died in March, 1S13, at 
the age of eighty-four years. 

Samuel Ashley was one of the grantees of the town of Clare- 
mont. He was in the Cape Breton War, in 1745; in the 
French and Indian War, in 1755; and in the War of the 
Revolution. As before stated, he was aide with the rank of 
colonel on General Stark's staff, at the Battle of Bennington, 
on the 16th of August, 1777. He held several important 
offices in the town, was an influential and useful citizen, and a 
judge of the court of common pleas. He died in February, 
1792. 

Sanford Kingsbury was a prominent citizen. In 1789, he 
was member of the executive council, and state senator in 1790 
and 1791, and held offices of honor and trust in the town. 

Samuel Fiske, Esq., came from West Brookfield, Mass., to 
Claremont about the same time that George B. and Jabez Up- 
ham came. They were near neighbors at West Brookfield, 
and here George B. Upham and Mr. Fiske built near together, 
on Broad street, handsome houses of the same external style, 
in which they lived on intimate and friendly terms during their 
respective lives. Mr. Fiske engaged in a general mercantile 
business, which he continued many years, and was a leading 
citizen. He died on December 29, 1S34, at tne a S e °f sixty- 
five years. 

Among the prominent men in town for several years succeed- 
ing its first settlement, were Dr. William Sumner, a native of 
Boston, who came here from Hebron, Conn., in 176S, and 



254 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

died in March, 1778. Col. Benjamin Sumner was for many 
years a civil magistrate, and died in May, 1S15, at the age of 
seventy-eight years. Samuel Cole, Esq., who graduated at 
Yale college in 1731, was one of the first settlers of the town. 
He was very capable and useful as an instructor of youth. He 
died at an advanced age. 

Claremont's able and distinguished men and women of the 
present generation need not be named. They are well known. 

For a hundred and twenty-five years Claremont has had a 
steady and healthy growth, which may be attributed largely 
to the sterling character of the inhabitants, her fine soil and 
excellent water-power. This power is derived mainly from 
Sugar river, with a fall of more than three hundred feet in the 
town, one hundred and fifty feet of which is in the village, in a 
distance of about half a mile. This river is formed by the out- 
let of Sunapee lake and the confluence of small streams along 
its course. It is about twenty miles long, and falls eight hun- 
dred and twenty feet to where it empties into the Connecticut 
river. Sunapee lake is nine and a half miles long, from half a 
mile to two and a half miles wide, and of unknown depth. By 
an act of the legislature this lake may be drawn down ten feet 
when needed by the mills along Sugar river. 

We now have two railroads; telegraph and telephor.2 com- 
munication ; gas and electric lights ; two aqueducts, supplying 
an abundance of excellent water for culinary purposes, and hy- 
drants with pressure sufficient to carry streams over the highest 
buildings ; a steam fire-engine and other efficient apparatus for 
extinguishing fires, and almost all the advantages of a large 
village, with a spirit and disposition on the part of the people 
to keep pretty even pace with the progress of the age ; seven 
churches, in all of which there is stated preaching; graded 
schools, attended by nearly twelve hundred scholars ; a high 
school, where students are fitted to enter the best colleges ; a 
public library of about seven thousand volumes of books, free 
for the use of all the inhabitants ; national and savings-banks ; 
newspapers ; large and prosperous manufacturing establish- 
ments ; stores, carrying on almost every branch of trade ; many 
large and well tilled farms ; a population of about six thousand 



ANNUAL FIELD-DAY. 255 

men, women, and children, all of whom have comfortable 
homes and find remunerative employment on the generous soil 
and in our industrial establishments. 

In addition to all this, we claim a kind of proprietorship in 
Ascutney mountain, an isolated elevation of three thousand feet 
above the green valley of Connecticut river. Although located 
in Vermont, it is in plain view from many points in Claremont. 
Its principal value to us consists in its noble outline and ever- 
varying lights and shades, contributing much to the beauty of 
the landscape. Any who have lived in sight of it and gone 
away, treasure it as a fond remembrance, and come back with 
feelings akin to those of the mariner as he returns at the end of 
a long and perilous voyage and sights the cherished landmarks 
on his native shore. 

While the Merrimack turns more spindles than any other 
river in the world, the Connecticut, which forms the western 
boundary of the state of New Hampshire and of the town of 
Claremont, is fully twice as long, and more peaceful and majes- 
tic. It is believed that its valley, from Long Island sound to 
Connecticut lake, is more fertile, its scenery more quietly beau- 
tiful, and its inhabitants more comfortable, contented, intelli- 
gent, and virtuous, than can be found in the same area else- 
where on the face of the earth. 

At the conclusion of the address, Hon. J. B. Walker offered 
the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the heartiest thanks of the Society be hereby 
tendered to the Tremont club, and to the Major Jarvis Post, 
G. A. R., for their generous loan to us of their rooms on this 
occasion. 

Resolved, That our sincere thanks are extended to Major 
Waite for his valuable historical address, and that a copy of the 
same be hereby solicited for publication in the transactions of 
this Society. 

The company then returned to the rooms of the Tremont 
club, from which, soon after, carriages were taken for a drive 
about Claremont. This included a view of its large water- 
power and important manufactories, the historic " Tory 
13 



256 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Hole," and the two old churches at West Claremont. After 
an inspection of the interior of the ancient Episcopal church, 
the drive was resumed to Claremont Junction, where the even- 
ing train was taken for Charlestown. 

The party arrived at Charlestown about 7 o'clock p. m., and 
quartered at the Eagle hotel. After supper all repaired to the 
town hall, where an audience was in waiting to greet the mem- 
bers of the Society. The meeting was called to order by Pres- 
ident John J. Bell, who spoke briefly of the object of the visit 
of the Society, and of the holding of annual field meetings. It 
was to make the members better acquainted with all parts of 
the state, to increase their knowledge of historic locations, and 
to create an interest in the work of the Society. 

Col. Samuel Webber was first introduced, and gave an inter- 
esting account of the early history of the town. He spoke of 
the old fort, built in 1744, of the old Valley road, of the capture 
of Mrs. Johnson by the Indians in 1754, and detailed the loca- 
tion of historic sites and buildings. 

Rev. M. T. Runnels made a brief address, in which he said 
that from 1746 to 1760 the number of persons massacred by 
Indians in Charlestown was fourteen, and the number carried 
into captivity was twenty-eight. He also spoke of the old 
Crown Point military road, and the building of a road by Col. 
John Goffe and his men, connecting with the road from Crown 
Point. 

Further remarks were made by Rev. T. D. Howard and 
Abraham Hull of Charlestown, and Sylvester M. Stebbins of 
Gill, Mass. 

Mrs. Sarah Nye Bennett and 
H. C. Fay, 

both of Claremont, were elected members of the Society, after 
which the meeting was adjourned subject to the call of the 
President. 

Wednesday morning at 9 o'clock carriages were provided, in 
which the visitors were taken to points of historic interest 
in and about Charlestown, including the Johnson house, from 
which the Johnson family were captured by the Indians in 1754 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL MEETING. 257 

and carried to Canada. Other points of interest visited were 
the Cheshire bridge over the Connecticut river, the monument 
marking the Crown Point road, and the old military trail taken 
by Gen. John Stark and his men in the Bennington campaign, 
etc. The party were accompanied by George Olcott, Esq., 
and others of Charlestown. 

Leaving Charlestown at noon, a stop was made at Claremont, 
the party dining at the Belmont House, and visiting Mr. Bal- 
com in the afternoon, to whose untiring courtesy and generous 
attention the party were under great obligation. 

Returning, Concord was reached at 6 : 30 p. m. 

John C. Ordway, 

Secretary. 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Wednesday, June 8, 1892. 

The seventieth annual meeting of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society was held in the rooms of the Society in Concord, 
Wednesday, June 8, 1892, at n o'clock in the forenoon. 

In the absence of the President, Hon. John J. Bell, the 
senior Vice-President, Hon. Amos Hadley, called the meeting 
to order and read a letter from President Bell expressing regret 
at his unavoidable absence. 

The records of the last annual meeting, adjourned meetings, 
and field day, were read by the secretary and approved. 

The Recording Secretary made a verbal report with reference 
to new members, which was accepted. 

On motion of Rev. C. L. Tappan, a committee of three to 
present the names of candidates for admission to the Society 
was appointed by the chair as follows : 

Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
Col. J. Eastman Pecker. 



258 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On motion of the same gentleman, a committee to nominate 
officers for the ensuing year was appointed by the chair, as 
follows : 

Hon. John Kimball, 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
J. R. Kimball, M. D. 

The annual report of the Treasurer, William P. Fiske, Esq., 
was submitted, and by vote accepted and ordered to be placed 
on file. The report was as follows : 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

To the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

The Treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures for the year ending June 7, 1S92 : 





RECEIPTS. 






Balance from last year, $i] 
By cash received for assessments, 

44 " books and pamphlets 
sold, 

44 44 interest on funds, 


[,408.32 
417.00 

4-75 
550.88 


it t< 


state appropriation, 
state bonds paid, 




500.00 
200.00 
— : — $13,080.95 



EXPENDITURES. 

To paid salary of Librarian, $500.00 

44 books purchased, S 1 ^ 

44 insurance, 20.82 

44 water rent, 4.00 
" B. F. Stevens, London, for papers, 500.00 

44 printing,. 11.75 

" repairs, 3.75 

44 advertising meetings, 8.75 

44 sundry expenses, 4. 11 

44 C. L. Tappan, office expenses, 60.43 

44 account of investments, 200.00 



$1,365.11 
$11,715.84 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 259 

Balance : 
Permanent fund, $10,000.00 

Current funds, 1,715.84 



$11,715.84 

Respectfully submitted : 

W. P. Fiske, Treasurer. 

I hereby certify that I have examined the foregoing account 
of William P. Fiske, Treasurer of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society, and find the same correctly cast and sustained 
by proper vouchers. 

Isaac K- Gage, Auditor. 

Concord, N. H., June S, 1S92. 

The Librarian, Rev. Charles L. Tappan, presented his 
annual report, which, on motion, was accepted and ordered to 
be placed on rile. The report was as follows : 

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

To the Annual Meeting of the N. H. Historical Society: 

The Librarian respectfully presents his annual report for the 
year ending June 8, 1892. 

The library has been increased during the past year by the 
addition of 149 bound volumes, and 569 pamphlets. 

Bound volumes in the library as reported last year, 11,394. 

Bound volumes in the library as reported this year, 11,543. 

Books purchased : 

Biographical Encyclopedia, $30.00 

History of Merrimack County, 4.00 

44 Salisbury, 4.00 

44 Haverhill, Mass., 5.00 

44 Nottingham, &c, 3. 00 

Granite Monthly for 1S92, 1.50 

Roll of N. H. Soldiers at Bennington, 1.00 

Books bound : 

9 volumes of pamphlets, 4-5° 

$53.00 

Among the books presented to the Library is the History 
of Sutton, in two volumes, by the compiler, Mrs. Augusta 
Harvey Worthen. 

The library has received during the past year the Magazine 



20O NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of American History from P. B. Cogswell ; the Gen. and 
Hist. Register from the N. E. Gen. and Hist. Society ; and 
the same newspapers as last year from their respective pub- 
lishers. 

The library has been open from half-past 9 a. m. to 12 o'clock 
m., and from half-past 1 to half-past 4 p. m. every day, except 
Sundays and Saturday in the afternoon. It has been well 
patronized. 

More shelf room is very much -needed for the accommodation 
of the books now in the library and those which are being con- 
stantly added. The shelves are crowded. 

We are receiving the publications ©f most of the state his- 
torical societies regularly, but we make little, if any, return for 
the same. How long they will continue to send them to our 
library without a return is a question that time will answer. 
Would it not be well to publish some of the many valuable 
historical papers in the library? They could be used in ex- 
change to advantage. The growth of the library is certainly 
desirable. Would it not be wise to secure a good healthy 
growth by devoting a certain amount to the purchase of town, 
state, and national histories, and genealogies of families, each 
year? Many valuable historical and genealogical books are 
passing beyond reach ; just such books as should be in the 
library, and may be if the Society so determines. It is not 
enough carefully to set out a tree, even in good soil : it must be 
constantly cared for afterwards, and fed with that nourishment 
which its nature demands for its growth, usefulness, and beauty. 
The same is true of a library, particularly an historical library. 
It is a benevolent work, and more — a Christian work, to estab- 
lish and build up a library of the records of past and passing 
events for generations to come. For want of means this Soci- 
ety must go slow in its legitimate work. It can do but little, 
but let that little be done constantly,, and in process of time, 
as the years pass along, much will be accomplished, and a 
healthy growth assured. 

Respectfully submitted : 

Charles L. Tappan, 

Librarian. 



The Hon. Joseph B. Walker, for tdhe Standing Committee, 
made a verbal report, and presented some suggestions, including 
the procuring of a full set of town histories of this state, com- 
plete sets of the histories of the United States, etc., and offered 
the following resolutions, which were adopted : 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL MEETING. 26 1 

Resolved, That the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars 
($250) be hereby appropriated for the purchase of new books for 
the library. 

Resolved, That the publications of the Society be resumed 
at as early a day as the Publication Committee deem proper. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be hereby tendered 
to Mrs. Calvin Thorn and Mrs. John C. Ordway for the pres- 
ent of flowers on this occasion. 

Hon. L. D. Stevens, for the Committee on Literary Exer- 
cises appointed at the last annual meeting, announced that the 
committee had invited Rev. Henry A. Hazen, D. D., of Massa- 
chusetts, to deliver the annual address ; that the invitation had 
been accepted, and that the address would be given this after- 
noon at 2 o'clock. 

Rev. C. L. Tappan, for the Committee on New Members, 
reported the following names : 

Herman Weed Stevens, Dover; Rev. Albert H. Thompson, 
Raymond ; Trueworthy Ladd Fowler, East Pembroke ; John 
B. Hazelton, Esq., Suncook ; Rev. Lucius Waterman, Little- 
ton ; Hon. Cyrus Sargeant, Plymouth ; William Yeaton, Esq., 
Concord ; Thomas D. Luce, Esq., Nashua ; 

And they were severally elected by ballot resident members 
of the Society. 

The Hon. John Kimball, from the Committee on Nomination 

of Officers, reported the following, who were unanimously 

elected : 

Preside?it. 

Hon. John J. Bell. 

Vice-Presidents, 

Hon. Amos Hadley, 

Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball. 

Rccordi?ig Secretary. 
John C. Ordway, Esq. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Hon. Sylvester Dana. 



262 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Treasurer. 
William P. Fiske, Esq. 

Librarian. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan. 

Necrologist. 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker. 

Library Committee. 

Hon. John J. Bell, 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
Col. J. Eastman Pecker. 

Publishing Committee. 

Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 
Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
Hon. George L. Balcom. 

Standing Committee. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Joseph C. A. Hill, Esq, 
Gen. Howard L. Porter. 

Auditor. 

■^ 'I ''>?J : ;:./\: ISAAC K. GAGE, Esq. 

The Librarian presented the following communication from 
Gen. Henry M. Baker, accompanying a gift of a framed pho- 
to-lithographic copy of the original order of Gen. John A. 
Dix, "If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, 
shoot him on the spot." 

communication of gen. henry m. baker. 

Bow, N. H., Feb. 22, 1892. 
Hon. jfohn y. Bell, President 2V. H. Historical Society: 

f Dear Sir : I present herewith to the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society a framed photo-lithographic copy of the original 



SEVENTIETH ANNUAL MEETING. 263 

patriotic order of Gen. John A. Dix, written with his own 
hand, in which he used the immortal words, kl If any one at- 
tempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." 

Gen. John Adams Dix was born in Boscawen, this state, 
July 24, 1798. He held more offices, civil and military, than 
any other of our public men, and was distinguished alike in war 
and peace. 

Wherever he was, confidence found a home, subordinates 
were inspired with zeal in the discharge of duty, and the people 
recognized a true leader, incorruptible and fearless. He was 
essentially a man of action, but is not without reputation as a 
scholar and author. Of all the distinguished sons of New 
Hampshire, he was the most versatile and the most successful 
in the greatest number of different offices. He became secre- 
tary of the treasury in the closing months of President Buchan- 
an's administration. Treason was rampant in high places, but 
henceforth patriotism reigned in the treasury department. Public 
credit was restored, and the government enabled to secure the 
funds necessary to its existence. While secretary, he wrote the 
famous order which Americans will not let die. The revenue 
cutters at New Orleans were in danger of being seized by the 
rebels, and it was decided to send William Hemphill Jones, of 
the treasury department, to New Orleans, with special instruc- 
tions and authority to save them. Those instructions were 
prepared and signed, when it occurred to the secretary that they 
were not specific enough, if resistance to his orders should be 
attempted. He then wrote with his own hand the supplemen- 
tary order, a copy of which is presented herewith. This 
explanation will account for the order being in the form of a 
memorandum. 

I know of no place where this order can find a more fitting 
home than in our Historical Society, and I beg you to accept it, 
and give it an appropriate position among the collections. 
Very truly yours, 

Henry M. Baker. 



On motion of Hon. J. C. A. Wingate, the gift was accepted, 
and the thanks of the Society returned to the donor. 

Hon. A. S. Batchellor spoke of the Calendar, or Index, of 
papers, pertaining to New Hampshire, now in London, and which 
is being published by the state ; and on motion of Hon. J. B. 
Walker, the subject of procuring extra copies of the same was 
referred to the Committee on Publication, with full powers. 



264 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Hon. A. S. Batchellor also offered the following vote, which 
was adopted : 

Voted, That a committee of three be appointed to see what 
measures can be taken to secure the preparation and publication 
of the naval history of New Hampshire under the provisions of 
the regimental history legislation of the state ; and 

Hon. Albert S. Wait, of Newport, 
Hon. P. B. Cogswell, of Concord, 
Hon. J. C. A. Wingate, of Stratham, 

were appointed said committee. 

On motion of Col. J. E. Pecker, it was voted that the annual 
field day of the Society shall be observed at Plymouth, at such 
time as a special committee of three, to be appointed, shall desig- 
nate. And the Chair subsequently appointed as such com- 
mittee : 

Col. J. E. Pecker, 
Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 
Hon. Cyrus Sargea^t. 

On motion of J. C. A. Hill, Esq., 

Voted, That the annual assessment for the ensuing year, be 
$3.00 for each resident member. 

Hon. John Kimball, in behalf of the comnmissioners appointed 
by the governor and council to provide fibr the preservation and 
protection of the Endicut Rock, at the Weirs, in the town of 
Laconia, invited the Society to attend the observance of the 
240th anniversary of the marking of Endicut Rock at the 
Weirs, and to take part in the public ceremonies of the day ; 
and to select some person to represent the Society in a brief 
address. 

The Society voted to accept the invitation, and request Presi- 
dent J. J. Bell to speak for the Society on that occasion, or in 
case of inability to attend, to select some other member to act 
for him. 

Adjourned to 2 o'clock p. m. 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 265 

The Society re-assembled at 2 o'clock in the afternoon ; Vice- 
President Hadley in the chair. 

On motion of Rev. C. L. Tappan, 

Voted, That Hon. Chester B. Jordan, of Lancaster, be in- 
vited to prepare a memoir of Col. Joseph Whipple, the pioneer 
of Dartmouth, to be delivered before the Society, in Concord, 
some time the coming winter. 

The Rev. Henry A. Hazen, D. D., of Massachusetts, was then 
introduced, and delivered the annual address — subject, 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT: AN HISTORICAL STUDY. 

A loyal son of Vermont, bidden by your kind favor to ad- 
dress the New Hampshire Historical Society, I find a natural 
and inviting theme in a study of the common history of these 
sister states, with some of the parallels and contrasts suggested 
by such a review. 

In the great sisterhood of American states constituting our 
continental republic, Vermont and New Hampshire stand side 
by side, in a relationship very near, and in some respects unique. 
Their united territory forms a parallelogram, approximately 
160 miles long and 120 miles broad,, bisected by the diagonal 
course of the Connecticut river, which gives New Hampshire 
two thirds of the whole breadth at the south line, and Vermont 
two thirds at the north line. Vermont has slightly the larger 
area. By the census of 1SS0, New Hampshire has 9,005 square 
miles, and Vermont 9,135. Some authorities give Vermont a 
larger area. 

If I were geologically wise, and able to explore with you the 
44 story of the rocks," and alluvial deposit, we might traverse 
fields of great interest. Whether in such a discussion I could 
show Mansfield to be older than Washington, or Champlain 
more recent than Winnipiseogee, in the vast periods of planetary 
formation, are questions beyond our present range. But if the 
old world is the newer, as science assures us, the Vermont of 
a 100 years' history, may geologically outrank her elder sister, 



266 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and imagination may take a wide and interested flight among 
such fancies. 

But limiting ourselves to the history, which is your province, 
New Hampshire has twice the age of Vermont. 

And yet, we may remind ourselves, that a European saw the 
sun rise over the Green mountains, some years earlier than the 
White mountains come within the range of human records. 
Champlain sailed up the beautiful lake, whose name is his best 
monument, in 1609 — 11 years earlier than the Pilgrims landed 
at Plymouth, and 14 years before the Hiltons came to New 
Hampshire. But the Hiltons were Englishmen, and Champlain 
was a Frenchman ; they had come*to stay, and develop the stay- 
ing qualities of the Anglo-Saxon ; and it was not till the same 
race appeared at Bennington, almost rfo years after, that 
Vermont history began. Judged by American standards, then, 
New Hampshire is old, and Vermont is young ; though on a 
wider scale of comparison, European, or Asiatic, each is alike 
modern, — and the difference of 125 years between them, is too 
trifling to weigh much in comparative estimates. Yet, it is only 
truth to say that the Vermont of to-day, cannot be rightly under- 
stood, if we overlook the fact how brief her record is, and that 
the children of men who, with Allen and Chittenden and War- 
ner helped to lay the foundations, still survive to tell her story, 
with some of the animation, caught from the very actors. 

Each state has a large element of romance interwoven with 
its beginnings. You, who are more familiar than I with the 
early life of New Hampshire, understand this very well. 
You know that the more carefully this mine is explored, the 
more attractive it becomes. Heroism is not wanting which 
would have illumined the pages of English or Roman story. 
As your children of coming generations study these records 
they will become brighter, and this not simply on the familiar 
principle of distance lending enchantment. They will, in 
fact, be better understood. Those who come after us will 
know better than we do, the difficulties with which the early 
New Hampshire men had to contend, and will be prepared to 
do more exact justice to the patience, courage, and wisdom 
with which they planted their homes in the wilderness, guarded 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 267 

their precious heritage from foes within and without, and 
reared the structure of the state to the fair proportions she has 
reached. Growths of this kind can be neither hasty nor 
accidental. Nothing in history is accidental, and the harvest 
always shows what kind of seed has been sown. The faith, 
the courage, the prayers, the patriotism of generations of ear- 
nest men and women are interwoven in the fabric of New 
Hampshire's heritage, as she comes into your keeping. 

It would be interesting to single out and dwell upon illus- 
trations of what I have in mind; but the single instance of the 
Lovewell expedition and its results, is the only one I can 
allude to. For two generations the dark cloud of Indian perils 
had hung over the colony. Settlements were restricted, invit- 
ing fields were left unoccupied, and occasionally the shrill war 
whoop sounded the death-knell of some unsuspecting settler. 
The situation had become intolerable to brave men, and at last 
they gathered up their scanty forces and went forth to grapple 
with the stealthy foe on his own ground. The skill, the cour- 
age, the endurance which found expression in that tedious 
march into the depths of the wilderness, and the successful 
struggle by Pequawkett were masterly. A braver deed has 
rarely shown manhood at its best. It will yet inspire higher 
and truer strains than the good minister of Haverhill was 
master of. The result was decisive, and the fear of the red men 
ceased to disturb the dreams of eastern and southern New 
Hampshire. When our civilization is older, and we come to 
appreciate, as we do not yet, the significance of monumental 
remembrance of our heroic men, New Hampshire will, in 
some such form, teach her children to remember and honor 
John Lovewell and Seth VVyman. 

Vermont vies with New Hampshire in the picturesque and 
romantic elements of her early life. The beautiful virgin 
wilderness awaiting the occupancy of civilized man ; the con- 
test of New York and New Hampshire for its possession ; the 
sturdy settlers gradually finding out that their own interests 
were not identical with those of either contestant, or secure in 
their keeping, and the increasing clearness and force with 
which they came to the discovery and defence of their own 



268 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

rights, asserting them against all comers, are elements of a 
story fascinating and instructive. Misunderstood or opposed 
by their neighbors on every side, the Green Mountain Boys 
maintained their ground with a statesmanship which, on 
broader fields, must have been recognized as masterly. And, 
at last, after fourteen years of practical independence, when 
the United States was ready to welcome them, without haste, 
but with some hesitation, they yielded, and Vermont became 
the eldest daughter of the new republic. 

On one point we may recognize, and I am sure a New 
Hampshire Society will agree with roe in remarking, the 
superior felicity of Vermont, in her name. Our best state 
names are those which are indigenous with a flavor of the soil — 
American in the best sense — and some of them in dignity and 
fitness are of supreme excellence. Ohio, Alabama, and Oregon 
could not be improved. For such use, a compound name is 
necessarily bad, and when it is a foreign importation it is much 
the worse ; and the double misfortune is yours. If your founders 
had been given the wisdom to choose from among such names 
as Merrimack, Pascataqua, Chocorua, Naticott, Amoskeag, and 
Laconia, the gain of fitness, elegance, and convenience would 
have been great. 

The excellence of Vermont, as a name, is the more surprising 
from the fact that it is not indigenous, but is, so far as we know, 
simply a French fancy as the beholder gazed with pleasure on 
her hills and mountains. It has the capital merit of being both 
unique and fit, and helps to inspire the loving loyalty of her 
sons and daughters. There is much in a name. 

That there is such a name, or such a state calling for any 
name, is one of those historic developments on which we may 
dwell for a little : it is one of the surprises of our American 
history. New Hampshire missed, narrowly, from holding 
Lake Champlain for her western boundary. The claims of 
New York were too remote and tenuous to have stood against 
any intelligent and resolute purpose of New Hampshire to hold 
the western half of what might have been her broad domain. 
The grant to the Duke of York was very doubtful in terms ; it 
represented an ignorance of geography as dense as that which 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 269 

assumed the westward course of the Merrimack, and it had been 
so long in abeyance that no real rights could have been sacri- 
ficed and no injustice done, if the claim had never been asserted 
or heard of again. 

Equitably, the Green Mountain territory was open to the 
possession of any company of men and women ready to make 
their homes in the wilderness, and transform it to the purposes 
of civilization ; and no state had such prior rights of domain, 
that they could fairly be set up in the face of, and in resistance 
to, such settlement. And when the Beranington men went to 
Governor Wentvvorth foi their charter, there can be little 
question that they recognized the largest proprieties of the 
situation, that his right to give what they sought was better 
than that of any other authority, and that the jurisdiction of 
New Hampshire would be most natural and helpful to them. 
And when, after the interruption occasioned by the French and 
Indian War, the currents of settlement were again in motion 
from Connecticut and Massachusetts, the case was essentially 
unchanged. The natural impulse of the settlers was to look to 
New Hampshire for government and protection. New Hamp- 
shire had only to respond in order to become mistress of the 
situation, and find her citizens west of the Connecticut as loyal 
as on the east. 

But government meant protection, and protection involved 
expense. The authorities of New Hampshire hesitated ; the 
Grants were remote, and a wilderness lay between them and 
Exeter, or even Concord. The population was scant, its 
wealth more scant, and when the call came for forts and forces 
to man them, at Brattleboro and farther west, we can see the 
reasons for their negative. They were not ambitious ; they did 
not want more territory, perhaps, and thought they had more 
than their children could need, and they left the Grants to care 
for themselves. Massachusetts was not wholly deaf to their 
plea, for the reason, it may be, that there were more Massachu- 
setts people among the settlers, and gave help at Fort Dummer. 
But, substantially, the Grants wrought out their own problems 
of defence and development, and were a law unto themselves, 
with results of which their children may well be proud. 



270 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

It was at this early point that New Hampshire missed her 
great opportunity. A broader vision and a brave, enterprising 
faith on the part of her leaders could have secured, and prob- 
ably with much less expense or danger than they feared, the 
extension of New Hampshire from the ocean to Champlain. 
For the result, I have no regrets, as probably you have none. 
Each state has developed the high qualities worthy of separate 
statehood ; each has followed the lines of her own develop- 
ment with a success which might have gained little, and might 
have lost somewhat from a union of currents ; and, on the stage 
of our national life, each has had two senators instead of one, 
and we cannot go far in recalling the names of Vermont and 
New Hampshire senators without a very strong conviction of 
their value to the country, and how much the country would 
have lost if half of them had been denied these opportunities 
or public service. But one who ever ventures to dream of the 
44 might have been." will hardly miss his chance to picture the 
commonwealth which New Hampshire could have become, 
and the place she could have had on the roll of the United 
States, in breadth and wealth of population and power, if her 
history had unfolded in this ample fashion and she had become 
an earlier and New England Montana. 

I have spoken of your great opportunity, not forgetting that 
the emphasis rests on the adjective. As we shall see, others 
followed ; but they had become less simple. The pretensions 
of New York had thriven, in the opportunity given by New 
Hampshire's neglect. New conditions had arisen, and new 
interests ; the people of the grants had ceased to be united 
for New Hampshire, as a firm hand might easily have held 
them ; national policy had become an element in the case, and, 
whether she desired to do so, or not, New Hampshire could not 
recover the ground she had lost. Two stars were emblazoned, 
instead of one, on our national escutcheon. 

Our historical students are learning more and more how 
interesting a subject is found in the play of forces and varying 
phases of the drama enacted in the Connecticut valley, and in the 
semi-independent position of Vermont, while the Revolutionary 
struggle was in progress. Much has been written, and some 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 271 

things very well written, upon the subject. But the situation is 
not complex or obscure to the student, who accepts and remem- 
bers a few controlling facts. 

From the day when Thomas Hooker and his company found 
themselves cramped in Newtown and impelled to seek more 
land at Hartford, this craving has been the characteristic of 
genuine Americans. But a more inviting opportunity has sel- 
dom opened before them than that which the peace, following 
the French war, presented to the men of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, in the beautiful Connecticut valley and Green 
Mountain region. They had long felt the attraction, and when 
the danger was removed they were ready for a forward move- 
ment, as rapid as their circumstances would admit. In spite 
of greater distance, Connecticut was foremost. Securing their 
charters from Governor Wentworth, and probably at the out- 
set, with no thought that New Hampshire could fail to defend 
and include them, their homes began to multiply on both sides 
of the river in Chester and Charlestown, Windsor and Cornish, 
Hartford and Lebanon. Of the river as a dividing line, they 
had no thought. They were neighbors and friends, and 
repelled the idea of separation. At the outset, there is no rea- 
son to suppose that they thought of a new state. That idea 
was the growth of later conditions. If New Hampshire had 
welcomed them and extended her civil mantle over them, 
inviting their loyalty, she would have found no more faithful 
citizens. 

Very early in the movement a new force came into it with 
important influence. The pastor of one of the churches, from 
which this colonizing stream was flowing, had for several 
years sustained an Indian school. It needed a better location 
and ampler opportunity, and this sagacious man saw that he 
could join his neighbors in their new settlement, to their com- 
mon advantage. It was no accident which led Wheelock to 
Hanover. He came naturally, with those whom he knew, 
and founded Dartmouth college, " vox clamantis in deserto" 
But if he had dreamed that a location on the east side of the 
river would have involved ultimately his separation from 
neighbors on the west side, there is small probability that he 
14 



272 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

would not have chosen the west, and Norwich, or Fairlee, or 
Windsor might have been the home of Dartmouth. 

It is easy in the light of these facts to appreciate the position 
of the Connecticut Valley settlers, when it dawned upon them 
that they were not to be included in New Hampshire. If not 
all, then not any, was their feeling. They had come to the 
wilderness together. The country they regarded as alike open 
to their common occupancy. It was not clear to them, it can 
scarcely be clear to us, why, if New Hampshire extended beyond 
the Mason line, it should stop short of Champlain. The 
river was an afterthought and an expediency to New Hamp- 
shire, the propriety of which they were not called upon to 
recognize, with its ruthless sundering of ties and plans so dear 
to them. But if it cost the average citizens along the river a 
pang to contemplate separation, their relations to Dartmouth 
college contributed a still more vital element to the case. To 
this company of colonists on both sides the river the college 
was dear, and alike dear. It belonged to them in faith, and 
prayer, and interest, and they cherished it. A state line to 
sever many of them from it, they had no intention of accepting, 
if they could help it, and they did not believe that any 
righteous principle demanded such a sacrifice of them. 

It has been charged as a matter of reproach that the Dres- 
den men were the centre and inspiration of the hostility to 
New Hampshire and that the river would have been easily 
accepted as a boundary, ifWheelock and his friends had not 
stirred opposition. Very likely that is the fact, and I do not 
know that discredit to any one is involved in that fact. The 
college men were naturally leaders in a movement in which all 
had a rightful interest. They were able men and good 
writers. The tract which they issued from the Dresden press 
in 1777, '* A Public Defense of the Rights of the Grants on 
Both Sides the Connecticut River to Form a Single State," 
would have done credit to any political writer of the time. 
This was the prime point of their contention, and the propriety 
of it has never been disproved, except by the strong hand. 
Hence, when New Hampshire declined to cross the river, they 
said that she had no right to come to the river and divide them, 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 273 

that the heights within which the Masonian line was drawn 
were her legitimate bound. The valley towns east of the 
river sent their representatives to the legislature of the new 
state, and the Vermont legislature once met in Cornish. 

It is no part of my purpose, neither my time nor your 
patience w T ould permit me, to try to thread the mazes of policy, 
through which the final results were reached. A compact of 
union with the eastern towns was twice made and dissolved, 
and naturally there were troubles and excitements attending 
process. In my judgment they all have explanation in the 
facts I have here recalled, and it is an explanation which does 
credit to the heads and hearts of the Green Mountain Boys. 
Their desire to include the eastern towns was not ambitious, 
or in any way unworthy. They were simply faithful to breth- 
ren and friends, and they did not seem to themselves to be 
straining any point of duty towards New Hampshire in what 
they did. 

The relations of New York to the territory and the contest 
were very different. The claim which, after almost a hundred 
years from the grant to the Duke of York, was put forward 
was unnatural, and is open to the suspicion that the greed of 
speculators inspired it. Be that as it may, it came near suc- 
cess, and one cannot help some wonder that it did not succeed. 
It had a strong and ambitious state behind it, and so much in 
its favor that many of the New Hampshire grantees, when 
they found that they could not rely on her to defend their title, 
turned not unnaturally to New York for security. 

When the Green Mountain Boys launched the craft of their 
New Connecticut, a candid looker-on might have been for- 
given for doubts if she could ever outride the storm and find a 
safe harbor. But there were sturdy seamen on board and 
sagacious leaders — men as dauntless and wise as ever had to 
do with the making of a state. Chittenden stands worthily 
first, whose patience was equal to his tact and skill, lacking 
possibly the popular and hero-making elements of the Aliens, 
or the military qualities of Seth Warner, but superior to either 
in moulding the affairs of state, and through clouds and tem- 
pests guiding the ship to her desired haven. 



274 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

He has been charged with disloyalty in connection with the 
"Haldemand" negotiations, and it may be doubted if the time 
has yet come, if the facts are all in, for the telling of that story 
fully. But my study of it seems to me to make it clear that 
that correspondence (read between the lines) reveals a percep- 
tion of the perils to which Vermont was exposed, and the 
means of defence, which was masterly. In a good sense, and 
with full justification, as I believe, he temporized. It was the 
best way, perhaps the only way, to save his beloved state from 
destruction. In the same circumstances Washington would 
have done as he did, and had the plaudits of history for his 
courageous wisdom. Doubtless he misled his enemies. Has 
any great commander ever hesitated to do it if he could? But 
that he did it by means inconsistent with truth and justice has 
never been proved and never can be. 

One result which New Hampshire secured, in holding the 
Connecticut as her boundary, is, the possession of Dartmouth 
college. For her it was a most fortunate result, and may well 
have been one of her motives. No institution of the state has 
contributed so much to her high character and fame. The 
association of these two names is intimate and world-wide, and 
you may well be proud ot it. Among the older states, only 
Rhode Island has shown similar wisdom in planting no rival, 
but making one such institution the depositary of all her higher 
educational force. To Vermont the loss was partial only, for 
the doors of Dartmouth have always invited and received her 
students, sometimes in almost equal numbers with New Hamp- 
shire's sons. By the test of the graduate number of her sons, 
it would not be strange if Dartmouth could claim- to be as truly 
a Vermont college as either of those which she has herself 
planted ; but if Vermont had retained her early college, it 
might have saved her the misfortune of two smaller and rival 
institutions. 

New Hampshire can afford to deal generously by her one 
college — in fact, she cannot afford not to do it, for no possible 
investment of her wealth and influence is so sure of permanent 
and large returns. You recognize the fact that the Dartmouth 
of the past has brought uplift, comfort, wealth, and power to 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 275 

the state, which are measureless. Is the Dartmouth of the 
next hundred years to bear similar fruit and in similar propor- 
tions? If it is to do so, it can only be as New Hampshire shall 
put her best life into the college, keep her in the forefront of 
the best thought and life of the times, see that her resources 
are adequate to her needs, and that she is worthy to train your 
sons (and, shall I add, your daughters? Why not?) of the 
coming years. 

The best product of any state is in her sons and daughters. 
Whether they stay by the hearth-stone, or reach out for wider 
opportunities, the men and women whom the state gives to 
the world prove the character of the state. That is the true 
test of her institutions and her life, not the multitude of her 
material products. New Hampshire may welcome the appli- 
cation of such a test. Her children are in all the land and all 
the world. She has given the country a president, more than 
one cabinet officer, judges, with one illustrious chief-justice, 
senators and representatives in great numbers, including the 
prince of all our senators, merchant princes in all our marts of 
commerce, educators who have filled high places usefully and 
honorably, men who have adorned the learned professions, 
ministers of the gospel who have carried the tidings of heaven's 
love to men to all the land and to all the world ; — to call the 
roll of even a few such men would be invidious as needless. 
The suggestion only will call to your minds a " great cloud of 
witnesses" testifying the tact I would emphasize. But these 
are not all. I doubt if all these are so priceless a contribution 
to the life of the country as the plain men and women, many 
in the humbler walks of life, who have gone forth to help build 
other states, and especially our newer states. What would our 
great West be to-day but for the leaven which they have con- 
tributed to its moulding, if the ignorance and the greed of the 
multitudes from other lands had been left to work out their 
natural results without the guiding influence of neighbors 
trained in American ideas, civil and religious? Of such, New 
Hampshire and Vermont have contributed more than their 
proportion. It is a grand proof of their quality, that they have 
been able to send out such representatives ; and it is a narrow 



276 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

view which laments their departure, or deems them lost to 
their parent states. '* There is that scattereth, and yet increas- 
ed!." The *' greater Britain'* is a favorite theme ; the greater 
Vermont and New Hampshire finds no bound this side of the 
Pacific. 

And what of the future? It is an unworthy fear which has 
no welcome for the strangers who are flocking in such num- 
bers to share your heritage. They bring to you, who are 4 * to 
the manner born," new opportunities and new hopes. It is 
yours to make the spirit of your heritage so attractive and per- 
suasive that their children shall be as loyal to it as your chil- 
dren. They must be made to feel the majestic beneficence of 
the state so thoroughly, to see so clearly that its freedom is lib- 
erty under law and not license, that they cannot help bowing 
down, as you and your fathers have bowed down, before it. 
and defend her with hearts as loyal and loving as your own. 

There came a time, thirty years ago, when the quality of 
your manhood and your womanhood was tried. Our flag was 
assailed, and the life of the nation in critical peril. The re- 
sponse among these New Hampshire hills was hearty. It 
proved heroism not a lost virtue ; it proved New Hampshire 
manhood as sterling as it had ever been. Will the future prove. 
in any similar crisis, that you are doing your work in mould- 
ing and training the coming generations as faithfully as your 
fathers? Any such future crisis will hardly come in the same 
form as in 1862. History does not repeat itself. We hope the 
time approaches, if it has not already come, when for us, at 
least, 

" The war-drum beats no longer, and the battle-flags are furled 
In the parliament of men." 

But conflicts of arms are far from the highest tests of charac- 
ter. Conflicts of ideas and opinions, of principles and policy, 
may reveal more truly of what stuff men are made. And there 
lie moral contests before us, which will demand as real cour- 
age as any which faced rebel cannon at Gettysburg. 

The New Hampshire of the twentieth century will differ 
widely from that of the nineteenth, as that differs from the 
eighteenth. Your problem is to take all these elements com- 



REV. DR. HAZEN'S ADDRESS. 277 

ing to you and shape them to the high purposes of liberty, law, 
and righteousness. When the process is ended, you will not 
yourselves be just what you are to-day. 

The strangers within your gate have somewhat to give as 
well as to receive, and you have something to learn as well as 
to teach. A higher manhood in which their best and yours 
shall be blended is the goal of your true endeavor, in the attain- 
ment of which you and they will have common cause to 
rejoice; and if this old New Hampshire, yours of the past and 
theirs as well as yours of to-day, proves, by its laws and insti- 
tutions, its industries and varied forces, moral and spiritual, 
equal to this higher development, your children's children will 
rise up and call you blessed. 

Gentlemen of the New Hampshire Historical Society, I con- 
gratulate you on the good work you have done in the making 
of the state, and on the greater work before you and those who 
come after you — the New Hampshire of yesterday enfolded in 
germ the New Hampshire of to-morrow. It is yours to culti- 
vate and promote that higher consciousness, in the power of 
which you and your neighbors may work intelligently to the lofti- 
est ends which the past has seen, perhaps, but dimly ; to trace 
effects back to their causes and by the honor which you shall 
do and secure for good workers in the past, assures faithful men 
to-day that they in turn shall be remembered. No true man 
can be uninfluenced by this incentive. It is not the motive of his 
work, but his best may be made better by the animating assur- 
ance that the plaudits of coming time shall not be wanting. 

Your society had its germ in the mind and the heart of a 
man who wrought in this spirit, and deserves to be honored 
as long as New Hampshire has honor to give her most faithful 
sons. May the spirit of John Farmer abide among you till 
your work is done. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be tendered the Rev. 
Henry A. Hazen, D. D., for his able and entertaining address ; 
and that a copy of the same be requested for publication in the 
proceedings of the Society. 

On motion adjourned, subject to the call of the President. 
John C. Ordway, Recording Secretary. 



278 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 

Plymouth, N. H., Thursday,, October 13, 1892. 

The 'first adjourned seventieth annual meeting of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, together with the annual field 
day, was held at Plymouth, Thursday, October 13, 1892. 

The members and their friends, to the number of about 
twenty-five, convened at Plymouth about 9 o'clock a. m., and 
soon after that hour, under the direction of the special field day 
committee, consisting of 

Col. J. E. Pecker, 
Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 
Hon. Cyrus Sargeant, 

carriages were taken for a drive about the town and its imme- 
diate surroundings. 

The party first visited the historic Livermvore Falls, and after- 
ward the fibre-wood factory near by, where they were cour- 
teously shown the process of making wood pulp from spruce 
and poplar logs. The party next visited the fish-hatchery, 
where they found much of interest. Brook trout and salmon 
were the principal varieties under cultivation, though other 
kinds are raised in limited numbers ; amonrg which were some 
very beautiful rainbow trout from Califonmia. The spawn is 
placed on sieves in shallow tanks and a constant current of 
water from several springs is kept flowing over it; from two 
to three months is required for the hatching. When the young 
fish are three months old they are ready for distribution among 
the streams and ponds of the state. 

A visit was made to the ancient Episcopal church at Holder- 
ness, in Trinity cemetery, where repose the remains of the 
once noted Livermores, and to the Holderness Episcopal 
school for boys, and the fine new chapel connected therewith. 

Dinner was served at the Pemigevvasset House at noon, after 
which a visit was made to the old court-hoose in which Daniel 
Webster made his first plea. This building, purchased a few 
years ago by Hon. Henry W. Blair, has been restored as 
nearly as possible to its original condition!, and presented to 



>■ 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 279 

the Young Ladies' Library Association, which has fitted it up 
in an attractive manner. 

The business meeting was held in the State Normal School 
building. In the absence of the President, the Hon. John J. 
Bell, and the Vice-Presidents and the Secretary, John C. Ord- 
way, Esq., the Hon. John Kimball was chosen president, and 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., Secretary, pro tern. 

New members were chosen as follows: 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Eli E. Graves, M. D., Boscawen ; Howard M. Cook, Con- 
cord ; Franklin Senter Frisbie, Boston, Mass. ; W. Howard 
Tucker, Lebanon ; Charles Frederick Bacon Philbrook, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Franklin George Adams, Secretary of Kansas Historical 
Society, Topeka, Kansas ; Cecil Hampden Cutts Howard, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A committee, consisting of 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 
Rev. C. L. Tappan, 

was appointed to confer with Col. George C. Gilmore of Man- 
chester, in regard to publishing the Revolutionary records of 
the New Hampshire soldiers in the Battle of Bunker Hill. 

After the business meeting, interesting addresses were made 
by Hon. Alvin Burleigh, of Plymouth ; Prof. C. C. Rounds, 
of the State Normal school; John C. French, Esq., of Man- 
chester; Hon. John C. Linehan, of Penacook ; Hon. A. S. 
Batchellor, of Littleton; Hon. J. W. Patterson, of Hanover; 
Hon. J. B. Walker and Hon. Woodbridge Odlin, of Concord. 
The occasion proved a very enjoyable one to all participating. 

About 5 o'clock p. m., adjourned subject to the call of the 

President. 

Isaac K. Gage, 

Secretary, pro tern. 
A true copy : 

John C. Ordway, Secretary. 



28o NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING. 

Concord, Wednesday, June 14, 1893. 

The seventy-first annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held this day at the Society's rooms at 
11 o'clock a. m. 

Vice-President Hon. Amos Hadley called the meeting to 
order, in the absence of the President. 

Isaac K. Gage, Esq., was elected Secretary pro te?n. in the 
absence of the Secretary. 

The records of the last annual meeting and adjourned and 
field day meetings were read, at the request of the absent 
Secretary, by Rev. C. L. Tappan, the Librarian, and approved. 

The following committee was appointed by the chair to 
nominate a list of officers for the ensuing year : 

Hon. John Kimball, 
J. C. A. Wingate, Esq., 
Edson C. Eastman. 

The following were appointed a committee on new mem- 
bers : 

Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
Col. J. E. Pecker. 

William P. Fiske, Esq., Treasurer, made report that the 
following gentlemen, elected to membership, have qualified, 
during the past year, by paying the admittance fee : 

Howard M. Cook, Concord ; Trueworthy Ladd Fowler, 
East Pembroke; Eli E. Graves, M. D. t Boscawen ; John B. 
Hazelton, Esq., Suncook ; Thomas D. Luce, Esq., Nashua; 
Hon. Cyrus Sargeant, Plymouth ; W. Howard Tucker, Leba- 
non ; Charles Frederick Bacon Philbrook, Boston, Mass. ; 
Franklin Senter Frisbie, Boston, Mass. ; Rev. Lucius Water- 
man, Littleton. 

Hon. Sylvester Dana, Corresponding Secretary, made a 
verbal report, which was accepted. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



28l 



The annual report of the Treasurer, William P. Fiske, Esq., 
was read, and by vote accepted, and ordered to be placed on 
file. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



To the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

The Treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures for the year ending June 13, 1S93 : 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance from last year . 

By cash received from assessments 

By cash received from initiation fees 

Interest on investments 

Life membership, Isaac B. Dodge, Am 

herst, N. H 

Sale of Atchison scrip . 

Legacy of Mrs. Abigail B. Walker, Con 

cord, N. H. 
Premium on bond 
State appropriation 
Sale of books .... 



$11,715.84 

344.00 

45.00 

545.29 

50.00 
500.00 

1,000.00 

50.00 

500.00 

23.00 



EXPENDITURES. 




Salary of Librarian .... $500.00 


Printing and stationery 






34-50 


Insurance 






77-32 


Repairs .... 






230.64 


Coal 






22.20 


Postage and envelopes . 






6.00 


Sundry expenses 






15.15 


Bond purchased 






500.00 


Accrued interest and commission 




20.78 


Sundry expenses of Librarian 




55-52 


Balance ...... 


Permanent funds . . . . .$11,000.00 


Current funds 






2,311.02 



$14,773-13 



-Respectfully submitted, 



$1,462.11 
$13,311.02 



$13,311.02 



Wm. P. Fiske, Treasurer. 



283 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

I have this day examined the account of Wm. P. Fiske, 
Treasurer of the New Hampshire Historical Society, and find 
the same correctly cast, and sustained by proper vouchers. 

Isaac K. Gage, Auditor. 

Concord, N. H., June 13, 1893. 

On motion of Col. J. E. Pecker, 

Voted, That the Treasurer furnish the Librarian with a full 
list of the officers and legal members of the Society ; and that 
the Librarian publish 300 copies of the same, without titles, 
within ten days after this meeting. 

The annual report of the Librarian, Rev. C. L. Tappan, 
was read, and, on motion, accepted and placed on file. 

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

To the Annual Meeting of the N. H. Historical Society : 

The Librarian respectfully presents his annual report, for 
the year ending June 14, 1S93. 

The shelf room in the library has been largely increased, as 
was much needed, by the erection of five alcoves, in accord- 
ance with a vote of the society at the last annual meeting, 
under the direction of the standing committee. These alcoves 
are for the reception of the literature of the several religious 
denominations in New Hampshire. A good beginning of 
contributions for this purpose has been made in valuable dona- 
tions from F. D. Aver, D. D., Rev. A. T. Hillman, Howard 
M. Cook, Esq., J. C. A. Hill, Esq., Rev. N. F. Carter, and 
others. 

The library has received the same newspapers from their 
publishers, and publications from historical societies, as last 
year, except the Magazi?ie of American History, which has 
failed to come. 

The Manufacturer and Builder has been sent to the library 
the past year by Charles E. Robinson, Esq., of its publishers 
in New York. 

The list of state reports has been made nearly complete, 
through the kindness of Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, Secretary of 
State, and others, by the reception of no reports. But very 
few state reports are now lacking. 

. Hon. Samuel C. Eastman donated 78 numbers of the North 
American Review — some of them duplicates. The library 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 



283 



has 240 numbers, and lacks 193 numbers; has 92 numbers of 
duplicates, and 1 1 double duplicates. 

The following town histories have been purchased : 

Swanzey .... 

Richmond 

Rochester 

Windham supplement 

Books purchased, — 

Granite Monthly 
Dinsmore Genealogy 
Norris Genealogy 
Windham Celebration 
Scotch Irish 
Newport Directory 
White Mountains 
Political Manual, 1S68 
Books bound, 2 vols. 



$3.00 


3.00 


7.00 


1.50 


150 


1. 00 


3-50 


•75 


1.50 


•35 


1. 12 


.20 


2.00 



Books sold 



$26.42 



$23.00 

Received by will of Mrs. Chandler E. Potter, 
Portrait of Benjamin Pierce ; 
Portrait of Col. B. K. Pierce, U. S. A. ; 
Portrait of Franklin Pierce, president of the United States ; 
44 My painting of Liberty ; " 
And cradle used for Franklin Pierce in his infancy. 

New Hampshire Gazette, 2 vols. — 1772 to 17S4. Portsmouth. 

Whole number of bound volumes reported last year, 11,543. 

44 44 u this year, 11,803. 

44 44 received %w 260. 

Pamphlets received during the year, 886. 



Respectfully submitted : 



Charles L. 



Tappan, 
Librarian. 



On motion of Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 



Voted, That the Librarian include in his annual report a 
list of all books and pamphlets donated to the society during 
the year, together with the names of the donors. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, for the Standing Committee, made 
a verbal report, which was accepted and adopted. 



284 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, necrologist, made a verbal report, 
which was accepted. 

Hon. A. S. Wait, for the special committee on procuring a 
naval history of New Hampshire, made the following written 
report : 

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE. 

To the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

Your committee, appointed " To see what measures can be 
taken to secure the preparation and publication of the Naval 
History of New Hampshire, under the provisions of the regi- 
mental history legislation of the State," having attended to the 
duties of their appointment, submit the following report : 

By the joint resolution of the Legislature of October 21, 1887, 
Chap. 145 of the Laws of New Hampshire of that year, " the 
Secretary of State is authorized to purchase copies of the his- 
tory of each regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers, which 
served in the War of the Rebellion," at a maximum price named 
per volume, and provided for such a distribution as would call for 
the purchase of not less than 256 copies of each history so pub- 
lished. But the purchase was by the resolution restricted to 
histories prepared by authority of the proper regimental asso- 
ciations, and found by the governor and council, among other 
things, to be, as far as practicable, faithfully, impartially, and 
accurately prepared, historically correct, to contain matters not 
otherwise conveniently accessible, and of sufficient reliability 
and importance to justify such patronage of the state. 

This resolution confined the public patronage to histories of 
regimental bodies of the land forces in the war for the main- 
tenance of the Union. The next Legislature, that of 18S9, 
however, with wider artd more matured views, and moved, 
doubtless, by the spirit of the resolution of July 10, 1S63 
{Chap. 2,762 of the laws of that year), which declares, " That 
the brave men who have gone from our midst into the naval 
service of the United States, which during the past two years 
has covered itself with imperishable glory, are worthy to, and 
shall, receive the gratitude of the people of this country so long 
as this country shall hold a place among the nations of the earth ; 
and that the widows and orphans of those who have fallen in 
said service shall receive the sympathy and guardianship of the 
people of this State," by a joint resolution found in Chap. 12S 
of the Laws of 1SS9, extended the one of 1SS7, and made it 
include and be applicable to like works relating to the naval 
contingent from this state. The same restrictions, however, in 



REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE. 285 

the patronage thus to be extended, were retained, and are equally 
applicable to any naval history which may claim the benefit of 
this legislation. In order to meet these requirements, therefore, 
and entitle any such history hereafter published to the patronage 
provided, it seems indispensable that an association of the men 
of our state engaged in the naval service of the Union should 
be organized, and that the proposed history should be prepared 
under its authority, and with its sanction. 

It appears to your committee, therefore, that the first among 
the measures to be adopted with a view to the object proposed, 
should be the procuring of an organization of the men of the 
state now or heretofore engaged in the naval service, into an 
association, one object of which should be to authorize the 
preparation of such a history as that contemplated. 

The work of preparation must necessarily proceed under the 
supervision of the association ; but, the initiatory suggestion orig- 
inating with this Society, it is presumable that any appropriate 
action, or advice, in aid of it, from a committee by the Society, 
selected for the purpose, would be willingly received. 

The regimental histories contemplated by the legislation re- 
ferred to, are by the subjects embraced, necessarily confined to a 
period commencing not earlier than the commencement of the 
late War of the Rebellion. The naval services of New Hamp- 
shire and her citizens commenced as early as the expedition to 
Louisburg, in 1745, and have been conspicuous in every exigency 
since, until the great deeds of valor and skill which saved the 
Union, and immortalized the sons of our beloved state. 

Citizens of New Hampshire can but recall with pride and 
satisfaction the alacrity with which the state responded in the 
outset of the great struggle for independence to the call for 
naval assistance from the Continental congress, and on the 3d of 
July, 1776, while New Hampshire's delegates at Philadelphia 
were by their signatures pledging their constituency to the 
Declaration of Independence, their Legislature at home were 
enacting the statute of that date, entitled "An Act for encour- 
aging the fixing out of armed Vessels to defend the Sea Coast 
of America, and to cruise on the Enemies of the United Col- 
onies, as also for erecting a Court to try and condemn all Ships, 
and other Vessels, their Tackle, Apparel and Furniture, and all 
Goods, Wares and Merchandizes, belonging to any Inhabitants 
of Great Britain, taken on the High Seas." This was followed 
on the 26th of November, 177S, by "An Act for establishing a 
naval office at Portsmouth;" and this again on July 4, 17S1, 
by another in furtherance of the same general object. 

It is obvious, therefore, that no naval history of New Hamp- 



286 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

shire can be complete, or justly satisfy the requirements of such 
a history, without embracing in its purview the whole period 
from the first marine efforts of our people in the public service. 
It is the opinion of your committee, therefore, that whatever 
encouragement shall be afforded by the Society to the prepara- 
tion of such a history should aim to give to its plan that general 
scope. 

In view of the whole subject, your committee recommend the 
adoption of the following resolution : 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed, whose 
duty it shall be to encourage and promote the formation of an 
association of the men of New Hampshire at present and for- 
merly connected with the naval service of the United States, the 
object of which association to be, among others, the preparation 
and publication of an authentic history of the efforts, from the 
earliest times to the present, of the state and its citizens, in the 
naval department of the public service; said committee to act 
in concert with such association when formed, for the promo- 
tion and accomplishment of the object herein specified, and also 
to obtain for the history, when published, similar state patron- 
age to that accorded to regimental histories under the legislation 
of the state. 

A. S. Wait, 

J. C. A. Wixgate, 

P. B. Cogswell, 

Committee. 

The report was accepted, and ordered to be published in the 
Proceedings ; and the resolution adopted. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted, That the committee of three, called for by the reso- 
lution accompanying the report, consist of, — 

Hon. Albert S. Wait, of Newport ; 
Hon. J. C. A. Wingate, of Stratham ; 
Hon. Parsons B. Cogswell, of Concord. 

Hon. John Kimball, for the committee to nominate a board 
of officers for the ensuing year, reported the following persons, 
who were unanimously elected by ballot : 

President. 
Hon. Amos Hadley. 



BOARD OF OFFICERS. 287 

Vice- Presiden ts . 
Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball, 
Hon. George L. Balcom. 

Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway, Esq. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Hon. Sylvester Dana. 

Treasurer. 
William P. Fiske, Esq. 

Librarian. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan. 

Necrologist. 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker. 

Library Committee. 
Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
Col. J. E. Pecker. 

Standing Committee. 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Joseph C. A. Hill, Esq., 
Gen. Howard L. Porter. 

Publishing Committee, 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan, 
Hon. John L. Farwell, 
Hon. Albert S. Wait. 

Committee on New Members. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan, 
Isaac N. Gage, Esq., 
Col. J. E. Pecker. 

Auditor. 

Isaac K. Gage. 
15 



-"»— * ■«"**«■ "*— ifflimm 



288 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Rev. Charles L. Tappan, for the Committee on New Mem- 
bers, reported the following : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Prof. C. C. Rounds, Plymouth ; James M. Lamberton, Esq., 
Concord ; Rev. Charles S. Hale, Claremont ; Maj. A. H. 
Bixby, Francestovvn ; Hon. Frank N. Parsons, Franklin ; Hon. 
Harry Bingham, Littleton; Daniel Clark Remich, Esq., Lit- 
tleton. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

George T. Burton, Esq., Boston, Mass. ; John N. McClin- 
tock, Esq., Boston, Mass. ; Rev. Bradley Gilman, Springfield, 
Mass. ; James Dinsmoor, Esq., Sterling, Blinois. 

The report was accepted, and all of the above were elected 
members by ballot. 

On motion of Col. J. E. Pecker, 

Voted, That the Society hold a Field Day at Hillsborough, 
at a date to be fixed by a special committee. 

The following were appointed the Committee on Field Day: 

Hon. John B. Smith, Hillsborough ; 
Col. J. E. Pecker, Concord ; 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., Penacook. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted, That the paper prepared by Hon. Chester B. Jordan 
on Col. Joseph B. Whipple be accepted by the Society, read 
at 2 o'clock p. m., and be placed among the transactions of the 
Society. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted,That the annual assessment be $3 for the ensuing year. 
On motion, adjourned to 2 o'clock p. m. 



mr. Jordan's paper. 289 

The Society reassembled at 2 o'clock p. m., according to 
adjournment, the President, Hon. Amos Hadley, in the chair. 

By request of the Society, Hon. A. S. Batchellor read large 
extracts from the paper prepared by Hon. C. B. Jordan on 
"Col. Joseph B. Whipple." 

PAPER OF HON. CHESTER B. JORDAN. 

It is not an unwilling task to gather up bits of history of a 
pioneer in any worthy cause ; more especially is this true when 
that history is of one who left family, friends, social life, civili- 
zation and a good business behind, and penetrated the track- 
less forest, founded a town in a wilderness, and set in motion 
numberless wheels of varied industries, and got on foot enter- 
prises that long ago wrought out of excellent material a New 
England community with all that phrase comprehended one 
hundred and twenty-five years ago. 

And although by reason of death of colleagues and com- 
peers, of the great lapse of time, and of the want of records of 
those early days with their stirring events, the undertaking 
may seem and be difficult ; yet the light which gleams in upon 
the page from the surroundings and settings of a pioneer life is 
almost always sufficient, when correctly and faithfully brought 
to bear, to illuminate history, illustrate character, and intensify 
our interest in those who laid well and strong, in these fertile 
valleys among our grandest mountains, the foundation of our 
civil polity and of our freedom in matters secular and religious. 
It were useless to wish that he who planted Dartmouth under 
the shadow of New Hampshire's Presidential range could now 
be summoned from his eternal quiet and rest to look down 
upon the Jefferson that now is. Still, could it so be, what a 
change would his eyes behold ! Instead of the wilderness, des- 
olation, isolation, privation, and want, ever attendant upon 
early struggles to make homes, farms, and society, he would 
find broad meadows, productive uplands, beautiful villas, com- 
fortable homes, commodious school-houses, large churches, 
and hotels among the best in the land, while not far from his 
old home might be seen all through the summer months steam 
cars tugging up Mt. Washington, filled with human beings 



290 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



from every part of the globe, who never tire of the novelty, the 
beauty, the sublimity, and the grandeur at what their hearts feel 
and their eyes behold. The small clearing by the river has 
expanded over a whole town, and the land this pioneer bought 
for a mere song at tax sales and otherwise is now of great value, 
the hotels and summer-houses alone aggregating at least a 
million dollars. 

When I look over the field of human endeavor and progress 
for the last fifty years, and see what marvellous changes have 
been wrought in art and science and the thousand things that 
move the world and make men better, more comfortable, 
active, and intelligent, I sometimes wish my hold on life were 
by a stronger cord, that fifty hears hence I might know and 
realize at what pace the world had kept along, what wonder- 
ful things man's brain had in that time wrought out of earth, 
sea, and air. But such wish were as idle as that Col. Joseph 
Whipple, of whom we are now to speak, might return and 
survey the results of the work he here so inauspiciously 
began. 

This man was no ordinary one even for the heroic times in 
which he lived and acted his part. His associates were also 
men of extraordinary endowments and wonderful achievements. 
Among his friends were the two Suliivans, James and John, 
the one president of Massachusetts, and the other of New 
Hampshire ; the two Langdons, John and Woodbury, the one 
dying in 1792, the other in 1805 ; Edward St. Loe Livermore, 
who was then, perhaps, at the head of Rockingham bar ; Jere- 
miah Mason and Jeremiah Smith, both younger than Colonel 
Whipple, yet both close friends ; Josiah Bartlett, Governor 
Plummer, the Atkinsons, the Gilmans, the Halls, Hales, Weares, 
Penhallows, Sheafes, Wentworths, Fletchers, Woodbury, Bell, 
and Webster, too, who, before Mr. Whipple had concluded 
his work here below, had begun to exhibit those gigantic 
powers that so emblazoned his name upon the nation's pride 
and glory. Other men, whose names we must not stop to 
enumerate, great in the walks of civil life here and abroad, 
were his friends and often guests under his hospitable roof. 
The young and great Hamilton he knew well, served his 






MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 291 

country under him, made, executed, and enforced contracts for 
him while he was secretary of the treasury, and so far had the 
confidence of America's first, and perhaps greatest, financier, 
as to be allowed to sign and use his name. He had acquaint- 
ance with the few men of note in the " North country" about 
as intimately as with those with whom he was born and reared, 
for he was an active, restless man, tireless in his energies and 
limitless and ceaseless in his ambition. This spirit and his 
life-work brought him in contact with the best and most influ- 
ential in the land. At one time or another, of his long and 
eventful life, he had to do with many of the brightest and best, 
not alone of his state, but of other states of the republic, and of 
other powers. His acquaintance with and knowledge of the 
military heroes at the periods of the French and the Revolu- 
tionary wars, and the War of 181 2, were no less remarkable 
than his acquaintance with men in civil affairs. 

Foremost of all the generals he knew and prized was General 
Washington, who last visited Portsmouth in 1789. That year 
Colonel Whipple was made, by him, collector of the port of 
Portsmouth, held the office under him throughout his entire 
administration, and under all administrations down to the time 
of his death. He knew Stark, Green, Putnam, Thornton, 
Scammel, Poor, Cilley, our own Bedels, three generations of 
whom cover every important war of the country, from the 
French and Indian wars to that of the Rebellion, besides many 
others no less efficient or patriotic. But very likely, by this 
time, you desire me to be more definite concerning this man, — 
to relate something of his ancestry, and of his own early life, 
for he was born long ago, and lived and died long ago, as we, 
in this comparatively new country, reckon time. 

As we now, at this distance, try to go over the ground trod 
by him, to follow in the varied and various paths he marked 
out, to gather up the threads of the tangled skein of the life he 
lived, and become somewhat conversant with the times, the 
methods, customs, modes of living, manner and facility of 
doing things in those primitive days, we confess that what 
must have been very, very real to the actors then, seems like a 
dream to us now. 



292 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

•' Over the roofs of the pioneers 
Gathers the moss of a hundred years ; 
On man and his works has passed the change 
Which needs must be in a century's range, 
The land lies open and warm in the sun, 
Anvils clamor and mill-wheels run, — 
Flocks on the hill-sides, herds on the plain, 
The wilderness gladdened with fruit and grain." 

In a country like ours it is almost idle and somewhat irksome, 
to dwell upon ancestry, however noble. Here, we expect 
every man to carve out his own fortune, to make of himself 
whatever he becomes. If the material of which men are made 
is in him it will be recognized, and its development and expan- 
sion encouraged, regardless of regal lineage, noble blood, or 
ancestral fame and renown. Yet the origin of Colonel Whipple 
is not altogether uninteresting, nor tlie field of investigation 
therein wholly uninviting to a student of our country's history. 
If he had no reason, as no one has, to boast of the record of 
his fathers, he certainly had none to blush at the fulness and 
fruition of their lives, for around there clustered much that was 
of importance to their day and generation, and of interest to us 
in ours. 

The name, no doubt, was formerly Hippie, but in time of 
Henry VII, was changed into Whipple. 

Col. Joseph Whipple was born in Kittery, now Maine, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1737. He was the son of Capt. William Whip- 
ple, Sr., of that town, grandson of Maj. Matthew Whipple, 
of Ipswich, Mass., great-grandson of Capt. John Whipple, 
and great-great-grandson of Elder John Whipple, also of 
Ipswich. It is said, on what is deemed good authority, that 
the Whipple family of this country descended from Matthew 
Whipple, of Bocking, Essex county, England, a clothier. He 
had two sons, Matthew and John, and several daughters. The 
sons, undoubtedly, settled in Ipswich, in that part called The 
Hamlet, since Hamilton. They were born about 1600. Matthew 
died September S, 1647, and John, June 30, 1669. Elder John 
Whipple, great-great-grandfather of Col. Joseph Whipple, was 
deacon and ruling elder of the first church of his place, and he 



MR. JORDAN'S PAPER, 293 

has come down to us as a man " whose goMy sincerity is much 
approved." He had a large grant of la&d in 1639 5 was a 
freeman in 1640, and that year and 1642. 1646, 1650, and 1653, 
was a deputy to the general court. Both he and his brother 
Matthew held many offices of trust and resp onsibility. 

Among the children of Elder John, was Capt. John Whipple, 
born about 1626, who died August 10, 1683. ^is prospects 
for honor and usefulness were promising; at the time of his 
death. His estate was valued at £3,000- He was lieutenant 
in Captain Page's troop at Mount Hope,, June 1675, in King 
Phillip's War, and captain of a troop raised for service under 
Major Savage, in March, 1676. He, too, had a son Joseph. 
Among his children was Maj. Matthew Whipple, born 1658, 
who died, January 28, 1739. He also had a son Joseph, also 
a son William, by his first wife, Joanna Appleton — daugh- 
ter of Samuel Appleton, 2d. Maj. Mattlhew Whipple was a 
man of prominence, representative in 1718, 1719, and 1729, 
and a justice of the sessions court. His said son William, — 
afterwards captain — was born February 2S„ 1695. He followed 
the sea for a while, and May 14, 1722, married Mary, the 
eldest daughter of Robert Cutt, 2d. She was born December 
26, 1698, and died February 24, 1783, and on her stone in the 
Old North cemetery in Portsmouth, among other things, is this 
record : "Her religion was without ostentation, and her charity 
unlimited." This couple were the parents of Col. Joseph 
Whipple. Colonel Whipple's maternal ancestors, we find to 
have made history, — and mothers not infrequently stamp their 
lineage, for several generations, upon their sons as indelibly as 
do the fathers. Among the settlers in tibe vicinity of Ports- 
mouth, previous to 1646, were John, Robert, and Richard 
Cutt. They became large land-owners. John had settled at 
Portsmouth (or the Bank, as it was then called), and acquired 
much wealth from mercantile pursuits. Richard, at first, 
carried on fisheries at the Shoals, and afterwards removed to 
Portsmouth. Robert, after a short stay at Barbadoes, located 
on Great Island (Newcastle). He, not long afterward, went 
to Kittery, and engaged in ship-building. In 1679, when 
New Hampshire was separated from Massachusetts, the king 



•™"""«MWW« 



294 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

appointed John Cutt as president. John Cutt/s first wife, a 
wealthy English lady, did not long survive her marriage. He 
then married Mary Hoel, and they had six children, among 
them Richard and Robert. 

Colonel Whipple's papers showed that Robert Cutt, 1st, was 
a native of Bath, England, and that his father at the time of his 
death, was a member from Essex for Cromwell's second parlia- 
ment in 1654. 

Robert Cutt, 2d, born in 1666, married, April 18, 169S, Dor- 
cas Hammond, daughter of Major Hammond, whose father, 
having been an adherent of Cromwell, left England on the death 
of the Protector, September 3, 165S, came to this country, and 
settled at Kittery. They had four daughters, the eldest of whom 
was Mary, who, as before stated, married Capt. William Whip- 
ple. Robert Cutt, 2d, died September 24, 1735, and his wife 
Dorcas, November 17, 1757, aged 83. In &is will, dated only 
a year before his death, Robert Cutt, 2d, bequeaths " to my 
well beloved daughter Mary Whipple, besides, what I have here- 
tofore given her, my land or farm in Kittery,. situate and being 
at the place called and known by the name of Crooked Lane, 
together with the dwelling house and all oilier buildings upon 
the said land of whatever denomination." 

The will of his wife Dorcas, made May 26, 1749, bequeaths 
" to my beloved daughter Mary Whipple, her heirs and assigns, 
all my household goods and furniture, money, notes and bonds, 
and all my moveable or personal estate of what nature or kind 
or quality soever." Thus we see that the mother of Colonel 
Whipple became the owner of the old homestead, with all its 
furnishings and belongings. And so, without here going further 
into the history of the Cutts family, we will give a little descrip- 
tion of this place, as the birth-place of distinguished men and 
women, and of our particular friends, whether great or small, is 
of more or less consequence to us. The mind is curious to know 
as many of the circumstances and surroundings of a life of mark 
as is possible, and inquiries by what aids and agencies such life 
became prominent — what causes led, or conspired to lead it, to 
greatness and goodness. The old house and barns, the ravines, 
hills, and mountains, in and around which they played in child- 



mr. Jordan's paper. 295 

hood, the church they attended, the school-houses where were 
first learned their lessons, the coves and brooks in which they 
angled, and the old wells where they slaked their thirst, each 
and all have a history, and in some way or another, we think, 
enter into the lives and characters of the good and true. We 
wonder what was done for them, what happened that they 
should have outstripped their associates, for we are loath to think 
that others were better born, or made more of their opportuni- 
ties than we. And so we often vainly seek in some or all of 
these extraneous matters for causes of their success and rea- 
sons for their forging ahead of the common run of their fellows, 
refusing to recognize the fact, however often it shall be proved 
to us, that the race is not to the swift alone, but to the one who 
makes the most of himself and the chances given him 

The old Whipple mansion was built on the east bank of the 
Piscataqua about a mile from its mouth, in Kittery, opposite the 
navy yard. It was only a few rods from the water, and stood on 
a site very well chosen for its purpose, having a cove (now called 
Whipple's cove), running half-way round it, so that no treach- 
erous savage could approach that way unperceived. It also 
commanded a view up and down the harbor for a longdistance. 
The size of the house as it now stands is 54x34 feet, two stories 
high, though when used as a garrison, for which it was originally 
designed, it was probably about 34 feet square. The remainder, 
or addition, is of a later date, and constructed in a more modern 
or common way. The garrison part of the house was made of 
hemlock timbers hewed squared, dove-tailed together at the cor- 
ners. When the owner, in 1S59, P ut t ^ ie building in repair, these 
timbers were found to be perfectly sound, and likely to last for 
centuries. The house was built with the upper story projecting 
beyond the lower at least eight or ten inches on any side ; — on 
some sides the projection was double this. These projections 
were intended to give the women in the house an opportunity to 
pour down boiling water to scald the warlike Indian, and to put 
out the fires he almost invariably kindled in making his attack, 
as well as to afford loop-holes through which the men could 
shoot their enemies. Many of the garrison-houses were much 
larger than this. In times of serious outbreaks, nearly or quite 



296 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

all the neighbors sought refuge in the garrison. The doors were 
large and heavy, often made in two parts, of heavy timbers, and 
hung on large, wooden hinges. This old house seems to have 
been the capitol of a little hamlet at Whipple's cove, and was 
probably built by residents there about 1660. It was the house of 
Robert Cutt, 2d, who died in it in 1735, and, as we have seen, 
of Capt. William Whipple, Sr., who also died in it, August 7, 
1751. 

In this garrison-house, so full of historic worth, was born 
Joseph W r hipple. He was not the only child of distinction in 
that family of five children born of distinguished parents. The 
first in rank was William Whipple, born January 14, 1730, 
whose early life was closely interwoven with that of his younger 
brother Joseph. It is no part of my duty to here give a sketch 
of his useful life, and if it were, I should hesitate before enter- 
ing on the task. Others have done it with more minuteness of 
detail than I could do. This society know r s the steps which he 
successively and successfully mounted, one by one, to his great 
fame and name. His boyhood days, his sailor-life while yet a 
mere youth, his early command of vessels, his European, West 
Indian, and African trade, his mercantile life with his brother 
Joseph at Portsmouth, from about 1759 to the Revolution, his 
numerous elections as delegate to congress, his signing of the 
Declaration of Independence, his services as a general and 
otherwise to maintain that immortal declaration, his brief term as 
judge on the bench, with his many other achievements have made 
a history of which New Hampshire men are justly proud. He 
died November 28, 1785, and his good wife, Madame Catherine 
Whipple, in 1S23. Mary Whipple, his sister, married Robert 
Trail, a merchant, and lived until October 3, 1791, when she 
died, aged 63 years. She was the great-grandmother of James 
Russell Lowell. Another sister, Hannah, was born February 
15, 1734, and on April 14, 1760, she married Dr. Joshua Brack- 
et*. We shall have occasion to refer to her again. Robert Cutt 
W r hipple, another brother, had not a long time to stay here 
below. He was early gathered to his fathers. He was born 
April 6, 1736, and died May 4, 1761. This brief outline, and 
it could not well be more brief and do justice to the subject under 



Ui.u.waJAlMriitw 



mr. Jordan's paper. 297 

consideration, brings us to Joseph Whipple, the last child of 
Capt. William and Mary Whipple. Concerning his boyhood and 
youth we have but little to say, for we know but little of them. 
What boys and girls did is not known in our country one hun- 
dred and fifty years after they have ceased to be boys and girls. 
In some countries, where regal power holds sway, what children 
do may be noted, recorded, remembered, and handed down 
from age to age. But here there were no records, and no one 
saw in the Whipple boys' pranks and conduct anything very 
unlike what other boys under similar circumstances might do 
and perform. Besides, in those stormy days men were busy in 
making history rather than in recording it. A country's destiny 
was at stake, and the great heart of that country was centred 
upon doing, achieving, trusting to the future for appreciation, 
record, and reward. Therefore it is that facts and tradition throw 
but faint light upon the early life of Colonel Whipple. We 
suppose, however, and will so take the fact to be, that he had 
the ways and customs, and was afforded the advantages of other 
boys of his day, rank, and circumstances. He had the benefit of 
such schools as his native town and the town of Portsmouth sup- 
ported. Portsmouth was even then noted for its culture, its wealth 
of good society and good manners, and for its riches and hospi- 
tality in things material and tangible. It was the only seaport 
town in the Province ; within her limits, for many years, often 
gathered educated and refined men and women from all civilized 
lands, but more especially was this true of the French gentry. 
To this good town came the youthful Louis Phillippe in the past 
century, on business and for pleasure. In October, 1837? Lewis 
Cass sailed for France as United States minister. This citizen 
king was then on the throne, and although forty years had elapsed 
since his visit, he inquired for the people of Portsmouth, remem- 
bering their names and their hospitality. 

A boy of Mr. Whipple's temperament, observation, and 
capacity could not fail to be impressed by what he saw of such 
society, and to gain much that would tend to shape and 
fashion his character and conduct. For then, as now, it was 
not always the case that what was got from books was any 
more useful than the daily example of, the daily contact with, 



M l ffiffltoiHHift i atoifo^^ 



298 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

those deemed our superiors in age, wisdom, and the many 
virtues that go to make up a well rounded and refined pro- 
gressive life. 

Mr. Whipple's school days, such as they were, being over, 
he entered the store of Nathaniel Carter of Newburyport, 
where he served with efficiency until he and his brother 
William established themselves in mercantile pursuits on 
Spring hill, in Portsmouth. The old store stood till consumed 
by fire in December, 1802, and the lot remained undivided 
until Colonel Whipple's death. We are told they there 
were eminently successful. They dissolved partnership and 
went out of the business on the approach of the Revolutionary 
War. 

In the mean time, viz., October 9, 1763, Joseph married 
Hannah Billings, a Boston lady of refinement, and lived in the 
house standing at the north-east corner of State and Chestnut 
streets in Portsmouth. Mrs. Whipple died January 30, 181 x. 
She left an excellent name, the sweet savor of which is still 
borne to us on winds from many quarters. In 1782, Marquis 
de Chastillux, a major-general in the French army, serving 
under Count de Rochambeau, with whom he came to this 
country in 1780, among other places visited Portsmouth, and 
in company with Governor Langdon called on Colonel Went- 
worth and on Mrs. Whipple. In writing home of his travels, 
he said that while Mrs. Whipple was neither young nor hand- 
some, she appeared to him "to have a good understanding and 
gaiety," that her house and Mr. Wentworth's, as well as all he 
visited in Portsmouth, were handsome and well furnished. It 
was while the marquis was in Portsmouth that Lafayette paid 
him a visit. . 

The old church where Mr. Whipple and so many others 
worshipped deserves some notice, for, no doubt, it had its 
influence upon the man as a moral and intellectual force. It 
was the old North church* built in 1712, and like most of the 
churches of those days in large towns, was an immense struct- 
ure, for about all the people then had to attend church services 
somewhere. 

The vane of the church was added in 1732, gilded in 1796, 



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mr. Jordan's paper. 299 

and fell in 1854, with the rest of the church. Colonel Whipple 
was long a member of this church and society. The last meet- 
ing was held in it in the year of its demolition. The first or 
best pew in the church was occupied by Gen. William 
Whipple. During Washington's four days stay in Portsmouth 
in 1789, he went to church with Governor Langdon and sat in 
his pew. President Monroe afterwards sat in the same pew. 
Col. Joseph Whipple's pew was next to the spacious one 
occupied by Governor Langdon. In this church also wor- 
shipped Jacob Cutter, James Rundlett, Daniel Webster, 
Hunking Penhallow, Isaac Waldron, Joseph Clark, Jacob 
Sheafe, William Hill, Daniel R. Rogers, Joseph and Samuel 
Akerman, John Goddard, William Rice, Peyton R. Freeman, 
John Pierce, Richard Hart, John Langdon, Jr., Benjamin and 
John Penhallow, Edward and Richard Cutt, Samuel Brewster, 
and so on, and so on. 

Having amassed something of a fortune in trade, Colonel 
Whipple's active mind, intrepid spirit, and his love of adventure, 
prompted him to bid substantial adieu to the elite of Ports- 
mouth, and all it had been to and for him, and to penetrate the 
almost boundless forests of the northern part of the state. As 
to how the then growing fame of this section had reached his 
ears, both history and tradition are silent Perhaps some one 
of the few who had then visited the famous White hills, with all 
their magnificent scenery, their entrancing beauty, their wild- 
ness and grandness, had told him something of the glory of 
mountain and valley, of forest and stream, of pond and lake, 
of river and brooklet, and of the wealth of fish and game, of 
bird and beast, in those remote regions. Possibly the truthful 
stories of the savages, of their conflicts with the pioneers, more 
romantic than the wildest fiction, may have had some influence 
in bringing to these borders him about whose history hovers so 
much that is both real and romantic ; or, possibly, he was 
possessed of the notion of founding a summer home among the 
mountains, like the one established by Governor Wentworth at 
Wolfeborough, and to extend the " Kings highway" thereto. 

The French and Indian wars were over, and it was becom- 
ing comparatively safe for settlers from Massachusetts, Con- 



300 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

necticut, Rhode Island, and the lower part of New Hampshire, 
to work their way northward and avail themselves of the fertile 
land in that section, hitherto uninhabitable by any, save those 
who claimed title to all the hunting ground. At any rate from 
about 1760 to 1800, the tide of emigration set strong in that 
direction, and the history of the northern towns shows that 
nearly all of them were settled during this period. 

In 1773, Colonel Whipple came to Dartmouth. He was the 
first white man who had dared to try and make a home in that 
locality. Ten years before a brave band from one of the best 
states now in the Union, had settled in the adjoining town of 
Lancaster. Their little number was being constantly added to 
by those of culture, will, and energy* This settlement was 
about ten miles from the place where Colonel Whipple made 
his " pitch." His location was on some of the best lands in 
Dartmouth. It was on the Siwooganock river, a little back 
from its bank. With the men he took up from his old home 
he was not long in clearing away space for cabin and camps, 
which at length gave place to a two-story house, a real man- 
sion for himself, and ample barns for the cattle and horses he 
had been enabled to get over some of the high rocks in the 
mountain path and pass only by ropes and pulleys. Land was 
fast cleared of the trees ; corn and other crops blessed the hard 
labors of the men. Cooks and female help were brought up 
the hunters' path from his other home by the sea, and comfort 
even then began to be realized in his new home. The house 
was used as a hotel for those who for years chanced to be 
sojourning in that far away land, then as a dwelling-house, 
next as a barn, and now again it is the home of human beings. 
It was built for time. It did not take long to get a good- 
sized clearing. Then the colonel parcelled out the land, fifty 
acres in a lot, to his laborers, giving them a long time in which 
to pay for it, with such produce as they could raise among 
the stumps, roots, and stones of their newly cleared fields. 
He kept an accurate account with them all, even to the half- 
cent, a bag of which coin he usually took annually from Ports- 
mouth to his new home. 

Many of the men he brought up from his old home became 



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mr. Jordan's paper. 301 

prominent residents of this north country. Samuel Plaisted, 
father of the late B. H. Plaisted, and grandfather of Philip C, 
now of the Plaisted House, was for years his trusted agent. 
James Hight, to whom and his good wife he left the use of 
his " Mount Plenty" farm during their lives for their faithful 
services, has many descendants in Jefferson. David Hicks, 
who died only a few years since, almost a hundred years old, 
the father of the wife of Hon. Nathan R. Perkins, and of James 
Austin Hicks, Esq., was one of his useful men, as was his 
father, Benjamin Hicks. 

The first female taken through the Notch was by Colonel 
Whipple in 1776, as his servant girl. Afterwards she married, 
became a widow, learned from the Indians — then far more 
plenty in that region than the whites — the use of various roots 
and herbs, turned doctress, and was long famous in that 
region for medical skill. After nearly a century of toil and 
usefulness, this good old lady died, leaving a large number of 
descendants and a memory of u Granny Stalbird " that is 
sweetly cherished to the present day. In the mountain gorge 
is a large rock hurled down in some conflict of the Titans, who 
in stormy times are said to inhabit these mountain fastnesses, 
that is called to-day " Granny Stalbird's rock." At this place, 
in her journey to the lower settlements on one of her errands of 
mercy, she was overtaken by one of those terrible mountain 
storms. Darkness shutdown upon her. The clouds seemed 
a vast sheet of water, which swelled to fearful height the 
mountain streams, rendering her way impassable. She sought 
shelter from the fury of the elements under this projecting rock, 
and through the long, cold, sleepless night listened to the dole- 
ful music of wind, water, and wolves. Her will and her God 
sustained her, and for years after that, clad like a man and rid- 
ing like one, astride her faithful horse, did she bless her race 
by her kind ministrations. 

Another white girl of much beauty, also brought from Ports- 
mouth to the Whipple home in those early years as a hired ser- 
vant, was Nancy Barton. In 1778, on a branch of the Saco, 
below where the Willey house, with its history of sorrow and 
tragedy of 1826, now stands, Nancy perished. She had trusted 



wmmmmmtm mi mm mM i itimm * - *. mm imsmm^^ 



302 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

all her hard-earned wages for the past two years to one of the 
colonel's hired men who had gained her affections, and he had 
forfeited his honor and betrayed her confidence. He agreed to 
go to Portsmouth — her home — to be married, but must first 
visit Lancaster to make the necessar}' arrangements for their 
intended journey through the wilderness. False to her in every 
particular, he stole away without her. There was no road, — 
only a hunter's path marked by spotted trees through a thirty- 
mile wilderness. Nancy knew the course he had gone, and 
madly, devotedly, determined to follow. When she got back 
from Lancaster to the colonel's she was drenched and chilled 
by the snow and sleet which covered ground and bushes. In 
vain friends tried to dissuade her from pursuing him farther. 
She felt that he must camp somewhere in the Notch for the 
night, and by desperate haste he could be overtaken. All 
night long she wandered on, and at daylight reached the spot 
where the ashes of his camp-fire were yet warm. With 
benumbed fingers, chilled limbs, and exhausted strength, she 
undertook the fruitless task of rekindling the dying embers. 
The next day mourning friends in search of her found the poor 
girl at this place, freed from grief and troubles, stiff in death. 
The rock here has ever since been known as " Nancy's rock," 
and the stream as " Nancy's brook." 

The growing commerce demanded that these paths be made 
broader and better for travel and traffic, and the demand was 
met. It is said that the first " goods" brought up through the 
Notch from Portland, was a barrel of rum given Captain Rose- 
brook by a merchant of that place. The captain recorded of 
his trip, that after crossing the Saco twenty-two times with a 
horse, two poles, and several men, he succeeded in getting 
home with so much of the article as was not used in the enter- 
prise. The first produce carried down through the Notch was 
a barrel of tobacco raised by Titus O. Brown, of Lancaster, 
who was the father of the late J. B. Brown, of Portland. 

Dartmouth was first granted October 3, 1765, to John Goffe, 
Esq., and fifty-seven others, but the charter, for reasons, was 
forfeited. June 26, 1772, it was again granted, this time to 
seventy persons. At the June session of the legislature, 1793, 



: rmkrfiMm^rmmmm^^f^^^ **»■' ■**'-*»« m**"^ ■••*•< 



MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 303 

a hearing was had on a petition to incorporate the town, and 
the prayer of the petition was denied. But in 1796 Colonel 
Whipple presented another, and by an act of the legislature 
approved December 8, 1796, the territory of Dartmouth was 
incorporated as the town of Jefferson. Undoubtedly the 
colonel's growing admiration for Jefferson suggested the name 
for the town. His ardent support of that statesman for the 
presidency afterwards cost him his office as collector. In 
March, 179S, was the first meeting. There were then about 
twenty voters and tax-payers, Colonel Whipple heading the list 
in importance and wealth. 

In i8r2 we find that the colonel's inventory in that town con- 
sisted of seven horses and colts, six oxen, twenty cows, ten 
young cattle, besides his real estate. He built a saw-mill and 
grist-mill near his place and other expensive mills at " Jeffer- 
son Mills," now Riverton. The latter stood until about 1820, 
when they were burned. The colonel had some notion that 
the lands in that part of the country might some time be valu- 
able. February 17, 1774, he purchased twenty-six of the 
seventy original rights of the town, paying therefor £400. 
April 12 of the same year he bought twenty-six more rights for 
,£400, " proclamation money." The following September for 
JE45 he purchased three other rights. February 11, 1775, he 
bought two more rights for £30. And so he kept getting the 
shares, until November 9, 1796, we find he had title to the 
whole town at the price of about $4,200. He employed gen- 
eral Bucknam, of Lancaster, to do much of his surveying, not 
only in Jefferson, but in Bretton Woods, Bethlehem, Conway, 
Colebrook, Columbia, Stratford, and other towns wherein he 
had become owner of many thousand acres of land. 

At his decease he owned about 25,000 acres in Jefferson 
alone. The colonel was the moving man in regard to schools, 
roads, and all improvements. He loved the picturesque and 
the grand. From his home he could see the Pliny range, 
Mount Washington, Mount Jefferson, and Mount Adams. 
Inside his mansion were pictures, books, comfort, and even 
luxury. He served his town faithfully, present or absent. 

In 1776, 1777, 177S, 1782, 1783, and 1785, he represented 
16 



i nit - i ni ruiiiif jitiiiii i in Miim 



3O4 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

his legislative district, which at first included all the territory 
of the present Coos county and parts of Grafton and Carroll. 
This was long before Coos became a county. The Journals of 
the House show that he was active and vigilant for his constitu- 
ents' interests. Many things which he accomplished might with 
profit be spoken of here if time were not wanting. In 1784 
President VVeare appointed him colonel of the historic Twenty- 
Fifth regiment of militia. General Bucknam, of Lancaster, 
was his lieutenant-colonel. 

It seems that all this time, in fact, so long as he lived, he 
kept up his Portsmouth residence too, for we find that after the 
organization of the state government, March 4, 1786, he was 
appointed impost officer at Portsmouth, and served his state in 
that capacity until the Federal government went into operation 
in 1789. He was then (August 3), as we have before stated, 
made collector of the port by General Washington, which 
office he continued to fill till July 6, 179S, when he was 
removed by President Adams for political reasons, although 
the records of two departments at Washington show that he 
held that office continuously until just before his death in 1816. 
These records must be wrong. In a letter relating to his 
removal from office, apologetically written Colonel Whipple 
by Judge Smith, he says, " To your politeness as a gentle- 
man, integrity, zeal, and intelligence as an officer I could most 
cheerfully bear witness, but these are not called in question." 
The colonel was a strong anti-Federalist and took an active 
part in the campaign, and so lost his office. Civil service then 
was about the same as now, for Judge Smith wrote, " It is a 
solecism in politics that the government should be administered 
by its enemies." President Jefferson restored Colonel Whip- 
ple, April 5, 1S01, to his position, and he held it ever after- 
wards until about the time of his death. The colonel's brother- 
in-law, Robert Trail, had been appointed comptroller of the 
port of Piscataqua, August 27, 1765, in the fifth year of the 
reign of George III, and took the oath of office, allegiance, etc., 
January 14, 1766. The port then included the other ports of 
Kittery, Newbury, and York. Previous to the building of the 
custom house, the colonel transacted the business in his own 



,L*m*a*i&au^ iir»*^^ 



mr. Jordan's paper. 305 

office adjoining his residence on State street. Years previous 
to that, the collector's office was in Merchant's row, and still 
back of that, up to 17981 it was in an antiquated building 
farther north on Market street. 

An impartial review of his work will convince any one tak- 
ing the trouble to investigate, that Colonel Whipple in this 
long term of service was diligent in the government's interests, 
and painstaking and scrupulously honest in his dealings with 
men who had to do with duties and the like. Then the col- 
lector had to look after the light-houses, make contracts for and 
in the name of the secretary of the treasury, and to do a thou- 
sand things which the government has many men to do to-day. 
In " N. H. State Papers," Vol. XVIII, p. 810, I find a memo- 
rial as to his fees which gives an insight into his multifarious 
duties, and it also shows his scholarship and ability to argue 
questions. Similar evidence to the same traits can be found 
in his letter upon the same subject on pp. 811-813. He 
says, — " The duties of my office required that I should review 
the manifests of the cargoes of all vessels arriving in the port ; 
receive or secure the duties on all goods imported by water or 
by land ; that I should appoint deputies in every part of the 
state where goods are imported ; that I should examine and 
search for suspected concealments of goods ; that I should 
seize all goods illegally imported, and prevent every kind of 
fraud attempted on the revenue. This was a task more arduous 
than was annexed to my office in the state. In the execution 
of it I had to contend with the adverse humor of every anti- 
revenue, anti-patriotic, and selfish person in the state who 
imported goods," etc. His contracts for building light- 
houses, and for the various other things he had done, were as 
well and closely drawn as if dictated by a thoroughly trained 
lawyer. He drafted deeds, agreements, and such papers as 
were necessary, in either of his homes. He was made a jus- 
tice of the peace and of the quorum for Grafton county in 1779 
and again in 17S4, twenty years before Coos was formed, and 
when every second man in the state was not a justice of the 
peace. 

Among his duties I find, by referring to Governor Plum- 



■~«*»**«**^^ , ^^mm^mimm 



306 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

mer's biography of John Samuel Sherburne, in Plummer 
Papers, Vol. V, p. 491, that one year he had to pay all 
the pensioners of New Hampshire. It seems that Sherburne, 
while serving as aid to the colonel's brother, Gen. Will- 
iam Whipple, in the Revolutionary War, was accidentally 
wounded so as to necessitate the amputation of one leg, for 
which the legislature granted him a pension of $300 per annum. 
In 1789 Congress assumed the payment of all such state pen- 
sions, and the secretary of war directed Colonel Whipple, then 
collector of Portsmouth, to pay the pensioners of New Hamp- 
shire in accordance with a list of the pensioners and of the 
amount granted them, which the secretary furnished him. He 
also ordered that each produce his original certificate before 
receiving his pay. In the list so furnished the clerk had by 
mistake inserted $400 instead of $300 opposite Sherburne's 
name. The colonel saw the list stated $400, and the certificate 
not being produced that sum was paid. Through whose fault 
this was done we do not know. It may be that the colonel 
felt justified by the list in paying an aide of his brother $400 for 
the loss of a leg, but Governor Plummer thinks Sherburne was 
the man in fault. The next year the state loan officer, Samuel 
Gardner, disbursed the fund, and Mr. Sherburne got only 
$200, having to make up for the overdraft of the previous year. 
By accident, almost, I found ht knew something of survey- 
ing and the higher mathematics. Dr. Belknap, in his history, 
gives an account of a visit he made to Colonel Whipple and the 
White mountains, in July, 1784. The doctor, with a party of 
seven, left Dover July 17. They passed through Eaton and 
Conway, and came to the mountain region, probably to 
Colonel Whipple's, July 23. On the 24th, they, with Col- 
onel Whipple, started to make the ascent of Mt. Washing- 
ton, with a view to make particular observation on the phe- 
nomena that might occur. They had a sextant, a telescope, an 
instrument for ascertaining the bearings of distant objects, a 
barometer, a thermometer, and several other instruments for 
various purposes. They had not gone far before thick clouds 
covered the mountain and rendered useless most of their instru- 
ments, and prevented all the party, except Colonel Whipple, 



mr. Jordan's paper. 307 

Dr. Cutler, and Rev. Mr. Little, from completing the journey. 
When Dr. Cutler arrived at the summit and took the thermom- 
eter from his bosom, where for safety he had carried it, the 
mercury stood at fever heat. It soon fell, however, to 44 , and 
by the time he had adjusted both thermometer and barometer 
his fingers had become so benumbed with the cold that he 
could do but little more, and Colonel Whipple had to do what 
was done. On the highest rock Mr. Little began to engrave 
the letters, 6i N. H.," but his hands got so chilled he had to 
give over the instrument to Colonel Whipple who finished the 
task. Under a stone they left a lead plate on which were 
engraved their names. They made the descent with difficulty, 
their guide falling at one time over a precipice completely out 
of sight. At last they were down and at Colonel Whipple's 
home, where warmth and comfort awaited them. 

July 27, Dr. Belknap preached in the Colonel's barn, the 
first sermon ever heard in what was then called "Whipple's 
Plantation." There were five or six families, and all were out. 
We are told that about thirty persons were present. The 
doctor's text was from 1 Cor., vi : 19, 20. Rev. Daniel Little, 
of the party, from Kennebunk, Me., then baptized eight chil- 
dren. Dr. (Rev. Manassah) Cutler, of Ipswich, Mass., con- 
cluded these first public religious services with prayer. Dr. 
Belknap then left this region for home, arriving there July 31. 
In this trip he learned much of use in his valuable history. 
No one has read his description of the White Mountain region 
without wondering how he got so much accurate knowledge of 
this wonderful scenery at so early a date. He took home from 
Colonel Whipple's copies of the colonel's plans of this moun- 
tainous region, and also of kt Kyasarge," about the spelling of 
which name so much has been said and written. The spelling 
here is as Colonel Whipple gave it. 

These early years did not always bring sure harvests to the 
husbandmen in all the towns of the north country. Drought 
and frost and tempest were then, as now, the foe of the tiller of 
the soil ; and when such calamities then came in this sparsely 
settled region, without roads or other means of communication 
with the seaboard towns, they were severely felt. Among the 



308 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

rank and file in the country towns life was little more than a 
hand to mouth existence. It was all they could do to take care 
for the present, let alone the next year. 

The men wore home-carded, home-spun, and home-made 
garments, and so did the women. Tow, linen, flannels, col- 
ored at home from the dyes of roots and herbs, sheep's gray, 
and frocking constituted the staple clothing. Some of the men 
wore skins from the bear, the wolf, and moccasins from the 
shanks of the moose, while now and then a woman would 
manage to tan and make a set of beaver, otter, mink, or sable 
that would be the envy of the best of the land to-day. All 
these varieties of animals, and many more, were very plenty 
about Colonel Whipple's home in Dartmouth. From the 
stream near his house, trout weighing live pounds or more, 
could be taken any day in the summer ; so that these pioneers 
did not often want for meat or fish. But salt, to cure both and 
make them tasteful, was scarce indeed. One man loaned his 
horse to go to Portsmouth to bring up two bushels of salt, tak- 
ing one of them for his pay. When grain was cut off 
then there was trouble enough. If they had that, then they 
could get along, even though they prepared much of it for the 
table by boiling rather than to grind it by hand in the large 
stone mortars. Often, to make a little go a great ways, it was 
made into broths, soups, porridges, and the like. Beech and 
other leaves when young and tender were picked, dried, and 
used for tea. Beans and peas were burned and pounded, and 
used for coffee. 

It cost something to found a town. To bring into life any- 
thing worth having causes suffering, pain, and more or less 
travail. Not then was, nor now is, the land immediately below 
the White mountains so fertile and productive as above. The 
soil was of a different formation by nature, poorer, and thinner. 
And so when, in one of these earlier years of Colonel's Whip- 
ple's stay in Dartmouth, there came one of these times of great 
scarcity of grain, it afforded an illustration of the colonel's 
foresight as well as of his provident care for those around him. 
He had come to regard this little community as part of his fam- 
ily. He felt somewhat responsible for their leaving the com- 



KfflfcWrtrn 'iW 



MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 309 

forts of life near the seaboard and taking their chances in the 
wilds of Dartmouth on his mere say so ; and they, in turn, 
looked up to him as their Moses, their leader, and often spoke 
of him as their father, so kind was he to them. He bought 
from them whatever they had to sell. Out of his store he sold 
them what things they must have. On his return to them from 
his visits to Portsmouth they gathered around him, celebrating 
his advent among them, and receiving letters, tokens of remem- 
brance, and news from the dear ones they left and he had 
so recently seen. 

Is it any wonder that they loved and respected him and that 
he was solicitous for their welfare? A " neighbor" meant 
something then, in sickness or in health, in adversity or pros- 
perity. Those people, as in all pioneer settlements, called on 
each other without first sending up their card. Their calls 
were not limited to ten minutes if longer time were necessary. 
They shared each other's table, waiting not for formal invita- 
tions. If in trouble, they were neighbors even though miles 
lay between them. They said what they meant, and meant 
what they said. The days of sham and show and false 
pretence are not those of pioneer life. And, therefore, these 
people implicitly trusted Colonel Whipple, and he, as faith- 
fully, guarded their interests. 

At one of these scarce periods Colonel Whipple refused to 
sell grain to any except his neighbors. He had his granaries 
well filled for their supply. A party of men from Bartlett, 
knowing this, driven to extremity for lack of food for their fam- 
ilies, at last set out for Colonel Whipple's with their hand- 
sleds and snow-shoes. It was in the depth of winter, and such 
a journey through the mountains was attended with danger. 
Hunger with them and those at home impelled them forward. 
What was their disappointment on their arrival to be refused 
grain. He feared he had not enough for his own neighbors. 
Pleading did not avail. He would care for them while with 
him, but not a bushel of corn would he sell. Apparently much 
disappointed they set out for home. When out of sight they 
stopped and waited for darkness of night, under cover of which 
they came back to the colonel's barn, which they had ex- 



:.«^ ^ i ^ arM* « a ^ <^W«« ^ 4m&£ffikg»< ju**fUU*im& 



3IO NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

amined by daylight, and getting under its floor, bored a hole 
up through it and let down corn enough to fill their sacks. 
The colonel afterwards learned of it, but having enough left 
for himself and those of his plantation he never mentioned it. 

We ought to say something of Colonel Whipple's record 
during the great struggle for American independence. Even 
at this late day I have heard hints as to his loyalty. On every 
spot of every page of every history I have searched where his 
name in this connection is mentioned, I find abundant, over- 
whelming evidence of his intense patriotism, of his devotion to 
his country's cause and all her interests. If smaller men some- 
times distrusted him, it was because of his superior foresight 
enabling him to look over their heads, beyond the ken of their 
vision ; and because he could see things they could not, they 
doubted if they could exist. Men high in civil, political, and 
military authority trusted in him implicitly. The committee 
of safety' relied on him to keep his whole section in line, to 
ward off Indians, keep back Canadian invaders, and arouse and 
maintain a healthy warlike spirit at home. August 13, 1781, 
the president of that committee received a letter from General 
Stark, requesting that his lands near Conway be not sold while 
he was in the public service, a copy of which letter he at once 
sent Colonel Whipple, that he might look after them. The 
board of war was often ordered to deliver to him ammunition 
to be distributed at the points most in need. To him and 
Colonel Page, of Lancaster, at one time were delivered twenty 
muskets, 200 flints, 100 pounds of powder, 200 pounds of 
lead, and they were requested to procure provisions and de- 
liver them to the men to be raised for the defence of the west- 
ern frontier. In 17S2 I find an order drawn on him to deliver 
Jeremiah Eames, of Northumberland, twelve pounds of pow- 
der, four pounds balls, and twenty-four flints. The next year 
the president of the committee was in correspondence with him 
as to a Continental tax. The legislature not infrequently voted 
him powder and other means of war from the Portsmouth 
magazines. 

In 1776 John Hurd wrote President Weare he had a letter 
from Colonel Whipple desiring two swivel guns for Captain 



aitoWiff" - r i^ri^-rtir»Wifi.^-ff^^ 



MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 311 

Eames's party in Upper Coos. The next year he was on the 
committee to apply to the Continental agent for fire-arms ; also 
to inquire into the state of the treasury. In the legislature he 
was on nearly every important military committee, was ap- 
pointed a commissioner in 1776 to take into consideration the 
difficulties and grievances subsisting and complained of by 
sundry towns in the county of Grafton, respecting the then 
present form of government. In 1781 he made a long report 
containing valuable suggestions as to raising men for the army. 
About this time he followed on after men who had deserted 
families and crops in their fear of the Indians, and induced 
them to return. July 28, that year, the committee of safety 
received information that men from the enemy had taken 
Colonel Whipple, that he had escaped, that they had carried 
off his goods, and the committee, therefore, directed that 
troops be sent to that part of the country as soon as possible. 
This information was correct, for the colonel was captured in 
his own home. The place was not unknown to the red men. 
The house was built near their trail, used for many years in 
their passage to and from Canada, and from the Saco to the 
Connecticut river, through the Notch. At this time the In- 
dians acted under the direction of the English. Their object 
was to ascertain the designs and plans of the Americans in 
this region in respect to their loyalty to the mother country. 
The colonel had been on good terms with these Indians, and 
so, suspecting no ill-will, he admitted them to his house, as he 
had often done before, and, ere he was aware of it, he was 
made a prisoner in his own home. With his usual presence of 
mind he made no objection to going with them, as requested, 
but said they must wait a short time for him to change his 
clothing and get ready. In the hurry of the preparation he 
managed to tell Mrs. Hight, his housekeeper, to take up the 
attention of his captors with the curiosities of the house, and 
with eating and drinking. While they were so occupied, he 
went into his bedroom to change his clothes, as he had told 
them, and then through the window into the field across the 
meadow, where he had men at work. He ordered each man 
to seize a stake from the fence, and shoulder it as if it were a 



mMmbwm&mmmm 



312 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

gun, and took the lead himself towards his house. The 
Indians, already searching for him and seeing him in the 
distance at the head of a company of armed men, as they 
supposed, hastily seized what stores they could and fled. 
A Mr. Gotham — long in Mr. Whipple's employ, an English- 
man, who has many descendants in Coos and Essex now — saw 
the Indians as they were making their escape, and sought the 
forest, crossing the river on a log. The Indians saw him, and 
fired at him, but missed. The key they turned on Colonel 
Whipple in his own house is now in possession of a resident of 
Coos. This same year, after consulting with Colonel Page 
and Colonel Whipple, thirty men were raised to serve three 
months under Colonel Whipple's direction, and he and Colonel 
Page were to care for and supply them. They were not 
needed so long, the colonel thought, and so were discharged. 
In July of the next year, in compliance with Colonel Whip- 
ple's request, the committee sent six or eight men to Dart- 
mouth as a scouting party. He furnished beef and other 
provisions for the army in large quantities, sometimes to the 
amount of several thousand dollars worth. 

In 1776, 497 citizens of Portsmouth, Colonel Whipple 
among them, signed a petition, called the " test list," asking 
44 all assemblies, councils, or committees of safety of the 
United Colonies, immediately to cause all persons to be dis- 
armed within their respective colonies, who are notoriously 
disaffected to the cause of America," etc. 

But perhaps I have gone far enough with a matter that 
might be carried still farther on the same line. I trust that by 
this time you are as thoroughly convinced of the colonel's loy- 
alty and efficiency in his country's cause and service as I am. 
If his modesty, training, and taste led him into fields of useful- 
ness in his country's service, differing from those traversed by 
his more conspicuous brother, the general, it is not for us to 
say that the unobtrusive course was not as much needed and as 
helpful as the other. Colonel Whipple was much in advance of 
the average man of his day. His strong common sense pene- 
trated to that within the future which was often veiled to the 
sight of others, and this mental grasp and practical bent of his 



iiaMaf""*™"''— -— ——^ "■™ 1 - 1 " ■'"" ■ « •-■ ■ 



mr. Jordan's paper. 313 

mind well equipped him for leadership. As early as 1797 we 
find him trying to secure an act of incorporation to enable an 
aqueduct company to be formed to bring water two and a half 
miles into Portsmouth. He was diligent in every good work 
for the town. 

The real estate records show he was constantly buying and 
selling land in Portsmouth, not alone to secure profit to him- 
self, but public buildings, good streets, and a beautiful town as 
well. He was interested in having a good and commodious 
hotel, and as early as 1765 the land was secured of Theodore 
Atkinson by John Stover for the " Earl of Halifax Hotel," 
and in 1770 the building, three stories high, was completed. 
In this celebrated hostelry great men met and planned great 
things. In the upper room St. John's lodge of Masons met 
for years, and in it the grand lodge of the state held its meet- 
ings. During the Revolution, the proprietor, who was an 
Englishman, had to leave it, but John Langdon interfered, got 
him back, changed the name of the hotel to " William Pitt," 
and under that name it did good business for a quarter of a cen- 
tury. To it came George Washington, Lafayette, John Han- 
cock, Elbridge Gerry, Rutledge, and other signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. Here General Knox and staff 
found rest and sumptuous fare, and here came and stopped 
three sons of the Duke of Orleans, one of whom was Louis 
Phillippe, the future king of France, as before mentioned. In 
1789, Gen. John Sullivan, the president of New Hampshire, 
met his council, and deliberated and resolved under this roof. 

From the portrait of Colonel Whipple, now in possession of 
Alexander H. Ladd, of Portsmouth, we conclude he was fairly 
good-looking, with his character strongly marked in the cast of 
his countenance. It is believed by those qualified to judge, 
that the portrait in Independence hall, Philadelphia, claimed 
to be that of the general, is really that of his brother Joseph. 
In manner he was quiet, courteous, but dignified. While kind 
and humane, he was familiar with but few. He had time only 
for work — work all through his busy life. The man who was 
constantly on a visit was no particular friend of his. 

If proof were necessary, after all that has been said, that 



ff mir "iii iTirnr i iiTiM-ramMM 



314 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Colonel Whipple was a moral man, plenty of it might be had, 
not alone in his dealings with men, but in the unselfish life he 
lived, in his public acts, and in his constant endeavor in the 
legislature and elsewhere to have such laws enacted as would 
prohibit vice and encourage virtue in homes, towns, and coun- 
try. The record is full in this respect. His heart beat in 
sympathy for the needy and helpless. It was no morbid senti- 
ment that could only find expression in empty words and 
meaningless phrases, but one that crystallized into deeds of 
relief, and laws and rules that undid the heavy burdens, com- 
forted the distressed, and brought succor to the oppressed. 
Almost invariably was he found on the side of the weak, vot- 
ing against imprisonment for debt ; for enlarging the yards of 
jails ; for giving prisoners better care, and for the bringing in 
of better days and times to the less favored and fortunate of 
earth who chanced to be among us. 

That Colonel Whipple had particularly enlarged views and 
advanced thought concerning roads, education, and manufactures 
is manifest from all we touch relative to what he said and did. 
Were evidence of this needed, we should have it in abundance 
from the record he left in his will, dated August 15, 1805. 
Perhaps a few extracts from this document in the colonel's 
own language will get you nearer his thoughts, the workings 
of his mind, than can any words of mine. The instrument is 
very long, and so I will riot give you all of it, only such por- 
tions as relate to the matters above mentioned, and to his dear 
wife. First he gave her during her life his " mansion house 
situate on the northerly side of Broad street in Portsmouth with 
all the land thereto appertaining being two lots in the Glebe, 
so-called, with the out-houses and buildings thereon, with 
power to devise the same by will to my niece Mary Spence, 
wife of Mr. Keith Spence, to be possessed by her in case of the 
decease of her husband, or to such one of her children as she 
shall see fit to bequeath the same." (Mrs. Spence was the 
grandmother of James Russell Lowell.) " I give also .to my 
wife all my furniture and other effects and stores belonging to 
me in my house or that shall be there or in my out-houses at 
the time of my decease not otherwise appropriated. I give and 



tanm*hinmfm*mto, «vWTWHMmam ■,-*. ,^>.>-apffi| 



MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 315 

bequeath also to my said wife in addition to the above out of 
my personal estate, or to be raised out of my real estate by sales 
thereof the sum of one thousand dollars per year to be raised 
by the collection of my personal estate* or the income thereof, 
viz. — from debts due to me, from dividends of banks, turn- 
pikes, bridges, aqueducts or other incorporated institutions 
that may arise to me at the time of my decease whether now 
established or that may be hereafter acquired by me, excepting 
what may arise from Jefferson Turnpike in the County of 
Grafton, or from the sale of such stock, or from the sale of 
some part of my real estate, so as to make the sum of one thou- 
sand dollars per year, as above ; to be raised and paid quarter 
yearly. ... I give also to my wife during her life, my 
farm in Kittery, and at her decease I give the same to Green 
Keith Spence, son of Keith Spence, But if he should not sur- 
vive my wife I hereby authorize her to give the same to such 
other of the children of my said niece, Mary Spence, as she, 
my said wife, may see fit." Then, after remembering most 
bounteously many other relatives and friends of himself and his 
wife, he writes, — " Having thus provided for such connections 
and friends whose age and infirmities will not authorize an 
expectation that they can acquire due support for themselves, 
and some others whom my inclination has pointed out as per- 
sons who claim the notice, and, being of opinion founded on 
long and daily observation that property placed in the hands 
of young persons operates as a check to their industry and 
application to useful employment, but rather excites dissipation 
and idleness, I do therefore give, bequeath and devise the resi- 
due of my estate not before given or devised in the following 
manner as contained in this and the succeeding item. I give to 
my Executors (hereafter named) in trost to be disposed of for 
the use intended, ten thousand acres of land in the Township 
of Colebrook, Cockburne, Jefferson, Bretton Woods, and Beth- 
lehem, two thousand acres in each township, to be the lots 
drawn from all the lots owned by me in said towns respec- 
tively, and not otherwise disposed of by me ; the time and 
manner for selling the same to be such as shall appear the 
most likely to obtain the best price therefor ; the sales whereof 



316 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to be applied to the making of the road called the Jefferson 
Turnpike Incorporation, or so much thereof as the said ten 
thousand acres of land shall raise, to be applied to or invested 
in the shares or interest in the said incorporation. 

" Item. I give, bequeath and devise to my said executors in 
trust five thousand acres of land in the township of Jefferson 
and five thousand acres of land in the township of Bretton 
Woods, to be disposed of by them at such time and in such 
manner as by them shall be adjudged the most likely to be the 
most productive, and the proceeds thereof to apply towards the 
establishing of an academy in said township of Jefferson, and I 
authorize and require my executors to appoint four trustees to 
carry into effect this and the preceding item, and if my executors 
should omit making such appointment then I invest that 
authority in the President and Trustees of Dartmouth College, 
to make and appoint such suitable persons therefor as they shall 
judge proper, the directing authority however, to continue in 
said President and Trustees until the establishment, progression 
and maturity of such academy, may render it proper to erect 
and maintain a separate and particular incorporation. The said 
President and Trustees are respectfully entreated to interest them- 
selves in this matter, and at a suitable time, endeavor to effect 
it, and in the meantime that they will form such regulations as 
shall tend to advance the seminary to such a degree of improve- 
ment as its accommodating funds with the accessions of further 
funds by donation from those disposed to promote the institution, 
shall admit, requesting and enjoining that the greatest attention 
and stress be paid to those studies that tend to improvement in 
agriculture and natural history; that such experiments and 
improvements on these subjects by encouragements and pre- 
miums, honorary or pecuniary, shall be made as future funds 
may admit. And as respects political subjects, that such studies 
be pursued as tend to a love of peace and an aversion for war, 
and encouragement and continuance of a republican form of 
government as established by the Constitution of the United 
States, — wishing the experiment may be fairly tried for one cen- 
tury, by the termination of which period the practicability, I 
have no doubt, will be admitted, provided the arts of peace are 



OTttiiiMMr^tr- - f *r"^^ --^ -**-*»■ 



MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 317 

cherished and adopted, and war discouraged and shunned, and I 
further give and bequeath to the said academy all profits and 
dividends accruing to my shares and interest in the afore men- 
tioned Jefferson Turnpike Incorporation." 

Next, he takes up the trust imposed upon him by the will of 
his sister, Hannah Brackett, as to founding an asylum for the 
support and early education of children of both sexes, and hav- 
ing disposed of his sister's fund in this behalf, he adds to it five 
hundred acres of land in Colebrook, estimated at $2,000, out of 
his own estate in furtherance of the enterprise. 

Then he comes to another matter that evidently lay near his 
heart, namely, manufactures. He says — 44 Conceiving that great 
benefit to our country, would accrue from the gradual establish- 
ment of such manufactures as are immediately and essentially 
necessary to the support and comfort of man, and considering 
the immense and increasing population of these states whereby 
the consumption of foreign manufactures are greatly increasing, 
and the peaceful and uninterrupted state of our commerce at 
present, the productiveness of our agriculture, and the profits 
arising on the exportation of the products thereof, and the raw 
materials used in foreign manufactures, exciting an indifference 
to manufactures in our own country, thereby keeping off' those 
attempts to manufacturing which it would be good policy to 
introduce, so that in the event of an interruption in our commer- 
cial intercourse with other nations, we should become suddenly 
destitute of a supply of such manufactures and of knowledge in 
their fabrication ; and, conceiving that among the manufactures, 
combining eligibility of introducing and necessity in their use, 
none can be preferred to woollen cloths and window glass ; 
therefore to the encouragement and establishment of these I 
assign the residue of my estate not hereinbefore given and 
bequeathed, hoping that in each of the United States similar 
establishments may be made and improved upon, as an entering 
wedge to an entire independence, as well commercial as politi- 
cal, of other nations." 

It is not well to take your time to go into the colonel's plans 
to the minutest detail for working out these problems. The 
property was to be converted into money, and the money offered 



i n i mim i n p ■iriwfHf M— SM— — 



m 



318 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

as bounties for those who employed the most men and got the 
best results for three-year periods in each of these great branches 
of industry. Enough has been given to enable you to under- 
stand how broad and comprehensive was the mind of this man 
who dwelt here so many decades ago, and how grand his designs, 
how benevolent his purposes, how philanthropic his views and 
works, and how advanced his thoughts. As I was studying 
this man's character in the light of his will it occurred to me as 
it doubtless has a thousand times to you, that although we think 
we live in an age of great progress and are thinking out thoughts 
greater and faster than did our fathers, when we come to com- 
mune with those of the past we find that they who were 
doing the work one hundred or five hundred years ago were 
entertaining about the same thoughts and devising nearly the 
same plans that mortals do now. 

The colonel did live to see his turnpike built past his mansion 
in Jefferson, being the tenth one chartered in the state, but not 
to see his seminary erected. He had personally known of the 
contests with the French and Indians, and of the great struggle 
for nationality. He knew of the want, suffering, pain, and 
mourning which that long and desperate conflict had entailed 
upon almost every home in the land. He had seen it all. And 
now that the spared and chosen ones had been able not only to 
catch a glimpse of the promised land, but really to go in and 
possess it, with all it had been, was then, and promised to be 
in the future that was meeting them with rapid pace, laden 
with more and better things than they in their wildest imagin- 
ings had dared expect, was it strange that Colonel Whipple 
wanted no more war, no more strife, blood, and desolation ? Is 
it at all strange that he should want seminaries planted where 
the arts of peace and concord, rather than those of murder and 
rapine, should be fostered and taught; that he should desire not 
only this, but also that this country should begin to protect it- 
self, make what it wanted, and not longer be compelled to pay 
tribute to other nations, especially to the one that had so recently 
sought to chastise us and bring us again beneath the parent roof, 
subject to the harsher discipline ever imposed upon the more 
wayward children. Colonel Whipple felt the glory of the 



MR. JORDAN S PAPER. 319 

dawning of that auspicious day, and appreciated from whence 
came the bright effulgence that was grandly lighting up our 
social and political horizon from border to border. He hoped 
to avert any stormcloud or tempest that migtit obscure the light 
that was fast chasing away the darkness and gloom that had 
gathered about that night of seven years of terrible war. All 
through that crisis he had given himself no rest from the work 
at hand. He had ungrudgingly done his part. Now his eyes 
beheld the salvation of his country, and in his swiftly advancing 
years he felt the need of rest to his overtaxed body and mind, 
and that the country, too, needed rest, peace, and recuperation. 
He was willing, in addition to the much he had done and given, 
to now bestow nearly all his worldly possessions that the desire 
of his heart might be fulfilled and the everlasting good of his 
country be secured. I do not know how this sublime conduct, 
this noble self-sacrifice, impresses others, but for me it has a 
beauty, a symmetry, a harmony, that touches the sweeter chords 
of the heart, and will make melody so long as the human mind 
contemplates honest endeavor, good deeds, and masterly achieve- 
ments in the cause of God, country, and humanity. 

The sweet prattle of children he could call his own never 
gladdened his heart. The affection that intertwines and inter- 
laces more than any other love had not been for him. But, 
though childless, he had so many objects of care and solicitude 
that his soul had not grown callous, his heart not cold. 

Notwithstanding he put his house in order in 1805, he did 
not cease toiling and working until summoned to the rest and 
sleep of his fathers, February 26, 1S16. After reaching almost 
four score years, he laid his burden down and entered into the 
enjoyment of whatever awaits those who have kept the faith 
and performed their duties here below. The century of self- 
government he worked and prayed for has passed, and what a 
century it has been ! The little we can do to perpetuate the 
name of those who have done so much for us and the world 
for all time is but small recompense, and should be ungrudg- 
ingly bestowed. 

Note. My obligations in preparing the foregoing sketch 
are so many, I conclude it is not best to mar its pages by con- 
17 



m^rnrnmst mnmii i HBmto&i t^ 



320 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

stant reference to the many sources of my information. I will 
here say I am indebted to Capt. Joseph Foster's Presentation 
of Flags and Presentation of Portraits; to Hon. A. S. Batch- 
ellor; Dr. Belknap's, Barstow's^ and McClintock's histories of 
New Hampshire ; State and Town Papers ; Portsmouth An- 
nals ; Brewster's Rambles; Plumer's Papers; Journals of the 
House ; American Scenery ; Coos County History ; Granite 
Monthly; Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety ; town-clerk of Jefferson ; Crawford's, Willey's, and Spaul- 
ding's White Mountains, and various other sources, for help. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Hon. 
Chester B. Jordan for his valuable paper concerning Col. Joseph 
B. Whipple, and that he be requested to furnish a copy of the 
same for publication in the Proceedings of the Society. 

Voted, That Hon. Edgar Aldrich, of Littleton, be invited 
to furnish a paper on the Indian Stream question. 

Voted, That a committee be appointed to select an orator 
for the next annual meeting. 

Hon. J. B. Walker, 
Rev. N. F. Carter, 
Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 

were appointed said committee. 

Voted, That a special meeting of the Society be holden the 
coming winter in memory of the late Senator James Willis Pat- 
terson, of Hanover, and that Prof. John Ordronaux, LL. D., 
be invited to deliver the address. 

Voted, That the publication committee be authorized to pub- 
lish another part — part 3 of Volume II — of the Proceedings of 
this Society. 

Voted, That when the Society adjourns, it be to meet again 
at the call of the President. 
Voted, To adjourn. 

Isaac K. Gage, 

Secretary pro tern, 
A true copy : 

John C. Ordway, 

Secretary, 



^i^^^^vti*^^ * ' -*^ 



MR. BELLS ADDRESS. 321 

Mr. John J. Bell, when Vice-President, suggested that it 
would be a good custom for the retiring President to deliver 
the address at the annual meeting. In accordance with that 
suggestion, he prepared an address for the annual meeting of 
June, 1S93. His illness on the morning of the meeting, which 
was the warning of the attack which caused his death on August 
22, 1893, prevented his attendance at the meeting and the deliv- 
ery of the address. Mrs. Bell has kindly consented to allow it 
to be printed in the Proceedings. 

THE ADDRESS OF JOHN J. BELL, 1 893. 

The sum of human knowledge is the sum of human expe- 
rience. The infant reaches out for the moon as for the toy 
which hangs but a few inches from its eyes ; experience at last 
enables it to judge more correctly of distances, and so, as its 
experience extends, it learns of the nature of things which come 
within the limit of its observation ; it learns to know those with 
whom it is brought in contact, and from its knowledge thus 
gained by experience it judges of other things and of other 
persons, not always wisely or correctly ; but still, as guided by 
its experience it grows older and its experience wider, and 
its occasion foi more extended judgment arises, it in like man- 
ner applies the lessons of its experience to the new questions 
which continually present themselves. So of the human race: 
it learns from the experience of man in all ages, judges from 
that experience, sometimes wisely, sometimes otherwisely. 
Man has been continually learning of all things about him ; by 
increased experience he has been enabled to correct the earlier 
crude inferences as to things about him, as to other men and 
their relations to him. In the broadest sense history is but the 
record of all these experiences. As experience grew more 
extended, men learned to classify and differentiate their varied 
experiences, and history, which originally might have included 
all that man had learned by his relations with other men and 
his observation of the forces and objects about him, has been 
limited to the former, especially to the political and social rela- 
tions of man with his own kind, although by no hard and fast line. 



— nrfTHiniMl 



322 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The study of history has in all ages been the means by which 
man has been enabled to avail himself of that larger experience, 
which is that of his clan, his town, his nation, of the whole 
race, as distinguished from that of the individual. Indeed, his- 
tory may be said to have ante-dated literature, for before men 
had learned the use of letters, and among men who had no 
knowledge of them, the story-teller, the bard who sang of the 
feats of bravery done by the tribal, national, or racial heroes, 
found a welcome at every fireside ; letters only extended the 
domain of history, first in song, then in prose. Like the bard 
and the story-teller, the poet and the prose historian chose their 
heroes and endowed them with unexampled strength and cour- 
age and virtue. Still, however much their heroes may have 
exceeded in the story the plain truth of deeds, the supposed 
experiences were the fund of power and knowledge from 
which innumerable minds gained the knowledge which fitted 
them for their duty in life. Let it not be supposed, because 
the tales from which they drew their inspiration were hardlv 
more than fables, that the knowledge they gained was whollv 
unreliable. It may be that history for long ages was, as the 
great English cynic declared, " false, while the mere novel 
might be true," still there was through it all the same truth as 
that which Walpole found in the novel. It may be that Herod- 
otus and Tacitus and many another have falsely told the tale, 
to point more strikingly the lesson they would teach. It may- 
be that they were only so childishly credulous that they did not 
clearly distinguish between the romance and the prose of the 
tales they learned. Yet even so they did give, if not the strictly 
accurate account which they professed, one which did bring to 
men something which if not true to the individual case was, 
beyond doubt, true in the sense that gave what might well have 
happened in such form that from it men were made stronger 
and wiser. As the race grew farther from its infancy, it had 
less taste for the marvellous, was less satisfied with inaccurate, 
although pleasing, narration, which is only declaring what we 
must all of us admit, that as we grow older we are no longer 
satisfied with the tales that charmed our youth. 

No boy has become less a man for having read " Robinson 



i^s^ ^^asw^AaaStfi*^^ 



mmmxmmtam 



MR. BELL'S ADDRESS. 323 

Crusoe," or even •* Pilgrim's Progress." The supposed exped- 
iences of Robinson, or of Christian, impossible as those experi- 
ences were, and, at first sight, in conflict with the proposition 
with which I started, that knowledge is the sum of experience, 
were, in a very real sense, true. So the Waverly novels and 
Shakespeare have been among the best, as well as most uni- 
versally received forms of English history, and, from them 
rjhore has been received and become a part of the current 
knowledge of English speaking men, of the experiences of the 
English race, than from all the nominal histories of England 
and the English people. True it no doubt is that as these his- 
tories are false, their experiences imagined rather than real, so 
the knowledge derived from them and the lessons received have 
all partaken of that false character, and no doubt many errone- 
ous theories and misleading views have thus gained credence. 
The true historian should be as sure of his facts as of what he 
would teach by them. Man will never rise to highest and 
truest knowledge until all error shall have disappeared from 
the basis of his reasoning, and the experience from which he 
forms his opinions and determines his own actions shall be 
itself true. It is well, therefore, that in small matters, as well 
as great, error should be corrected and the truth alone remain. 
Have we any duty to perform, or opportunity to correct any 
errors, as our share of this part of the great task of humanity? 
Our society was formed more especially for the preservation 
of the memory of those events which relate more particularly 
to our own state, but without excluding that broader field 
which the larger experience of man, through all ages, might 
teach. How far have we fulfilled this especial purpose? 
Have we exhausted all the sources of our own local history? 
Have we preserved the knowledge of those events of our own 
time which are the history of the times that are to follow? 
Have we drawn all the lessons that might fairly and profitably 
be drawn from what we know of the past experiences of man 
in New Hampshire? I presume no one thinks that we can 
answer either of these questions in the affirmative. It has 
seemed to me that we might profitably spend a short time in 
looking over to see what more we might preserve or learn of 



324 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

our own history which has not yet been fully told, and, perhaps, 
is seeking to draw lessons for our lives from the experiences of 
man in New Hampshire. 

The early history of New Hampshire has never been written. 
Within the last quarter of a century new facts have been com- 
ing to light, which may well lead us to doubt much which had 
been received as history of the English race in New Hamp- 
shire. When this society was founded the Massachusetts story 
of New England was almost, if not quite, universally received. 
Based as it was almost wholly upon Hubbard, it was accepted 
that the first settlements were made upon the Piscataqua in the 
year 1623 by Thompson at Little Harbour, and later in the 
same season by the Hiltons at Dover Point. We now have 
strong reason for doubting the accuracv of both these state- 
ments. The settlement on the Isles of Shoals must have been 
prior to 1623. for Leavitt was sworn in, as one of the council 
of Gorges as governor-general of New England, at the Shoals, 
then a well recognized settlement, in the spring of that year. 
And it must have been a place of resort for fishing and trade 
for a considerable time before. It is highly probable that the set- 
tlement at the mouth of the Piscataqua was made at an earlier 
time than that given by Hubbard, and the confusion about 
Thompson's connection with it and with other settlements 
further south, in Mariana and on Thompson's island in Boston 
harbor, would make an interesting, even though difficult, sub- 
ject of study. The character of the first settlers upon the 
Piscataqua, and their views of religion and politics, would 
form another fruitful field of research. It is probable that they 
would be found to be very different from those of their later 
neighbors on the Bay, who finally succeeded in supplanting the 
earlier settlers in New Hampshire. And the history of efforts 
of Gorges and Mason to form settlements here and on the 
other side of the Piscataqua, how they were foiled, in part by 
the more successful colony of the Bay, and in part by political 
events in England, has not only never been written, but there 
is evidence tending to show the destruction of no small part of 
the documents upon which such a history must be based, by 
their stronger and finally successful competitors. 



^ ^^.^i^aya)^ ^ lr i rm ■ ■■h i ■ 



MR. BELL S ADDRESS. 325 

It is too early now to write the history of that struggle, but 
it would, as it seems to me, furnish a field of interesting 
research, which would at some time yield a great reward to 
him who should, with a fixed determination to learn the whole 
truth about it, devote the necessary time and labor to elucidat- 
ing it. 

The student who would learn of the evolution of our system 
of government, and who should carefully trace its actual growth 
in our early New Hampshire towns, would find his reward in 
new ideas of how certain elements of our methods of govern- 
ment took their rise, and would, I feel sure, see reason for 
doubting some of the theories which have prevailed on that 
subject. Such a student would soon learn to distinguish 
between the avowed and the real reason for many things, and 
see beneath the surface much that would lead him to a far 
broader, as well as more correct, view than that which relies 
upon asserted motives and theories as the true explanation of 
the origin and purpose of our governmental forms. 

The long struggle of Massachusetts to extend her jurisdiction 
over New Hampshire, with its varied claims of boundary, and 
the controversies which arose from it, not yet settled, but still 
pending in the negotiation between the two states, and in liti- 
gation before our supreme court, would well repay the histori- 
cal student. It is one of the curious incidents that the title to 
real estate, as affected by the supposed and intended final set- 
tlement of that boundary line by the kin<j in council, in 1740, 
is now before the supreme court of New Hampshire, with but 
little prospect of a solution. Prior to that decree, Salisbury, in 
Massachusetts, extended to the mouth of the Hampton river. 
It is not necessary to refer to where the line went after leaving 
the sea, for the title to which I refer relates to the beach hill. 
The title to this, from the Hampton river to the Merrimack, 
was in the commoners of Salisbury. When the line was set- 
tled as three miles north of the mouth of the Merrimack, 
although that decision was one of jurisdiction only, and should 
not have affected the title to real estate, as it did not anywhere 
else, the commoners of Salisbury ceased to make any claim to 
the beach hill north of that line, squatters cut off the timber, 



-liMiwimtir'-ir^ViftMri 



326 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

scanty in quantity and poor in quality, which grew just inside 
of the beach hill, and between it and the marsh, and which 
had never been granted by the commoners of Salisbury, and, 
prior to 1740, belonged to them, and substantially all value 
disappeared from the beach hill. Various acts which may 
have amounted to claim of ownership and may not, on the 
part of various parties are being relied upon or denied. The 
beach in Massachusetts has become valuable, and the common- 
ers of Salisbury are deriving a considerable revenue from their 
leases of parts of it ; and could a good title be obtained to the 
beach in New Hampshire, it, too, would have a considerable 
value. The town of South Hampton claimed it, but lost their 
suit, not because the defendant owned the land, but because 
South Hampton could not show that they did. The town of 
Seabrook is now claiming it, and may probably fail for the 
same reason. A lawyer, himself of reputation at the bar, and 
the son of a man well known in his time as a public man in 
New Hampshire, attempted to make a title to it, by squatting 
upon it, and maintaining his possession against all comers, but 
the dreadful monotony of life alone on the beach, summer and 
winter, for long years, upset his reason, and he was removed 
to the Asylum for the Insane. It has been suggested that there 
was a tacit, perhaps, rather than written partition when the 
line was settled between the commoners of Salisbury residing 
in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, those residing in either 
state taking the common lands in their states respectively. No 
such partition in writing is known to exist. The commoners 
residing in New Hampshire do not, I believe, claim any rights 
in the Massachusetts commons, and those in Massachusetts 
who compose the present quasi corporation, do not claim the 
beach in New Hampshire, for fear, as it is said, that if they 
did the descendants of the commoners who resided in New 
Hampshire should in turn claim to share with them. This 
leaves an interesting legal problem which, it may be, will con- 
tinue to plague the courts for some time to come. 

It is about time that some historical student should so fairly 
state this long controversy between the states that plain men 
can understand its merits, both as a legal controversy and in its 
moral aspect. 



"""" «-!'■■'■-»■ 1-— — m — n -^W^^^^W,^^.. 1 ^ mm - J - M ^ J ^ rFffln ^^ ||Tt - to| 



MR. BELL'S ADDRESS. 327 

While we may feel that Massachusetts had no title to any 
part of New Hampshire, and her various pretexts for such claim 
are too thin to have ever deceived Massachusetts herself, or 
may assent that her claim had some plausible, though false, 
foundation, yet we must never lose sight of the fact that there 
was, at first, a very real danger to those views of political and 
religious policy upon which their commonwealth was founded — 
for a commonwealth it truly was through all of its history — in 
the prospect of a cavalier province at the north of them. Had 
events in England turned out differently, or had Massachusetts 
been weaker, or Gorges and Mason and their partners stronger, 
it might well have been that another Virginia might have grown 
up on their immediate northern border, or at least a government 
having no sympathies with theirs, and which would have been a 
continual thorn in their side. How far such a fear would jus- 
tify her conduct in the beginning, may well be argued on either 
side, and when that fear had once led to overt acts of encroach- 
ment, there were too many reasons that would not unnaturally 
lead Massachusetts to continue, although the original fear might 
cease, and the true cause of her claims be forgotten. In all her 
claims, when they came before an English court, she was 
defeated, except the three-mile line north of the Merrimack. 
And of that, we may easily believe that had Robert Tufton 
Mason known the strength of his ancestor's title, as we now 
know it, Massachusetts might have deemed it a great victory to 
have stopped New Hampshire at the river. 

The controversy with New York, with the decision of the 
king in council which tore New Hampshire in twain, and, with- 
out benefiting New York, made way for the admission of Ver- 
mont as a state in this Union, would also reward the careful 
student who should set in order the causes which led to the 
controversy, with the ground of claim on either side, and with 
the subsequent struggle which brought Vermont into the Union. 

On our northern border, a very pretty story might be made 
out of the Indian Stream territory, and how that came to be in 
New Hampshire, in view of the decision of the king in council 
in the New York case. 



--,,-,,-.,r.^ : „,:.,.,,,^^.,-.,^,^,,..,^.. Y---iif«fflmgm-iii 



maammmmi 



328 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The last word has not been said in relation to the Wheel- 
wright deed ; its want of authenticity is still doubtful, and, if it 
be indeed a forgery, an interesting question might arise as to 
by whom and for what purpose it was forged. It seems to have 
come prominently to light in the Mason ian controversy, but it 
never had any legal bearing on that controversy, nor does any 
great weight seem to have been thought of in it. That it 
should have been forged for the purpose of those suits is hardly 
credible. It seems to have been known as existent long before 
those suits were commenced. For what purpose was such a 
forgery committed ? The only controversy in which it could 
have had any place would seem to have been the claim of 
Massachusetts to dominion over New Hampshire. When that 
suit was determined by the king in council, in 1686, there was 
no further occasion for it, and it lay dormant until again 
reviewed in Allen v. Waldron. The whole matter of the Wheel- 
wright deed would make a subject for a monograph, when taken 
in hand by one who sought more for truth than victory. 

The other New England states were settled by a compara- 
tively homogeneous population. In New Hampshire, the Devon 
and Cornish settlements on the Piscataqua, the fishing settle- 
ments up the river, the Bay settlement at Hampton, the hetero- 
dox settlement at Exeter, later the Scotch-Irish settlement at 
Londonderry and other towns, the two streams of immigration — 
from Massachusetts toward the north-west, and from Connecti- 
cut up the Connecticut river, — with the consequent mingling of 
races and of policies, have produced a people who cannot well 
be understood without considering these diverse origins. Have 
we not among us some associate member who can take this 
theme and show how much New Hampshire owes to this mix- 
ture of different elements in her population. To write such an 
account would require a broad catholicity in him who undertook 
it, who could see in what way each of these streams of migra- 
tion had its own elements of strength and weakness, and to give 
to each its fair estimate of value in the whole. 

To the student who looks to see the character and the 
strength or weakness of a people represented in its political 



'- -■""-■■^ »"™»t~™^^. ^v---.,- ....e^.^.-....^.^^-,.,.,..,^,.. . ■„ .^.— — . . w nr '^"^' ' " ' ■^"■■"^TniM Wf l l iW li T l jf l it'-' ( 1'IWi lM 



MR. BELL'S ADDRESS. 329 

institutions and its laws, our state presents a peculiarly valuable 
study. New Hampshire had, in her own experience, but little 
to complain of in her treatment by the mother country ; if any- 
thing, she had been favored for many years by the home gov- 
ernment, and that she should have cast herself into the struggle 
for independence with the zeal and the sacrifices that she did, 
can only be explained by the liberty-loving character of her 
people ; while their respect for the forms of law, and their faith 
in their rules and in the justice of their government, show their 
intelligent regard for the right. 

That New Hampshire should have retained a constitution, 
unchanged in but a single particular, from 1792 to 1876, eighty- 
four years, and then changed because it had been outgrown, 
so that the basis of representation had become too unwieldy for 
the constantly increasing population, should call attention to 
the way that constitution was framed. In too many instances, 
written constitutions were made by conventions but imperfectly 
representing the people, and provisions inserted because certain 
interests were affected or certain doctrinaire views captured the 
unthinking convention (unthinking in the sense that the provi- 
sions were not fully and fairly considered, but carried " ad cap- 
tandum " upon their delusive promise). The New Hampshire 
constitution of 1792 was the outcome of efforts long continued, 
to attain the true sober sense of the people. Repeated drafts 
of the constitution were submitted to the people, and the peo- 
ple, in their town-meetings, read the proposed constitution 
article by article and section by section, amended, adopted, or 
rejected them, and then returned them to the convention, which, 
so instructed as to the wishes of the people, after repeated 
trials produced a constitution which, meeting the merited 
approval of all good men, remained their fundamental law until 
its provisions, by the unforeseen growth of the population of 
the state, had become too unwieldy, in its representative pro- 
portion, for the comfortable transaction of the public business. 

Why should a small state, without commerce enough to visi- 
bly affect her policy, have a political constitution and laws so 
remarkably well adapted to promote the growth and happiness 



„,^..». «^. — — . „.„.. — , , -rir i nmrnw icmammBa 



33O NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of a free people, and, in the orderly manner in which all its 
public business has been ever conducted, call for the admira- 
tion of all dispassionate observers ? And if late years have, in 
some degree, seen a falling off in these so desirable character- 
istics, how has it happened ? And in what way should we strive 
to return to better manners ? These are questions which may 
well vie in importance with the mere collection of facts, as part 
of the duty of the society. 

This, by no means, exhausts the studies which New Hamp- 
shire history presents, and which, if New Hampshire men do not 
take them up, will be left unstudied and unknown. As a lover 
of my native state, holding her good name as one of my most 
valued possessions, I do most sincerely wish that some one, 
equal to each of these tasks, may be found, and that this 
Society, which has honored me far above my merits, might be 
the means of finding and stimulating such studies. In leaving 
the position of president of the Society, which you have twice 
conferred upon me, I wish most heartily to thank each and all 
of you for your cordial support in the discharge of its duties. 
And now, in again taking my place upon the floor, I only ask 
that I may be permitted to resume any duties within my capac- 
ity which may come to me. 

And thanking you one and all, I leave the Society in the good 
hands of my successor and those whom you have placed with 
him in charge of its affairs. 









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JOHN J. BELL, ESQ. 



John James Bell, a son of Samuel Dana and Mary H. (Healey) 
Bell and a grandson of Governor Samuel Bell, was born in 
Chester, October 30, 1827. He became a resident member of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society in 1866 and a life mem- 
ber in 1876. He was an active and useful member of the Society, 
and was its president from June 10, 189 1, to June 14, 1893. Mr. 
Bell was reared in an atmosphere of law. His father was an 
eminent jurist, and served fifteen years as associate and chief 
justice of the supreme judicial court. John James Bell was 
admitted to the bar in 1848, and practised in Nashua, Milford, 
Carmel, Me., and after 1864 in Exeter. He was a member of 
the house of representatives in 1883, 1885, 1887, 189 1, serving on 
important committees, and at all times enjoying the confidence 
and esteem of his associates. He died August 22, 1893. 



332 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

FIRST ADJOURNED SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL 
MEETING. 

Hillsborough, N. H., October 3, 1893. 

The first adjourned seventy-first annual meeting and annual 
field day of the New Hampshire Historical Society was held at 
Hillsborough Bridge on Tuesday, October 3, 1893. 

The field day programme was arranged by a special committee 
consisting of 

Hon. John B. Smith, Hillsborough ; 
Col. J. Eastman Pecker, Concord ; 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., Penacook. 

The party attending was composed of about fifty members of 
the Society, including ladies, with a few invited guests, and left 
Concord at 9 o'clock a. m., reaching Hillsborough Bridge at a 
quarter past ten in the forenoon. 

His Excellency Governor Smith met the party with carriages 
upon arrival at the railway station, and conveyed the members 
to his residence, where they were most cordially welcomed by 
the Governor and Mrs. Smith, who extended to the entire party 
the hospitalities of their elegant home. A brief reception fol- 
lowed, in which all were formally presented to the host and 
hostess by Colonel Scruton of the governor's staff. Rev. D. W. 
Goodale and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Ruthven Childs, of Hillsborough, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Lavender and Miss Lavender, of 
Boston, assisted in the reception. 

At 1 1 o'clock carriages were taken for a drive to places of 
historic interest in and about the town, and calls were made at 
the former residence of Governor Benjamin Pierce, erected in 
1802, and in which ex-President Franklin Pierce was born in 
1804, also at the residence of Kirk D. Pierce, a nephew of the 
ex-president, where many mementoes of President Pierce were 
kindly shown the party. Bible hill and the famous Johnson 
house were also visited. Returning from the drive, the Gov- 
ernor and Mrs. Smith at one o'clock entertained the party at an 
elaborate lunch elegantly served. 



w^J.iMMaBteMAitftl'.raL.aiA'iA.^.ifi 



MR. HADLEYS ADDRESS. 333 

A business meeting occurred immediately after the lunch, 
President Hadley presiding. 

At the suggestion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, and on motion 
of Hon. L. D. Stevens, 

Voted, That when adjournment takes place to-day, it be to 
meet again at the call of the President ; and that the latter be 
requested to call the society together at an early day to devise 
and consider measures for further advancement of the interests 
of the society, and arrange a more definite plan of action. 

The following named persons were elected members of the 
Society : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Capt. Elijah Morrill Shaw, Nashua ; 
Rev. William H. Morrison, Manchester ; 
Mrs. Emma L. Smith, Hillsborough ■ 
Maj. Henry McFarland, Concord ; 
Otis Grant Hammond, Esq., Concord. 

HONORARY MEMBER. 

Hon. Christopher Bell Bouton, Chicago. 

Letters were presented by the Secretary from Hon. A. S. 
Wait of Newport, Hon. A. S. Batchellor of Littleton, and Prof. 
John Ordronaux, LL. D., of New York; after which the Society 
repaired to the Congregational church in which an audience of 
the citizens of Hillsborough, with ladies and a large number of 
school children, had assembled to avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity of listening to the orator of the day. Governor Smith 
called this meeting to order, and gave the Society a formal wel- 
come, presenting the President, the Hon. Amos Hadley, Ph. D., 
who delivered the annual address, taking for his theme the his- 
tory of Hillsborough. 

MR. HADLEY'S ADDRESS. 

This is for us a day of historic retrospect. Our minds are 
called to revert to the olden times, and to glide upon the 



- >'•*■ *m 



334 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

lapse of more than one hundred fifty years back to the living 
present. Where we now are, amid all the pleasant surroundings 
of enlightened civilization, stood, in the thirties and forties of 
the eighteenth century, the primeval forest, in which flourished 
together, in dense luxuriance, the lofty pine, fit for the " tall 
admiral " — and ere long to be coveted as such by the British 
navy — the sturdy oak, the graceful beech, the sweet-distilling 
maple, and the other characteristic growths of the rugged New 
Hampshire upland. It was a forest, too, through whose depths 
the red Penacook had been wont to stray, and where he had, at 
his own wild pleasure, roamed, fished, and hunted. 

This region of unbroken wilderness, the ambitious colony of 
Massachusetts would fain possess against the better claim of the 
royal province of New Hampshire. For had it not been declared 
in the charter of the Massachusetts Bay company, a hundred 
years before, that the northern boundary of its grant should be a 
line three miles north of the Merrimack and " any and every 
part thereof?" To be sure, that line had been prescribed in total 
ignorance of the geographical fact that the Merrimack has a 
sharp bend from its longer southerly course. But, "What of 
that ? " said Massachusetts ; " I must have for my boundary line, 
one three miles north of that river Merrimack, and any and 
every part thereof, — including its head, wherever found. That 
ugly bend shall not push me from my chartered rights. East, by 
construction, shall be North from bend to a point three miles 
north of head ; and through that point my northern boundary 
line shall pass from the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the South 
Sea on the west." Upon this ridiculous assumption, rested the 
great "line " contention, which, in the thirties of the eighteenth 
century, had been on for a hundred years, more or less, but 
which now seemed likely to reach a settlement some time within 
a decade. 

Massachusetts was not remiss in guarding her interests. 
" Possession is eleven points in the law." She would get the 
territory within her asserted limits granted, at any rate, and 
occupied, if possible, let the royal decree as to her northern 
boundary be what it might. As at an earlier date she had 



^■^ ^^^ ^^^M^fffi^^^ 



mr. hadley's address. 335 

granted Suncook and Penacook — the latter being the Rumford 
or Concord of later days — so now she caused to be laid off two 
tiers of townships between the north-west corner of Rumford 
and the Great Falls 1 of the Connecticut, embracing a tract 
twelve miles wide, the townships each being six miles square. 
This was done, forsooth, to have "a line of settlements on the 
frontier as a protection against the Indians." 

At some time between 1735 and 1741, a township situated in 
the lower or southern tier, and numbered Seven "in the line of 
townships," came into the hands of Col. John Hill and others ; 
the former being an enterprising citizen of Boston, and intent 
upon effecting a settlement of the grant. Meanwhile, in 1740, 
King George II decided the vexed boundary question, and 
recognizing the difference between north and east, made the 
common-sense construction of the Massachusetts charter, that 
the northern line of the colony should lie three miles north of 
the Merrimack, as far as the course of that river was easterly, 
and from the bend should extend due west to His Majesty's 
other dominions. By this decision, No. 7 " in the line of town- 
ships " was thrown far to the north of the northern line of 
Massachusetts, and within the indisputable jurisdiction of New 
Hampshire. But Colonel Hill seems to have found the authori- 
ties of New Hampshire good-natured and compliant, and so he 
went on with his project of settlement. 

Accordingly, in 1741, up came from the country below, James 
McColley and wife to make their home in the wilderness of No. 7. 
The sturdy Scotch-Irishman built his log house beside a huge 
rock, within the limits of the locality afterwards to be known as 
the Bridge. There the adventurous couple, as sole pioneers, 
dwelt all alone in their first Hillsborough house for nearly a 
year, and during that time the brave wife never saw the face 
of another of her sex. But by and by came Samuel Gibson, 
Robert McClure, James Lyon, James Graham, and others of 
unknown names, till at length seven or eight families dwelt 
within the limits of the township. In the rude home of James 
McColley was born, on the 18th of January, 1742, the first child 
of the township — a boy, who was named John ; and four months 

1 Bellows Falls. 
18 



33^ NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

later, May 19, in the log house of Samuel Gibson, the second 
child, but the first girl, in the settlement, was born, and received 
the name Elizabeth. 

The settlers were anon busy at their toilsome pioneer labors, 
in which they were liberally encouraged by the proprietors, who 
early built for them a church — with "glass windows," as is 
recorded — and a parsonage house. The settlement promised 
permanence. But in 1744 arose the war between France and 
England, called King George's, and signalized in 1745 by the 
fall of Louisburg. This war meant for the border settlements 
of New Hampshire a fearful series of insidious and bloody 
onslaughts from the Indian allies of the French. The lonely 
dwellers in No. 7 had, naturally, all along had their fears. But, 
lately, armed Indians had been seen prowling about the falls of 
the Contoocook where is now the Bridge ; and now, finally, in 
the April days of 1746 came the news of a savage descent, with 
guns, tomahawks, and scalping knives, upon a fortified house on 
Putney hill in Hopkinton, only a dozen miles away, and of the 
capture of its eight inmates. The inhabitants of No. 7 were 
occupying six localities somewhat remote from one another; 
they had no effective means of defence ; and as, moreover, they 
had no appetite for Indian scalping or captivity, they wisely 
resolved to withdraw southward in all haste. Packing up what 
of their goods they could carry and burying the rest, but driving 
along their cattle, they departed to seek a safer abiding-place ; 
some of them finding a home in Litchfield, on the Merrimack. 

Thus No. 7 was abandoned, and left to return to forest wild- 
ness; its houses, save the parsonage, became the prey of the 
red man's torch ; its meeting-house fell in ashes by the hand of 
a white incendiary. For more than fifteen years the abandoned 
township remained without inhabitants. The first settlers had 
not, in their leaving, waited for the peace, or rather truce, of 
Utrecht, in which King George's War ceased in 1748, and they 
would have gained little in point of permanent security had 
they done so ; for ere long came another, and the final, struggle 
between France and England for supremacy in North America. 
In this last French and Indian War, the red allies of France 
plied, as usual, their deadly task along the frontier settlements 
of New Hampshire. 



^^.^*^i^ ijijj»|ffc- l ^^^ " i mi ^■■vmwimmmKmmmmatmanmmm^Hnnummtmr^tiatASimM 



mr. hadley's address. 337 

But Colonel Hill did not lose heart. He was determined to 
found a town. He had become the sole owner of No. 7, and 
had also obtained a quitclaim from the Masonian proprietors — 
the twelve gentlemen of Portsmouth and vicinity, who held, by 
recent purchase from the heir of John Mason, the founder of 
New Hampshire, certain rights in territory to the "extent of 
sixty miles from the sea, on each side of the province, and a line 
to cross over from the end of one line of sixty miles to the end 
of the other." When, at last, the English conquest of Canada 
had rendered the frontiers safe from Indian incursion, the 
plucky proprietor resolved to try again to people his domain. 
He was ready to sell his land at fifty cents the acre. As early 
as 1762, he had found a pair of resolute pioneers in Daniel 
Murphy (or McMurphy), of Cheshire (or Chester), and his wife, 
who, in that year, took up their abode in the township, upon the 
fine eminence afterwards known as Bible hill — a locality, by the 
way, that once bade fair to become the centre of population, 
and came by its name from the fact that Deacons Isaac 
Andrews and Joseph Symonds, once dwelling there, were the 
owners of the only large Bibles in town. The worthy couple 
seem to have been the sole occupants of No. 7 for a year or 
more. The resolute wife, too, it is related, remained a fortnight 
quite alone during a necessary absence of her husband, and, in 
her loneliness, so longed " to have somebody to speak to," and 
to hear, amid the howlings of the wolf and the moanings of the 
pine, a responsive human voice, that she would go forth from 
her cabin, even at midnight, and cry aloud that the woods might 
echo her accents, and afford her relief by their mocking replies. 

Passing once through Litchfield in making a visit to his 
domain on the Contoocook, Colonel Hill met John McColley 
and Elizabeth Gibson — those, first children born upon the soil 
of No. 7, in the former settlement — and urged them to marry, 
promising to give them a hundred acres of land if they would 
do so, and, removing to his township, take residence there. The 
kind colonel's advice and proffer found willing hearts and ready 
compliance. The happy pair were soon " at home " upon the 
acres of their wedding gift; and there, as another has expressed 
it, they "lived in the enjoyment of domestic felicity for more 



338 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

than sixty years." 1 John and Samuel Gibson, brothers of Eliza- 
beth, also settled in the township. And thus the seed of the 
first settlement was planted in the second. 

By the year 1767 sixteen families had become permanently 
established in No. 7, the heads of which, besides those 
already named, were, — Isaac Andrews, William Taggart, Isaac 
Baldwin, Moses Steel, Jonathan Sargent, William Pope, Benja- 
min Lovejoy, William Williams, Timothy Wilkins, John Easty, 
Jonathan Durant, Lieut. Samuel Bradford, and Capt. Samuel 
Bradford, Sr. The last two settled on Bible hill, where Captain 
Bradford kept the first tavern in the township. He also built 
its first saw- and grist-mill, and was the first commander of its 
first military company. 

In 1772, now that No. 7 had its twenty-two freehold- 
ers, application was made by them, through Isaac Andrews, 
their agent, to Gov. John Wentworth and his council, for a 
town charter. The application was earnestly supported by the 
proprietor, and the prayer of the petition was granted. The 
charter, bearing the date of November 14, 1772, was duly 
issued with the governor's signature, for which Colonel Hill 
had paid, as a fee, the equivalent of fifty dollars in gold. In 
that instrument the limits of the new town were designated by 
its " beech trees ; " its " white pines " were reserved for the 
"royal navy," and the name Hillborough was given it in honor 
of its generous patron. Ere long the name received a sibilant 
intruder — a fact tending to confuse its origin with that of the 
name of the county newly formed, and named for Governor 
Wentworth's friend, the Earl of Hillsborough. But the name 
of the town has no connection with that of the English noble- 
man. With or without an s, it appropriately perpetuates the 
name of Col. John Hill, who, now within four years of the end 
of a busy, useful life, chequered with success and reverse, had, 
after forty years of persistent striving, founded, at last, his 
town in the wilderness of New Hampshire. 

Within ten days, on the twenty-fourth of November, 1772, 
was held the first Hillborough — or Hillsborough — town meeting, 

1 Charles J. Smith, in "Annals of the Town of Hillsborough," to which valuable pro- 
duction the author of this address is indebted for many facts. 



. ;i , a jrt^^^fa3iaM ^riaja^^ 



MR. HADLEYS ADDRESS. 339 

at the inn of Capt. Samuel Bradford, go Bible hill. Isaac 
Baldwin, who had been authorized to call the first meeting of 
the inhabitants, was moderator. The charter was accepted, and 
organization under it was effected by the choice of Isaac 
Andrews as town clerk, and Isaac Andrews, John McColley, 
Daniel McNeil, Isaac Baldwin, and William Pope as selectmen. 
It is not likely that, of the one hundred twenty or more annual 
town meetings since held in Hillsborough, there has been one 
more harmonious, or one in which a better selection of officials 
has been made. 

In Hillsborough, with its community of Puritan and Pres- 
byterian ancestry and earnest religious convictions, the church 
naturally antedated the town. It was of the Congregational 
order, and was organized in 1769, three years before the charter. 
Colonel Hill had early given ten acres, near the centre 
of the town, for "a meeting-house, burial-ground, and com- 
mon ; " moreover, in the former settlement, he had, as will be 
recollected, built a church and parsonage; but now, in the re- 
settlement, he was hindered by financial reverses, from such 
contribution. In consequence, the second meeting-house was 
somewhat slow in building, having been voted in 1773, but, 
owing largely to the pressure of war, not completed until 1779. 
The people, however, "went to meeting" regularly, from the 
beginning — holding their religious services, in summer, in a 
barn; in winter, in a private house. In the autumn of 1772 — 
the charter year — came to the pastorate, on call of church and 
town, the Rev. Jonathan Barnes, a young man of twenty-three 
years, with a Harvard education, and full of promise of good. 
Literally, in getting to Hillsborough in those days, one found 
" a hard road to travel," along the rough, blazed path, where 
should some time be the easy highway, turnpike, and railway ; 
for it is recorded that three men were required " to steady the 
vehicle which conveyed the furniture of the Rev. Mr. Barnes 
from Amherst to the town." 1 The young minister was formally 
ordained in Lieut. Samuel Bradford's barn, on Bible hill, with 
the ladies gallantly "accommodated with seats in the centre " of 
the primitive parquet. His salary was meagre, and somewhat 

1 "Annals of Hillsborough." 



340 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

curiously graded from a minimum of one hundred sixty-nine 
dollars to a maximum of three hundred twenty-one, as testifies 
the following quaint vote of the town : " Voted unanimously 
to fix the Rev. Mr. Barnes's salary, that we will give him 
thirty pounds by way of settlement, thirty-five pounds a year 
for the first four years, then forty pounds a year until there 
shall be seventy families in town, and when there shall be 
seventy families, he is to be entitled to fifty pounds, whether 
sooner or later, until there be ninety families. When there is 
ninety families he shall receive sixty pounds, until there is one 
hundred and ten families ; when one hundred and ten families, 
he shall receive sixty-six pounds, eight shillings, and four pence 
a year, which last sum he shall continue to receive so long as 
he remains our minister." 

With salary hedged about with such explicit prolixity — as 
hard to get over or through as a modern barbed wire fence — 
the pastor took possession of the two hundred and fifty acres 
which Colonel Hill had allotted for the first settled minister. 
Cheerfully performing double duty as minister and farmer, he 
gained means for the support of his household, and for charity : 
for his was a generous, sympathetic heart and an open hand ; 
need and sorrow found in him ever ready help. Earnest and 
impressive in the pulpit, he was of an unsectarian liberality of 
view, and of a Christian catholicity of feeling towards those 
who could not believe as he did, quite uncommon in his day — 
to say nothing of our own. It has been said of him, that " as 
a citizen he exerted a commanding influence in maintaining 
social order, preserving unanimity of feeling, and otherwise 
advancing the prosperity of the town." 1 Paralyzed by a light- 
ning stroke, he retired from the pastorate, which he had filled 
for thirty-one years, and died in 1802, in his fifty-sixth year. 
He " was buried on the precise spot where the pulpit had 
stood " in the second meeting-house. This, having been re- 
moved a little distance, had become a school-house, while a 
new site near by was occupied by the third church edifice, 
raised in 1789, and completed in 1792 — the venerable Town- 
house, destined to stand its century, and then to fall in con- 

1 "Annals of Hillsborough." 



» w.a*«, a* ^^^*^^,i^^ • <aiH - i *rri 



MR. HADLEYS ADDRESS. • 34I 

suming fire. Of the successors in the pastorate of that Centre 
church, or of its child, that of the Bridge — a Chapin, a Lawton, 
a Farnsworth, and many an other ; or of those who have minis- 
tered the word in the Methodist and Baptist connections, more 
recent in origin — a Hatfield, a Prescott, an Atwood, and others 
— of all these, no one, however excellent, presents to the his- 
torian a nobler record than the first pastor of the First Congre- 
gational church in Hillsborough. 

Of the three professions — divinity, medicine, and law — the 
first was thus early and eminently represented in Hillsborough. 
Next after the minister, and in 1782, came the physician. 
William Little heads a list of learned and skilful practitioners 
in medicine, extending to the present time, and bearing such 
names as Munroe, Crain, Smith, Hatch, Preston, and Burnham. 
Twenty years later, in 1802, came David Starret, whose name 
stands first in order upon the roll of Hillsborough's lawyers. 
That roll is indeed one of honor, with a Burnham, a Steele, a 
Pierce, a Baker, an Ayer, a Blood, and others of a later day to 
fill it out. In fact, something of the best in professional talent 
and learning has always found a congenial atmosphere in Hills- 
borough — a fact infallibly denoting a community of superior 
intelligence. 

Hillsborough had her schoolmaster even before her settled 
minister; for in 1770, George Bemaine, a well educated Eng- 
lishman, and a schoolmate of Dilworth, of spelling-book fame, 
was teaching the first school in town, in a iog school-house, 
located on the road " leading from the Lower Village to the 
Bridge ; " which work he continued till the Revolution, when he 
fell fighting on the American side at White Plains. Mention is 
also made of Widow Muzzey, who taught the younger children, 
and was the first female teacher in the town. Moreover, at that 
period, and later, some of busy Parson Barnes's time was given 
in the winter, to instructing young men "in the rudiments of an 
English education." Before the close of the Revolution the 
town had an organized system of schools, and had begun, as 
early as 17S0, to vote liberal appropriations for their support. 
Nor since, even until now, has Hillsborough been backward in 
the great work of education, but has ever been prompt to 



wa» w aMtiii ^ ^ 



342 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

avail herself of all improvements suggested by enlightened ex- 
perience or embodied in progressive legislation. When, sixty 
years ago, and before the advent of the high school of the 
graded system, the academy became a popular passion — of most 
commendable intent, though sometimes impracticable — Hills- 
borough had her academy, and thus signified her purpose to 
neglect no possible means for promoting the intellectual im- 
provement of her rising generations. As the result of all her 
efforts, her sons and daughters, strengthened and panoplied for 
victory in the varied battle of life by the educational advan- 
tages she has generously supplied, arise to call her blessed. In 
fine, with her churches and her schools, her library and her 
newspapers, Hillsborough seems to be doing her best, as indeed 
she has always seemed to do, to enforce and practise the great 
principle, that knowledge and virtue are the only safety of a 
free people. 

When, in 1775, the Revolutionary War actively opened, Hills- 
borough had been steadily increasing in her population of 
hardy, industrious, intelligent, liberty-loving people, who now 
numbered forty families. Sunny openings in the dark forests 
laughed to put on the garments of culture. The reluctant soil 
surrendered at discretion to the persistent husbandman, giving 
up to him, in ample yield, its hidden precious stores of present 
sustenance and of future competence and wealth. But now the 
the pursuits of peace must be interrupted ; the plow must be left 
in the furrow ; the hoe, dropped for the gun. All the harsh ex- 
actions of war must be met, — as manfully they were met in 
Hillsborough. It is recorded that "a majority of the able- 
bodied men in the town served in the army personally, many 
others by substitute." 

Then it was that Captain Samuel Baldwin, the fifth of the 
second band of settlers in No. 7 — the first moderator, and 
a member of the first board of selectmen of the town, 
wherein he was universally beloved, — heard of Lexington. 
That intelligence was his bugle-call to duty. Though but 
thirty-nine years old, he was a veteran in military service ; hav- 
ing fought his " twenty battles," as a ranger with Stark and 
Rogers in the French and Indian War. In eager haste he 



iiiW^^-^^^ 



MR. HADLEY'S ADDRESS. 343 

"collected a band of volunteers " as brave as he, and hurried 
away to Medford. A company, largely composed of men of Hen- 
niker, Hopkinton, and Hillsborough, was soon organized, and 
with him for its captain, was enrolled in Stark's regiment. On 
the 17th of June, 1775, he marched with his company, in a de- 
tachment under the command of the brave Major McClary, 
upon Bunker Hill, where, all too soon, he fell mortally wounded. 
Tenderly borne from the field by John McNeil and John Gib- 
son, his townsmen, he expired at sunset of that eventful day. 
There was mourning then in Hillsborough for the dead hero, — 
the favorite citizen, the soldier of brilliant promise; while, as 
another 1 has recently written " deep veneration for his memory 
exists to this day." But there is also proud honor for the town 
in the military record of such citizens as Ammi Andrews, 
Samuel Bradford, John McColley, John McNeil, James Taggart, 
and Robert B. Wilkins, or " Bob Wilks," — as Lafayette used, in 
his broken English accent, affectionately to call the last. Good 
men and true were the thirty of Hillsborough who fought in the 
war which gave our country place among the nations of the earth. 
But in the lapse of years, there came, and has gone, a greater" 
war — that for the Union. The nation, born in the seventies of 
the eighteenth century, was saved in the sixties of the nine- 
teenth. In the latter struggle, Hillsborough did not, through 
remissness, blur her fair record of achievement in the former. 
The spirit of the fathers still moved the sons nobly to do and 
dare as in the elder days. Her men were in nearly every regi- 
ment of volunteers sent from New Hampshire to the " ensan- 
guined field," as well as in other branches of the service, includ- 
ing the regular. They fought as well in this war as had an 
Andrews, a Bradford, or a McNeil, in the other ; and Merrill, 
Reed, Templeton, and Wilson died as nobly as had Baldwin. 
Nor is it amiss to note the fact, that one who went forth to 
valiant duty and important command in the regular service, and 
who, returning enwreathed with honor, finds again his home 
among his native hills, is of lineal descent from an earliest set- 
tler of No. 7 — a Graham, with name transformed to Grimes. 2 

1 Col. Frank H. Pierce, in Granite Monthly. 
* Col. J. F. Grimes. 



«——•»«««».*«„ , ,«*,« ^-^ »«»^ «j.j.*» w^-mmi »ffflHMM 



344 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

It is the proud fortune of Hillsborough to have had among 
her sons, native or adopted, those who won eminent distinction 
in state and nation ; whose character and deeds have given 
more than local significance to her history ; whose names dig- 
nify her name, and whose fame is a " pearl of great price " in 
her coronet of honor. 

There is a good Scotch-Irish name, McNeil, already men- 
tioned more than once in this sketch, which was borne by 
an early settler of the town, by his son, the brave Lieut. John 
McNeil, of Revolutionary fame, and by a worthy son of the 
latter. Of the twenty men of Hillsborough who fought in that 
War of 1812, in which our country re-asserted its independence, 
and vindicated its rights against the insolent pretensions of Eng- 
land, John McNeil, the younger, was one. He had risen to be 
major of his regiment, — the Eleventh United States infantry, — 
when, on the 5th of July, 18 14, was fought the battle of Chippewa. 
In command of his regiment, " attached to the forlorn hope," 
McNeil had led in much fierce and effective work in the bloody 
encounter; but victor}' - was reluctant to perch upon the Ameri- 
can ensign — indeed, defeat was imminent. And now the elated 
enemy advances in impetuous charge, upon the Ninth ; this 
crushed, victory is theirs ! But the cool, clear-sighted com- 
mander of the Eleventh saw his opportunity, and, "on his own 
responsibility," risked a movement. Loud rang out the com- 
mand — " Eleventh ! form line to the front, on the right platoon ! " 
The order was no sooner given than executed, and the British 
veterans, raked by the dreadful oblique fire, broke in quick 
retreat, and Chippewa was an American victory. Twenty days 
later, in the night battle of Lundy's Lane, within the sound of 
Niagara's roar, the same gallant son of Hillsborough, with leg 
fearfully shattered at the knee by a carronade, still led his 
command, — though tortured with intensest pain, and weak from 
loss of blood, — and gained fresh honors both "for distinguished 
valor " and heroic fortitude. 

In the autumn of 1785, a young Chelmsford man of twenty- 
eight, returning home from Stoddard, where he had been upon 
an exploring agency, happened to pass through the south-west 
part of Hillsborough. Pleased with the locality, he bought fifty 



■ ■„,, -n B tfai-^ifrrtifaifM^,., ll t^fnr^fli l lS'il. < n-riV. , ..i , Mt i *ii&M&lMiW.*M* .V^ i-ttiifflftifolt lift MMr-^?itftW< 



mr. hadley's address. 345 

acres of land, and came back the next spring to occupy his pur- 
chase. Benjamin Pierce — for that was the young man's name — 
had served throughout the Revolution, and had returned home 
almost penniless, from the depreciation of Continental money. 
A boy of eighteen, he had dropped the plow which he was hold- 
ing when he heard of Lexington ; but now a man of eight years' 
military service, he earnestly resumed the pursuit of agriculture 
in his new home. Though almost by accident this man had 
found a home in Hillsborough, yet he became one of the most 
honored and distinguished citizens not only of the town but of 
the state. He soon began to take a leader's hand in civil and 
military affairs, and held it for more than forty years. He was 
earnest, honest, resolute, cheerful, sympathetic, and hospitable. 
While there was the strength of unswerving purpose in lip and 
jaw, there was the merry twinkle of good nature in the eye. He 
had to such a degree the confidence and affectionate respect of 
the people of his town, county, and state that he was almost 
constantly in official position, and as legislator, sheriff, council- 
lor, and governor, he always proved himself worthy of his 
trust. Benjamin Pierce was a sincere friend of the people, and 
the people knew it ; in this lay the secret of his popularity. His 
patriotism was an enthusiasm, a religion. He had no patience 
with those who were not for their country " every time," in war 
or in peace. Woe to the man who, having opposed the War of 
1812, wanted office at his hands while he was governor of New 
Hampshire ! " I won't appoint him," resolutely said the old 
patriot, " I won't appoint him ; he wa' n't true when blood run — 
when blood run ! " 

In the early years of the present century, while yet the bar- 
barism of imprisonment for debt was tolerated, three veterans 
of the Revolution, guilty only of poverty, lay immured in Am- 
herst jail. Then it was that Benjamin Pierce, high sheriff of 
the county of Hillsborough, impelled by patriotism and human- 
ity, did that generous act of prison release, the like of which, in 
moral beauty, one may not often find recorded in biography. 
The conscientious executor of the law's decrees, showing the 
tender, sympathetic man through his stern official exterior, 
paying from his own purse the debts and charges, and, with the 



**Aaj*mai&imi)Siii 



«si^^ ^' ™^iriwmm rr 



346 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

jailer's keys in hand, unlocking the gloomy doors, and letting 
the unfortunate prisoners go free to enjoy the "boon " of liberty 
for which they as well as he had fought, — here is, indeed, a 
theme for the poet's pen, a scene for the painter's pencil. 
What touching eloquence, too, in these words of release : 

" My unfortunate fellow-citizens : The feelings excited by a 
view of your situation are inexpressible. That those heads, sil- 
vered by age and hardship, and those hearts, throbbing with 
kindly emotions, should be held for this long period of time by 
their fellow-citizens, without the imputation of a crime, is more 
than my nature is able to endure. But, as an officer of the 
county, I have a duty to perform. I must either be governed 
by the law, and suffer you still to remain the devoted victims of 
unavoidable misfortune and honest poverty, shut out from the 
genial light of heaven and the vital air, God's equal gift to all, 
or I must be directed by the powerful impulse of humanity, pay 
the debt myself, and bid you leave this dreary and gloomy 
abode. . . . My duty to my country, whose honor is deeply 
implicated by your sufferings, and my duty to my God, who has 
put it into my power to relieve, irresistibly urge me to the latter 
course. In this view, go, receive the uncontaminated air which 
is diffused abroad for the comfort of man. Be correct in your 
habits, be industrious, and may the best of heaven's blessings 
accompany you the remainder of your days." 

The reminiscent glance now passes from the father to the 
son — the distinguished son of the distinguished father ; the son 
born and reared in Hillsborough, and through life filial to his 
native town ; the son who enrolled the name of Pierce upon 
the scroll of presidents of the United States. Inheriting, as it 
were, his father's mantle of popular favor, that son, with brill- 
iant and cultivated intellect, fascinating eloquence, and amiable 
and generous spirit, wore it gracefully. His talent in the pro- 
fession of the law reached genius ; in politics his leadership was 
a fine art. A genial, cordial, cultured man, he was a true 
gentleman. Personal admiration and profound respect for his 
memory are not withheld even by those who could not, and can- 
not, approve of the entire course of his political action. And 
such, too, will regret that they must thus qualify their praise of 



daw&ujatofo^ato, *"*t,*M*itam&#iK£iitna^^ ■imfttm? iiV - 



mr.' hadley's address. 347 

one who had so much of the great, the good, and the noble in 
his nature as had Franklin Pierce. 

This hasty retrospect notes, in passing to its end, the impor- 
tant promotive influence of the useful and beautiful Contoocook 
upon the growth and prosperity of Hillsborough.. Spanned in 
1779 by its bridge, at first of wood and afterwards — by rebuild- 
ing and repairs — of stone, the river flowed on till the early years 
of the present century, with its rapid and unfailing waters but 
scantily appropriated to industrial uses. Thenceforward, how- 
ever, to the present day, it has turned factory wheels, whirled 
busy spindles, and set in motion the other mechanical appli- 
ances of that varied manufacturing industry which has cooper- 
ated with agriculture to promote public and private prosperity. 
Nor is its virtue of profitable production exhausted; there is 
yet golden remuneration in its dashing waters, if these but be 
diverted into the sluices of sagacious enterprise. Beside the 
Contoocook, and nourished by it, — the beautiful child, by the 
beautiful mother, — has grown up to flourishing and promising 
strength the village of the Bridge, supplied with all the means 
and appliances of right and happy living. But though the 
Bridge is the magnetic centre of business and population, it is 
not all of Hillsborough, for the latter has besides, its Centre, 
Upper, and Lower villages, each with its special interests and 
attractions, while the pleasant homes of its intelligent and pro- 
gressive farmers, among the hills, help to make it a model town. 

It is not, however, within the scope of the present sketch to 
dwell upon the living present, its acts and actors. History is 
making every day, and it will, in its own proper time, be writ- 
ten. Then will it appear that as essentially noble things are 
doing now by the noble sons and daughters of the town as were 
done by the fathers and mothers in any former time. And let 
the prediction be added, that when to-day shall have become 
the historic yesterday, the retrospect of its persons and events 
will not fail to place high in honor among the names of the 
most enlightened, enterprising, and generous promoters of 
Hillsborough's prosperity, that of him 1 who now so ably fills 
the gubernatorial chair of New Hampshire. 

1 John B. Smith, the successful manufacturer, meritorious citizen, and upright maa. 



"■""""""w-iniiwtHrriiiriiii'-i 5— **-Bfliiii 



348 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

A vote of thanks, on motion of Rev. C. L. Tappan, was 
extended to President Hadley for his able and interesting 
address, and a copy of the same requested for publication. 

Hon. J. B. Walker moved a vote of thanks on the part of the 
Society to Governor and Mrs. Smith, for their generous and 
elegant hospitality, Gen. Howard L. Porter seconded the motion, 
and Hon. L. D. Stevens followed with fitting remarks, after 
which the motion was passed unanimously, and the meeting 
adjourned. 

The party returning reached Concord about 6 o'clock p. m. 
It was the opinion of all in attendance, that the occasion was 
one of the most delightful the society had ever enjoyed. 

John C. Ordway, 

Secretary. 



SECOND ADJOURNED SEVENTY-FIRST ANNUAL 
MEETING. 

Concord, N. H., November 14, 1893. 

The second adjourned seventy-first annual meeting of the 
Society was held in the office of the library, Tuesday, November 
14, 1893, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, President Hadley 
in the chair. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker briefly explained the object of this 
adjourned meeting, which had been called upon his motion at 
a previous session, to be the arrangement of some definite plan 
of action for the futherance of the interests of the Society, and 
to consider the expediency of publishing another volume of 
collections. 

After considerable discussion, on motion of Hon. Albert S. 
Wait, of Newport, 

Voted, That the Publishing Committee be authorized to pub- 
lish a volume of the Governor Plummer Biographical Papers, to 
consist of such number of pages, and according to such method 
of arrangement as may appear most judicious to the committee. 



,^fitMi^^ 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 349 

The committee on New Members recommended the election of 

Arthur C. Bailey, Newport, 
George H. Moses, Concord, 

as resident members of the Society. The report was accepted, 
and the persons named duly elected by ballot. 

On motion of Rev. C. L. Tappan, 

Voted, That the Society arrange for the delivery of four lect- 
ures the coming winter, upon historical subjects; and further 
voted that 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

John C. Ordway, Esq., 

Hon. John Kimball, 

be a committee to select and invite the lecturers, and make all 
necessary arrangements. 

On motion of Hon. J. B. Walker, 

Voted, That the librarian be authorized to purchase such 
local histories of New Hampshire towns, and towns in other 
states adjacent, together with genealogies of New Hampshire 
families, not now in the library, at an expense not exceeding 
twenty-five dollars. 

On motion of Hon. J. B. Walker, 

Voted, That whereas, two highly esteemed members and 
ex-Presidents of this Society, the Hon. John J. Bell and the 
Hon. Charles H. Bell, both of Exeter, have passed into immor- 
tality, the former on the 22nd day of August ultimo, and the 
latter on the 10th day of November instant; 

Resolved, That this Society hereby expresses its appreciation 
of the high character of these, our late associates, whose public 
and private acts command our highest respect, and that we 
deeply deplore their loss to this Society and to the state; 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent by the secre- 
tary to the families of the deceased. 

Voted, That when we adjourn, it be to meet again at the call 
of the President. 

At 12 140 o'clock p. m., voted to adjourn. 

John C. Ordway, Secretary. 



1^***^**^^ i—rirt ■■r-t ^ 



SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. 



Concord, Wednesday, June 13, 1894. 

The seventy-second annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society was held at the Society's rooms at 11 o'clock 
a. m. 

President Hadley called the meeting to order ; and in the 
absence of the Secretary, John C. Ordway, Hon. P. B. Cogs- 
well was chosen Secretary pro tern. 

Voted ', That the President appoint committees on nomination 
of officers, and on new members. And the following named 
gentlemen were appointed. 

For the nomination of officers: 

Rev. Nathan F. Carter, 
Hon. Albert S. Wait, 
Dr. Eli E, Graves. 

For new members : 

Rev. Charles L. Tappan, 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
Col. J. E. Pecker. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, William P. Fiske, the Pres- 
ident read the Treasurer's Report, as follows : 

The Treasurer respectfully submits the following report of 
receipts and expenditures : 

Report of the Treasurer. 

receipts. 

Balance from last year . . . $13,311.02 

Amount received for initiation fees . 50.00 

from assessments . 309.00 

int. oii investments 5S0.61 

for books sold . 9 l '6$ 

$14,342.28 

19 



wwmmiwmm:-.. 



352 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



EXPENDITURES. 



Paid Librarian acct. of salary 


$250.00 


for books purchased 


15.00 


Librarian for sundry expenses 


62 -33 


for printing 


26.1 1 


insurance ... 


20.82 


sundry items 


10.00 



Balance 

Permanent funds 
Current funds 



$384.26 
$13,958.02 



. $11,000.00 
2,958.02 
$13,958.02 

William P. Fiske, 

Treasurer. 



I have this day examined the account of William P. Fiske, 
Treasurer of the New Hampshire Society, and find the same 
correctly cast and sustained by proper vouchers. 

Isaac K. Gage, 

Auditor. 
Concord, N. H., May 11, 1894 

On motion of C. L. Tappan the report was accepted and 
placed on file. 

Report of the Librarian. 

To the Annual Meeting of the N. H. Historical Society : 

The Librarian respectfully presents his annual report, for the 
year ending June 13, 1S94. 

During the year ending with this date the accessions to the 
library have been as follows : 



Bound volumes 

Unbound volumes and pamphlets 

War maps, — general atlases 
County maps of New Hampshire 
Bound volumes of newspapers 



297 
688 
— 985 

2< 



The library now contains 11,900 bound volumes. 



^^"^^iiMMmiMiiMt 



w mmmmmmm 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 353 



BOOKS PURCHASED. 

Oration bv Roger Smith, at Mont Vernon, 1S08 . $1.50 
The Colonial Era, by George P. Fisher, D. D., 1892 .83 

The French War and the Revolution, by W. H. Sloane, 

1893 83 

Historical Essays, by Henry Adams, 1891 . . 1.35 

History of the United States, by Henry Adams (9 vols.), 

1891 12.00 

The. Puritans in Holland, England and America, by 

Douglass Campbell, A. M. (2 vols.), 1S93 . 3.75 

Landmarks in Ancient Dover, N. H., by Miss Thomp- 
son, 1893 . . 2.50 

History of Chester, N. H., by J. Bailey Moore, 1893 2.00 

Cruel Persecutions of the Protestants in France, by Nar- 

cysse Cyr, 1893 ....... 1.00 

Allison Family, by Hon. L. A. Morrison, 1 135-1893, 

1S93 ' 375 

Pittsfield in the Great Rebellion, by H. L. Robinson, 

1893 1.40 



$30.91 



BOOKS SOLD, 



Provincial Papers, vols. II— III .... $9-65 

Historical Collections— Farmer & Moore, vol. II . 2.00 

Provincial, Town, and State Papers, vols. I-XXIII 76.50 

Historical Col. — N. H. Hist. Soc, vol. IX, bound 2.00 

unbound 1.50 



$91.65 



STATE REPORTS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

2 Insurance, 1S93. 2 Railroads, 1893. 

2 Ad. General's, 1S93. 2 Treasurer's, 1893. 

2 Banks, 1S93. 2 Schools, 1S93. 

2 Coll. of Agriculture, 1S93. 1 Insurance, 1S94. 



TOWN REPORTS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Reports received for the year ending March 1, 1S94 224 



lMii imiii—Wiii i i m i ii m 



354 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



Presented by : 



Hon. Henry M. Baker, 
Hon. S. C. Eastman, 
Rev. S. L. Gerould, 
J. C. A. Hill, Esq., 
Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, 

E. C. Eastman, Esq., 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
Edward D. Boylston, 

F. S. Frisbie, 
Ira Whitcher, 
L. D. Stevens, 
Hetta M. Hervey, 
Henry C. Blinn, 

John Ward Dean, A.M., 
Edward C. Mann, M.D., 
Mrs. Enoch Gerrish, 



H 

9 

37 
10 

2 3 

12 

5 



110 



Rev. F. D. Aver, D. D., 62 

Howard M. Cook, Esq., 6 

John P. George, Esq., 25 

Dr. S. A. Green, 20 

Isaac Spalding, Esq., 57 

J. Whitmarsh, Esq., 17 

George P. Cleaves, 8 

Frank M. Hackett, 2 

W. Y. Evans, . 1 

A. S. Batchellor, 1 

Henry M. Jackson, 1 

Mrs. A. Cochrane, 1 

W. Seward Webb, 2 

Dr. Charles E. Banks, 1 

Charles B. SpofFord, 1 

Mrs. Charles H. Bell, 1 

206 

316 

The remaining 425 books and pamphlets have been received 
from historical societies, departments of government in Wash- 
ington, and state reports of New Hampshire, Vermont, and 
New Jersey, and a very few from other sources. 

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS. 

Presented by their publishers : Granite Monthlv* Concord, 
N. H. ; New Pngla?id Genealogical and Historical Register, 
Boston ; The Manufacturer and Builder, New York ; j\/a?z- 
ifesto, by the Shakers, Canterbury, N. H. ; Notes a ?id Queries, 
by S. C. Gould, Manchester, N. II. ; Canaan Reporter, Con- 
cord People and Patriot, Contoocook Independent, Exeter 
Gazette, Franklin Falls Merri?nackyour?ial, Littleton Courier, 
Hartford Travelers' Record, Manchester Mirror and Parm- 
er, Plymouth Record, Somersworth Free Press, Woodsville 
Weekly News ; Boston Daily Advertiser, from Joseph B. 
Walker. 

Charles L. Tappan, 

Librarian. 



On motion, the report was accepted and placed on file. 



If- — »" ■' ■ IHttdttuMMMIt 



fm im&:ZW»LlVJ}LM\lM ) 



ta% 







b^' : -... v yJ 



'■ 1 

3 



' -iff i ' ** 
Deacon Edward D. Boiaston. 




f jftfr^*^ r -M»iif^Mirtf ,t^^ ^^^i*^*^*^^*^ ^ 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 355 



Report of the Standing Committee. 

To the Members of the New Hampshire Historical Society : 

The Standing Committee at this time beg leave to submit for 
your consideration the following 

REPORT. 

1. One of the bounds of this Society's lot has been lost for 
many years and is so vaguely described in the deed conveying 
the same to the Society, as to require determination by agree- 
ment. Measurements have been made and no serious difficulty 
is anticipated in its establishment, when some representative of 
the Society has been appointed and authorized to adjust the 
same with Mr. John C. Thorne, the proprietor of the adjoining 
land. Your committee therefore recommend a reference of the 
subject, with full power, to a special committee of the Society. 

2. Some seventeen years ago (April 14, 1877) Mr. Lorenzo 
Sabine, of Roxbury, Mass., and a native of Lisbon, N. H., 
died, leaving his very valuable library to this Society, subject 
to the life enjoyment of the same to his widow, Mrs. N. D. 
Sabine, now eighty-two years of age. 

Not long after Mr. Sabine's death, Governor Bell, then Pres- 
ident of this Society, and the present Chairman of your Stand- 
ing Committee, viaited the same and found it to consist of some 
five thousand volumes, of works largely historical, of fine edi- 
tions and in good condition. As it seemed to be safely housed 
and well cared for, no action in relation to it seemed necessary 
other than to await the fulfilment of the condition upon w r hich 
it had been given, by quietly leaving it in the possession of Mrs. 
Sabine in accordance with her husband's desire. Since this 
time it has been left with her, but has been kept insured to the 
amount of thirty-live hundred dollars, by this Society. It 
remains in Mr. Sabine's old home, a plain wooden house of two 
stories, numbered 105, on Mount Pleasant avenue, Roxbury, 
Mass. 

This house is now occupied by a tenant, Mrs. Sabine having 
moved to Providence, R. I. As she apparently makes no use 
of the library, it occurs to your committee that possibly she 
might be willing to transfer it to this Society in her life time. 
Your committee therefore respectfully suggest that some repre- 
sentative of the Society be authorized to make fuller inquiries 
in regard to her wishes upon the subject and report to a future 
meeting of the Society. 



«^»^.^^^,«^^ YrM | h . r . Tir , ^-^ijng i ^i- 



356 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

3. During the past year three meetings only of the Society 
have been holden ; the first and second being the regular 
annual meeting, and a special meeting, and the last, the field 
day meeting, at Hillsborough. Others were contemplated, but 
not brought about. 

It has occurred to this Committee that, if regular quarterly 
meetings were holden, and a paper read at each by some mem- 
ber of the Society, to be afterwards discussed by those present, 
the general prosperity of the Society would be greatly pro- 
moted. Similar meetings have long been held by the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, and by the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society, to the great benefit of those organizations. 

T. B. Walker, 



For the Com?nittee. 



June*i3, 1894. 



The report was accepted, and 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 
Hon. Albert S. Batchellor, 

were appointed a committee, as suggested by the above report, 
to make further inquiries in regard to the Sabine library, with 
full power to act for the Society. 



Report of Committee on Orator. 

Hon. J. B. Walker, for the Committee, made report, that 
Hon. Edgar Aldrich had been selected as Orator for this meet- 
ing, but he had written the committee in May, that it would be 
impossible for him to be ready for the annual meeting, but that 
he would be ready in September next and that his subject 
would be, " Our "Northern Boundary, The Indian Stream 
Government ; and New Hampshire's War with Great Britain." 

On motion of J. B. Walker, 

Voted, That when this meeting adjourned, it be to meet 
again on September 12, 1S94, the time designated by Judge 
Aldrich for the delivery of his address, at an hour and place to 
be selected by the Standing Committee. 



jk.3 ii a wftin-tftt iViHiff-— -^■^^^^•-^. «~« .^ .,«■ ^ m ^,v,-.^^^.^M^-w^ niM^tti^i 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION. 357 

On motion of C. L. Tappan, 

Vcted^ That the President appoint a committee of three to 
establish the bounds of the Society's land, on which the library 
building stands. 

The President appointed as such committee : 

Hon. John .Kimball, 
Hon. Lyman D. Stevens, 
Dea. John Ballard. 

On motion of Hon. J. C. A. Hill, 

Voted, To resume the holding of quarterly meetings of the 
Society ; the first to be held on September 12, 1894. 

The Report of the Committee on Publication. 

Last year the committee, through its Chairman, contracted 
with the John B. Clarke Co., for publishing five hundred 
copies of, *'A List of Documents in the Public Record Office 
in London, England, relating to the Province of New Hamp- 
shire." It has not yet come from the press. 

Part 3, Vol. II of the Proceedings of this Society has been 
published, 144 pp. It is ready for distribution. It contains, — 

The Records of the meetings of the Society from June 10, 
1891, to June 13, 1S94. 

Address, by Samuel C. Eastman : fct Tendencies towards 
Socialism." 

Address, by Maj. Otis F. R. Waite : " The Early History 
of the Town of Claremont." 

Address, by Henry A. Hazen, D. D. : " New Hampshire 
and Vermont: An Historical Study." 

Paper, by Hon. Chester B. Jordan : fci Col. Joseph Whipple." 
Read by Hon. Albert S. Batchellor. 

Address, by Hon. John J. Bell : " Studies which New 
Hampshire History Presents." The address was not delivered, 
owing to the illness of Air. Bell, which resulted in his death; 
but has been printed by the consent of Mrs. Bell. 

Address by Hon. Amos Hadley, wk History of Hillsborough." 

The manuscript for one volume of the Plumer Memoirs has 
gone to press, in accordance with the vote of the society of 
November 14, 1S93. 

C. L. Tappan, 

For the Committee. 

The report was accepted and placed on file. 



mwmmammmm&Mm 



^^"■■' LiKWirii^Siligii 



358 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The President presented the following communication from 
Hon. Henry M. Baker, United States Representative from the 
Second New Hampshire District : 

Bow, N. H., Nov. 29, 1893. 
Hon. Amos Hadley, Ph. D., President of the N. H. Historical 
Society : 

My Dear Sir : I have the pleasure of presenting to the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, through you, the follow- 
ing topographical maps, viz., 

Belknap County, dated 1S59. 
Carroll " " i860. 

Cheshire " " 185S. 

Grafton " " i860. 

Hillsborough County, dated 1S58. 
Rockingham "* " 1857. 

Strafford " - 1S56. 

Sullivan " " i860. 

And like maps of Middlesex and Worcester counties in Massa- 
chusetts, adjoining our state, and showing with the other maps 
the boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
and the roads from the one state to the other. 

Also a map of New England, dated 1S33, when there were 
only eight counties in our state. 

The topographical maps show not only the mountains and 
streams, but roads, villages, and residences, in each town, and 
are even now of sufficient age to be of historical and legal 
value. 

I hope some one will soon present the Society with similar 
maps of Coos and Merrimack counties, that it may have a full 
set of them. 

Rejoicing in the success of the Society, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

Henry M. Baker. 

On motion, a vote of thanks to the donor, Mr. Baker, was 
passed, and the Secretary instructed to communicate the same 
to that gentleman. 

C. L. Tappan moved that Hon. Leonard A. Morrison be 
made a life member of the Society, on conditions named by 
him. The matter was referred to the Standing Committee, 



^.^..^^x^^^^z^^.^ Mt^^iimiWirWfitHira"^ Tii- ■ r 1 1, - . ■• 



OFFICERS ELECTED. 359 

with full power. (The Standing Committee decided unani- 
mously in favor of the motion, July 10, 1894.) 

Rev. N. F. Carter, from the Committee on the Nomination 
of Officers for the ensuing year, reported the following, and 
they were duly elected : 

President, 
Hon. Amos Hadley. 

Vice-Presidents. 
Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball, 
Hon. George L. Balcom. 

Recording Secretary. 
John C. Ordway, Esq. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Hon. Sylvester Dana. 

Treasurer. 
William P. Fiske, Esq. 

Librarian. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan. 

Necrologist. 
Eli E. Graves, M. D. 

Auditor. 
Isaac K. Gage, Esq. 

Standing Com?nit£ee. 
Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 
J. C. A. Hill, Esq., 
Gen. Howard L. Porter. 

Library Com?nittee. 
Hon. A. S. Batchellor, 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter, 
Col. J. E. Pecker. 



***-****-***<x' f^m^mmmwif-mm 



360 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Publishing Committee. 
Rev. Charles L. Tappan, 
John C. Ordway, Esq., 
Hon. Albert S. Wait. 

Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, Rev. N. F. Carter, and Hon. A. S. 
Batchellor were appointed, by the President, a Committee on 
Papers. 

Charles L. Tappan, for the Committee on New Members, 
recommended the following named gentlemen, who were duly 
elected : * 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Stephen S. Jewett, Laconia ; Erastus P. Jewell, Laconia ; 
Edgar Aldrich, Littleton ; Irving W. Drew, Lancaster ; Charles 
A. Busiel, Laconia; John Dowst, Manchester; George A. 
Ramsdell, Nashua; Fletcher Ladd, Lancaster; Charles E. 
Foote, Penacook ; Farwell P. Holden, Penacook ; Edmund H. 
Brown, Penacook; Marvin D. Bisbee r Hanover; James F. 
Colby, Hanover ; John K. Lord, Hanover ; Gabriel Campbell, 
Hanover ; William J. Tucker, Hanover. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER. 

Rev. J. G. McMurphy, Racine, Wis. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Rev. William Copley Winslow, D. C. L., LL. D., Boston, 
Mass. ; Prof. Marshall S. Snow, St. Louis, Mo. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker, first named by the Committee for 
Necrologist, declined to serve, and Dr. Graves, of Boscawen, 
was elected to that office, as per list before recorded. 

Col. J. E. Pecker moved that a Field-Day meeting be held 
at Franklin, the date to be fixed by the President. Carried ; 
and Col. J. E. Pecker and Isaac K. Gage„ Esq., were appointed 
a committee on said Field-Day. 

Hon. Albert S. Wait made a verbal report on the subject of 
a Naval History of New Hampshire, which was accepted, and 



, ^^mmmmmmmk. . ■ ■ immmmtomMtiJU 



ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 361 

the same committee on that matter was continued for another 
year. 

The subject of a catalogue of the Society's Library was 
introduced by S. C. Gould, Esq., of Manchester, and was dis- 
cussed by several members for and against the card system, 
after which, on motion of Hon. Albert S. Wait, of Newport, 
a committee of three was appointed to consider the matter and 
report to the Society. The President named, — 

Hon. Albert S. Wait, 
Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 
Rev. Nathan F. Carter. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, the annual assess- 
ment for the present year was fixed at $3.00. 

Voted, That regular meetings of the Library Committee be 
held monthly, and that the Librarian notify the members. 

Voted, To adjourn, to meet again at the call of the President. 

P. B. Cogswell, 

Secretary pro tem. 
A true copy. 

John C. Ordway, 

Recording Secretary. 



FIRST ADJOURNED SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL 
MEETING. 

The quarterly and first adjourned seventy-second annual meet- 
ing of this society was held in the society's rooms in' Concord, 
Wednesday, September 12, 1S94, at 11 o'clock in the forenoon. 

President Hadley in the chair. 

The records of the last meeting were read and approved. 

On motion of Hon. Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted, That the limit of the fund to provide for the salary of 
the librarian be advanced to twenty thousand dollars ; and that 



362 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the treasurer be authorized to apply the yearly balance to the 
permanent fund for that purpose. 

The report of the Committee on the Sabine Library was pre- 
sented by its chairman, J. B. Walker, including the correspon- 
dence with Mrs. Sabine. The report was as follows : 

The Committee on the Sabine Library, having attended to 
the duty assigned them, respectfully report: 

1. That on the 22d day of August, ult., they addressed to 
Mrs. E. M. D. Sabine, widow of the late Lorenzo Sabine, a 
letter, of which the accompanying paper, marked I., is a copy. 

2. That they subsequently received from Mrs. Sabine, in 
answer, the accompanying paper, marked II. 

3. That on the 5th day of September, inst., the committee 
made reply to Mrs. Sabine, a copy of which is herewith 
submitted, marked III. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. Walker, 



Concord, N. H., Sept. 12, 1894. 

I. 



JFor the Committee. 



Concord, N. H., August 22, 1894. 

Mrs. E. M. D. Sabine, No. 5 Mt. Pleasant St., Roxbury, 
Mass. 

Dear Madam : By an instrument which you doubtless re- 
member, dated October 12, 1S7S, your daughters, Matilda Green 
McLaren and Abby Deering Sabine, perfected your husband's 
intention by a conveyance to the New Hampshire Historical 
Society of their interest in his library, subject to your life enjoy- 
ment of the same. 

Learning that you no longer occupy the house in which the 
library is stored, and thinking that the care of it might be one 
of which you might desire to be relieved, the society would 
make known to you its willingness to accept the same at an 
earlier date than contemplated, should you desire to divest your- 
self of the responsibility of its custody. At the same time, it 
assures you that it would not be willing to do so, unless such 
should be your wish. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. B. Walker, 

For the Committee. 



timmim mmmmmmmtitam*Kki , ,. . - .^ _ ,^ . ■ ■ ?■■ ■■ , i.-.vt.tii tfra.. ■^i^'ii l ^-r---f, 1 i^of, ^,1 -t^fun 1 ii run i r ritwl 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON SABINE LIBRARY. 363 

II. 

Bangor, 28 August, 1894. 
Mr. Walker. 

Dear Sir : The letter from the Committee of the Historical 
Society has been forwarded here, where at present I am visiting, 
or an earlier reply you would have had from the letter. It is 
my desire to retain my husband's library awhile longer, I will 
not say till I lay down mortality, for there may arise circum- 
stances, unforeseen at the present time, wherein I shall deem it 
my duty as well as pleasure, to hand it over to the society. 

At the present time the library has excellent care, from the 
family who are occupants of my house. I am often in Rox- 
bury, so have frequent opportunities of seeing all is right as 
regards the books, which I do not fail to examine. Also I claim 
the privilege of taking a book for my especial reading, never 
failing of restoring it, in its proper place. The fear of fire has 
been removed, I formerly entertained ; in the taking away of a 
barn, belonging to the next estate. 

Will thank the committee, wishing to relieve me of the care 
and responsibility. But the library is very dear to me, so inti- 
mately connected with my dear husband. Before I close, a 
word concerning Mr. Sabine's papers which he wished to go 
with the library. I carefully packed them away in two sepa- 
rate chests. The Historical Society at Concord can have them 
at any time they wish. At Portland, Maine, the Historical So- 
ciety are very anxious to have the papers of t; Gen. Knox," 
which my husband carefully copied. I refused, not having any 
authority in the disposition of any paper; leaving it to the New 
Hampshiie Historical Society to do as they may think best. 
Most respectfully yours, 

E. M. D. Sabine. 



III. 

Concord, N. H., September 5, 1894. 

Mrs. E. M. D. Sabine. 

Dear Madam : Yours of the 28th ult. has been received, and 
I would say in reply that the New Hampshire Historical Society 
will be happy to receive the papers of Mr. Sabine to which you 
allude, whenever it may be convenient for you to send them. 
When received, they will be carefully arranged for consultation, 



jaaai^amEiaM^Mri*^^** ^^ - l f a a i Mff^^^r^llifHafii 



364 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and kept for the benefit of historical students, who may have 
occasion to examine them. 

With kindest regards, I am 

Very respectfully yours, 

J. B. Walker, 

For the Committee. 

On motion of Hon. Ezra S. Stearns, 

Voted, That the committee be further authorized to receive 
the library and receipt for the same whenever it may become 
the property of the society in accordance with the conditions 
specified. 

Hon. George L. Balcom spoke of a proposed gift of an ancient 
bass-viol (Laus Deo) by James H. Bingham's family ; and the 
same was, by vote of the society, accepted. 

Charles L. Tappan, for the committee to nominate new mem- 
bers, reported the following list of names for membership : 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

Arthur Fitts Wheat, M. D., Manchester ; Herman Jacoby 
Achard, M. D., Manchester ; Charles Libby Harmon, Man- 
chester; Benjamin Henry Corning, Littleton; George Farr, 
Littleton; William D. Sawyer, Dover; William Tutherly, 
Concord. 

The report was accepted ; and the persons named were elected 
in due form. 

Hon. Joseph B. Walker presented the following communica- 
tion from Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, at his request: 

Concord, N. H., Sept. 7, 1S94. 
To the President and Members of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society : 

I regret very much that I cannot be present at the meeting to 
be held on Wednesday, in consequence of a previous profes- 
sional engagement, which I cannot postpone. 

There is one matter that I desire to call to the attention of the 
society, and I take the liberty to do it in this form. 

At the meeting of the society held some time ago, which I was 
obliged to leave before final action was taken, it was voted to 



■r,,, ,■*-—*■* n. rr mmmaMy^m^^^f^^ 1 ^'^ >*"* »■« '■'■ ^i^^aw*.^*^*^*-^******-**'*'*. 



mr. Eastman's communication. 365 

publish the Plumer Memoirs in full, arranging them in alpha- 
betical form. Many of these memoirs are of men whose lives 
appear in various biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias in 
substantial fullness, some of them even in more detail than are to 
be found in the Plumer sketches. Such books as Appleton's 
Encyclopedia and Appleton's Biographical Encyclopedia con- 
tain a great many sketches of the individuals whose lives are 
noted by Mr. Plumer. It would seem that it was hardly neces- 
sary or advisable for our society to go to the expense of printing 
duplicates of information that can already be obtained elsewhere. 

1, therefore, suggest that the vote directing the publication of 
these memoirs be so far modified that the publication committee 
be requested to leave out all biographies that are to be found in 
works of the class indicated, or in other books readily and gen- 
erally accessible, unless the Plumer sketches contain something 
of importance not found in others. I think that, by so doing, 
the size of the volumes will be very much reduced and the 
funds of the society correspondingly relieved from an unneces- 
sary burden. 

I think it will also be found, on careful examination, that the 
" Plumer Memoirs" contain some errors which could be easily 
corrected. It may not be desirable to change the text of Mr. 
Plumer's work, but it would certainly be better to correct any 
mistakes into which he has fallen, by a foot note, than to allow 
people to be drawn into errors by publishing them without any 
suggestions to the contrary. 

Truly yours, 

Samuel C. Eastman. 



After a discussion of the subject, in which Hon. J. B. 
Walker, Hon. E. S. Stearns, Rev. C. L. Tappan, and Rev. 
Alfred L. Elvvin participated, the communication was referred 
to a special committee of three, to report at the next quarterly 
meeting ; and the chair appointed as such committee : 

Hon. Samuel C. Eastman, 
John C. Ordway, Esq.., 
Hon. Ezra S. Stearns. 

President Hadley announced the death of Isaac K. Gage, Esq., 
of Penacook, for many years an honored and useful member of 
this Society ; and offered the following resolution, which was 
passed unanimously : 



366 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Resolved, That we are deeply saddened by the death of 
Isaac -K. Gage, whose diligent attendance and effective service 
in various capacities, have been so useful to our Society; and, 
that a copy of this resolution be transmitted, in condolence, to 
the family of the deceased. 

On motion, 

Voted, That a recess be taken, and that the Society meet 
again at half past one o'clock this afternoon, in the senate 
chamber at the state capitol. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Society re-convened in the senate chamber at the state 
house, at half past one o'clock, p. m., and listened to an ad- 
dress delivered by Hon. Edgar Aldrich, judge of the United 
States District Court, the subject being, — "Our Northern 
Boundary. The Provisional Government of the Indian Stream 
Territory, 1S32-35 — New Hampshire's military occupation of 
the territory north of the 45th degree of north latitude and west 
of the Connecticut river and lakes, in aid of the civil authori- 
ties of the state, and as against Canada, i835-'36." 

Judge Aldrich's Address. 

Mr. President, Ladies, a?id Gentlemen : Over the golden 
entrance to one of the noblest structures of the World's Fair at 
Chicago in 1893, — the structure which contained exhibits of 
the means devised for the transfer of people and goods of com- 
merce quickly and cheaply from one section of our country to 
another and from one part of the world to another, — was prom- 
inently displayed the great truth and incentive idea which has 
obtained in all civilized countries from the earliest times, clothed 
by the language of Bacon in the following words: '* There be 
three things which make a nation great and prosperous,— -a 
fertile soil, busy workshops, and easy conveyance for man and 
goods from place to place," as well as the same idea expressed 
by Macaulay in the following language : " Of all inventions, 
the alphabet and the printing-press alone excepted, those inven- 
tions which abridge distance have done most for civilization." 

The nations of the world recognizing the necessity of inter- 
course among the people, and trade and commerce among 



itfifflfffiri^^ 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 367 

themselves and other nations, have ever contended for rights of 
navigation upon the seas, and for mastery of the lakes and 
rivers. The march of early civilization was across the oceans 
and up the great water ways. Before the introduction of rail- 
roads, the nations looked to the natural waters and artificial 
canals as the only means for shortening distance, and as the 
only highways rendering travel and commerce less difficult 
than the slow and cumbersome movements over the earth. 
Free intercourse among the people, free interchange of thought, 
and enlarged and liberal commerce are necessities of civiliza- 
tion ; indeed such conditions were recognized as necessarily 
incident to existence among the ruder nations before enlight- 
ened government was much known. The short, swift streams 
leading from the Babylonian country to the Mediterranean, 
thousands of years before the Christian era, became highways 
to float the heavy cedars of Lebanon to the ocean, to be worked 
into crafts whereby the seas should be better known and navi- 
gated. 

Carthage holding maritime supremacy, and having among 
her people the most courageous seamen in all the world, throt- 
tled and seriouly staggered Rome, which had gained the great- 
est power and supremacy perhaps of any nation on the land, 
and Rome, quickly learning the lesson from necessity and 
adopting the Carthaginian vessels as models, constructed pow- 
erful navies, and in turn overwhelmed and crushed Carthage. 
In the present day Russia, through diplomacy and through 
exhibitions of warlike power, is ever pushing for an outlet to 
the seas. 

All nations adopting this maritime policy as a necessity have 
broadened it so as to protect so far as may be the lakes and 
rivers within their borders, and to secure free and open access 
to the rivers and lakes which become the boundaries between 
themselves and other countries. 

The Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris in September, 17S3, 
describes a line between this country and Great Britain, which 
from a point where the forty-fifth degree of north latitude 
M strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy ;" runs westerly 
44 thence along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario, 
through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communica- 
20 



"""*"****** ^^"mtmmiminum <iili, ^»M4iM 



36S NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

tion by water between that lake and Lake Erie ; thence along 
the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through the 
middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication 
between that lake and Lake Huron ; thence along the middle 
of said water communication into the Lake Huron ; thence 
through the middle of said lake to the water communication 
between that lake and Lake Superior ; thence through Lake 
Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux, to the 
Long Lake ; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, 
and the water communication between it and the Lake of the 
Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods ; thence through the 
said lake to the most north-western point thereof, and from 
thence on a due west course to the River Mississippi ; thence 
by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said River Mis- 
sissippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thir- 
ty-first degree of North latitude," thus securing to our country 
free occupation of one half of the Great Lakes and rivers with 
all the resultant military advantage, as well as economic and 
commercial equality with Canada. If we had time and space, 
it would be interesting to inquire why in going easterly from 
the forty-fifth degree of north latitude the boundary line should 
have abruptly left the St. Lawrence, running thence to the 
waters of the Connecticut river and the Highlands and the St. 
Croix river to Nova Scotia, leaving the St. Lawrence to broaden 
and flow on to the ocean exclusively within His Majesty's 
possessions. 

Previous to the treaty between the French and Great Britain 
in 1763, whereby the latter acquired Canada, New England 
and Nova Scotia, as well, extended to the southerly shore of 
the St. Lawrence river. In October of the same year, a royal 
proclamation establishing the Province of Quebec, extended 
the province southerly including the valley south of the St. 
Lawrence, making the Highlands which separated the rivers 
running to the north or north-east into the St. Lawrence from 
those running to the south and south-east, the southerly bound- 
ary of such province. 

A map on which these highlands were set out was made by 
John Mitchell under the direction of the Lords Commissioners 



OH 




Section of official Map A, showing the Territory contended for by the United States and 
Great Britain to brin£ the North-eastern Boundary of the United States in conformity 
with the Treaty of Peace of 1783. 



..j,,,,,,^- ^^ ^^ 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 369 

of Trade and Plantations in 1775. It is quite reasonable to 
suppose that this map or a copy thereof, was before the treaty- 
making powers of 17S3, and that the Highlands established as 
the southerly boundary of the Province of Quebec by the royal 
proclamation of October 7, 1763, were intended to be adopted 
as the northerly line of Massachusetts, which then included 
Maine, and that running on such highlands the boundary was 
to come from thence to the north-westernmost head of Con- 
necticut river. 

While we do not complain and cannot hope to change what 
seems to be an unnatural and arbitrary boundary, no American 
can trace the line through these great inland seas down the St. 
Lawrence, through wonderful Niagara to the forty-fifth par- 
allel, thence through the . unbroken wilderness towards the 
Atlantic ocean, leaving to the far north the lower portion of 
the St. Lawrence, the noblest river of the continent, without a 
feeling of sadness. But when we consider that the great minds 
which created and upheld the American Revolution, recogniz- 
ing the importance of the St. Lawrence as a boundary, sent, 
without success, their most important and influential statesmen 
as emissaries or commissioners to create in what were known 
as the French provinces a sentiment which should promote 
cooperation with the American colonies, and if not that, to per- 
suade them to remain neutral during the struggle, we must 
treat it as conclusively established that there was no sentiment 
in the provinces or any sufficient reason to justify a demand on 
the part of the American treaty-making power in making a 
claim that the boundary should be thrown to the St. Lawrence. 

Franklin, Chase, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, all leading 
congressmen, the latter of whom being by special resolution of 
congress "solicited to engage his brother, an ex-Jesuit, to 
accompany the delegation and exert his influence as a priestly 
Republican upon the Catholic clergy," visited these provinces 
early in 1775 for the purpose of making known to them the 
means of assuring their own independence. 

Garneau, in his history of Canada, says that " while Frank- 
lin was working his way as a civil diplomatist, Father Carroll 
visited a number of the clergy in Montreal and the country 
places ; his success with them was yet less than that of Frank- 



^^wM^i^^^to^^^^^.^^-^^ ri , ¥tfif ti1 ^aaii 



370 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

lin with the laity." This mission failing, the colonies were 
left to make the struggle alone, and having established their 
independence, it could hardly be expected that Knox and Lin- 
coln, John Adams, Franklin and Jay, having to do with the 
treaty, could, with any show of reason, insist upon including 
the territory of the lower St. Lawrence. We must, therefore, 
not cast reproach upon these great actors, but praise and revere 
them for the great results which they accomplished. We 
must also credit them with mental reservation and hope in this 
respect, from the fact that in November, 1777, when the 
Articles of Confederation were drafted, it was expressly pro- 
vided by Article XI that " Canada acceding to this confedera- 
tion, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be 
admitted into and entitled to all the advantages of this union ; 
but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless 
such admission be agreed to by nine states." 

The north-eastern boundary of the state of Maine was in dis- 
pute and in controversy, which involved preparation for war a 
little later than the time of the Indian Stream incident to which 
this address is to be directed. 

The treaty of 1 7S3, which is known as the treaty of Peace, 
described that part of the boundary of the United States known 
as the north-eastern boundary as " from the northwest angle of 
Nova Scotia, viz., that angle which is formed by a line drawn 
due north from the source of St. Croix river to the Highlands : 
along the said Highlands which divide those rivers that empty 
themselves into the River St. Lawrence, from those which fall 
into the Atlantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost head of 
Connecticut river; thence down along the middle of that river, 
to the forty-fifth degree of North latitude ; from thence, by a 
line due west on said latitude, until it strikes the River Iroquois 
or Cataraquy ; etc." 

The boundary which we now speak of as the north-eastern 
boundary of Maine became at an early day subject to dispute, 
first as to the river St. Croix, then as to which tributary was 
the source of that river, then as to the islands in Passama- 
quoddy bay, then as to the north-western angle of Nova Scotia 
and the highlands that divide the rivers that fall into the Atlan- 



«■**««.. _ _~ ... ^^aMfe^a^ ^ i feii i ^ 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 37 1 

tic ocean from those which empty themselves into the St. 
Lawrence. 

Without giving much time to what is known as the Maine 
dispute, and passing the controversy as to the river St. Croix 
and all disputes as to the intermediate calls, it would seem 
plain that the highlands between the St. Lawrence and the St. 
John's river were plainly intended by the treaty, — and in View 
of the fact that the government of the United States had, as 
early as 1803, so far recognized the great national policy of 
extending its borders to the oceans and rivers as to procure the 
colony or province of Louisiana together with all the islands 
belonging to such province, and in 1S19 all the territory belong- 
ing to Spain east of the Mississippi, known as East and West 
Florida, with adjacent islands, — it is not easy to appreciate the 
argument which induced Mr. Webster to relinquish the bound- 
ary known as the Highlands between the rivers which empty 
themselves into the St. Lawrence from those which flow into 
the Atlantic ocean, and to adopt the St. John's river as the 
•north-eastern limit of the United States and the state of Maine. 
This provision of the treaty made in 1S42 was the subject of 
-severe attack in the United States senate, led by that bold, 
energetic, aggressive, and truly American statesman, Thomas 
H. Benton, senator from Missouri, and has been the subject of 
much discussion among the loyal sons of Maine. 

Gov. Israel Washburn, Jr., who prepared and read before 
the Maine Historical society at Portland, in 1879, an able and 
exhaustive paper on the northeastern boundary, began his 
address by saying: '• I shall read you, this morning, a chapter 
of concessions, submissions, and humiliations by which the 
otherwise fair record of American diplomacy has been dimmed 
and stained." He spoke of the Webster-Ashburton treaty as a 
work of which the indulgent criticism of the most friendly 
commentator might be borrowed from Sheridan, who, speak- 
ing of another convention, said : " It was one of which, 
although some were glad, nobody was proud." 

While we may properly refer to this severe criticism upon 
America's greatest statesman, and concede that it is directed to 
a concession which is not easily understood, we must not omit 



amn,a ""^ --■"■ -'fflli iiirifi Ti 



372 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to call attention to what was claimed to be the establishment 
of important rights in the channels of the St. Lawrence, 
secured through article 7 of what is known as the Webster- 
Ashburton treaty, wherein it is provided that the channels in 
the river St. Lawrence on both sides of the Long Sault islands 
and of Barnhart island, as well as the channels in the rivers 
Detroit and St. Clair on both sides of the islands, etc., shall be 
equally free and open to the ships, vessels, and boats of both 
parties. 

We must also remind the historians of Maine that if their 
state through these negotiations lost a little through Lord Ash- 
burton's diplomacy, that Webster, at least, held his own in 
respect to the boundary upon the Connecticut waters which 
was the northern boundary of New Hampshire. 

We must also recall that at this time our boundaries were 
ill defined and little understood, except where they were 
formed by the gulf, the ocean, and the river St. Lawrence ; and 
that this controversy extended to the northwest, and that the 
treaty was a compromise in which each party at various points 
yielded some part of their claim rather than push to the 
extremity of war. It must likewise be stated that Mr. Theodore 
Roosevelt in his life of Benton in the American Statesmen 
Series, does not accord Mr. Benton much general praise for 
his furious attack upon the boundary provision of the treaty of 
1842. He does, however, credit Mr. Benton with more defen- 
sible ground in respect to his attack on that part of the treaty 
which defined the northeastern boundary of Maine. 

Referring again and more directly to that provision of the 
treaty of 17S3, which was intended to establish the northern 
boundary of New Hampshire and of the United States on the 
waters of the Connecticut, we find that a line was adopted as 
the northeasterly boundary of the United States and of what was 
then Massachusetts, running " along the said Highlands which 
divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. 
Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic ocean," and 
that the boundary described proceeded on such highlands "to 
the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence-down 
along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north 
latitude." 




Indian Stream and the Adjacent Territory. 



.. Clm , yr ^^ 



I ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 373 

It may not be out of place to look somewhat to the informa- 
tion possessed by the treaty-making powers with respect to the 
wild and little-known country between the settled portions of 
the colonies of Massachusetts and New Hampshire and the St. 
Lawrence, and to the motive which impelled Great Britain to 
insist upon breaking away from the St. Lawrence at the forty- 
fifth degree of north latitude, thus making a divergent line 
which would bring the boundary easterly to the Connecticut 
river. 

Generals Knox and Lincoln in their reports refer to Mitch- 
ell's map, which was used by the commissioners while the 
treaty was under consideration. There is also a reference to 
the same map in a letter from John Adams to Governor dish- 
ing written from Auteuil, near Paris, October 25, 1784. This 
letter was written by Mr. Adams after the northeasterly bound 
of Massachusetts was drawn into controversy, and while cer- 
tain measures with respect thereto were pending before the 
general court of Massachusetts, and in this letter Mr. Adams 
says: "We had before us, through the whole negotiation, 
several maps, but it was Mitchell's map upon which we 
marked out the whole of the boundary lines of the United 
States." Dr. Franklin says in a letter written to Mr. Jefferson 
in 1790, "I can assure you that I am perfectly clear in the 
remembrance that the map we used in tracing the boundary 
was brought to the treaty bv the commissioners from England, 
and that it was the same as that published by Mitchell twenty 
years before." 

It appears by the affidavit of Surveyor Mitchell, made Octo- 
ber 9, 17S4, that he was an inhabitant of Chester in the state 
of New Hampshire, and that in 1764 he was employed by 
Francis Bernard, Esq., governor of the province of Massachu- 
setts Bay, to proceed, with Israel Jones as his deputy, and with 
Nathaniel Jones as commanding officer of a party of troops, 
and Captain Fletcher as Indian interpreter, to the bay of Pass- 
amaquoddy, and there assemble the Indians usually residing 
there, and from them to ascertain the river known as the St. 
Croix. It also appears that he made plans of the territory, 
giving prominence, quite likely, to the river St. Croix, which 
was the particular river to be ascertained and located. But it 



374 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. • 

is quite reasonable to suppose that the plan reported contained 
not only the St. Croix but the other important rivers running 
down from the Highlands, and he being a New Hampshire 
man, that the Connecticut river was also indicated with its 
general course from the Highlands through Massachusetts. 

It will be observed that all of the great rivers of the north- 
easterly portion of the Massachusetts colony, now Maine, such 
as the Penobscot, the Kennebec, and the Androscoggin, have 
their source in that territory and flow into the ocean within her 
own borders, the Androscoggin flowing through New Hamp- 
shire for a short distance, while the Connecticut river flowing 
from the Highlands of the north to the ocean, divides New 
Hampshire from what is now Vermont, and Massachusetts and 
Connecticut nearly in the middle. 

It is safe to assume that Great Britain having in mind the 
governmental importance of these great water ways, both in a 
military and a commercial sense, and looking to the great 
natural highways of the Massachusetts colony, and to the Con- 
necticut river as a great inter-colonial highway, concluded that 
next in importance to holding the territory was the strategetic 
and commercial advantage to result from the establishment of 
her boundaries on the head waters of the great rivers, which 
were then looked upon as the only ways or means for shorten- 
ing distance, aiding commerce between the countries, and of 
facilitating military operations in case of war. Great Britain, 
recalling the then recent expedition of Arnold up the Kenne- 
bec, across the highlands that divide the Kennebec from the 
Chaudiere, and down that stream to the St. Lawrence and the 
resultant surprise at Quebec, preferred to hold these positions 
of military menace, and was not easily inclined to accord them 
to the United States. 

Mr. John Fiske in his book on the critical period of Ameri- 
can history, speaking of the controversies under this treaty, 
says: " Franklin's suggestion of a cession of Canada and 
Nova Scotia was abandoned without discussion," and that after 
agreeing where the boundary should go, that Oswald marked 
in red ink the line upon one of Mitchell's maps of North 
America to serve as a memorandum establishing the precise 
meaning of the words used in the description, and that when 



ni ai^-'-^^^^^ht-iii iiMf iff ii it miiMiWMMnnrMMi'inMifi rui 11 1 ' r Tin r in i m i •jiim m i v , Tiriir rr rniiiiiiiiiiiTTnmiiimini 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE AXDR1CH. 375 

it was discovered from later surveys that the language relating 
to the northeastern portion of the boundary contained inaccur- 
acies, it was found that the map used by Oswald was lost. 

I am not able to say with any certainty just when the dispute 
arising upon the Connecticut waters began. It is probable, 
however, that the provision of the treaty describing the north- 
westernmost head of Connecticut river became a subject of dis- 
cussion which rendered the boundary one of uncertainty before 
1S00. The authorities of New Hampshire, with somewhat 
doubtful confidence, claiming Hall stream to be the waters in- 
tended, while the authorities of Canada and Great Britain 
maintained with greater confidence, perhaps, that the main 
river running from what is now known as the third Connecticut 
lake through the second and first lake, and so on until it inter- 
sects the forty-fifth degree of north latitude, was the water called 
for by the treaty. This dispute involved about one twelfth of 
the territory of what is now the county of Coos. 

Emptying into the Connecticut river from the north, at a point 
about midway between the claims of the two parties, was a 
stream known as the Indian Stream, and the disputed tract soon 
became known as the " Indian Stream Territory." 

The American view is supposed to have been based upon the 
fact that the waters of Hall stream were the most north-western 
waters of the Connecticut, while the Canadian and British view 
was that the term north-westernmost should be read in connec- 
tion with the other words which call for the head of the Con- 
necticut river, and that as the waters of the Hall stream were 
not denominated as a river, and as the treaty described a course 
from the head of Connecticut river down its middle to the forty- 
fifth degree of north latitude, that their claim was established. 

A discussion of the reasonableness of the two claims with 
respect to the construction of this part of the treaty would not 
be useful for the reason that this paper is intended to present 
somewhat the history of the Indian Stream affair, rather than 
to demonstrate which position was right as a matter of strict 
and original construction. 

I have not found in such research as I have been able to make 
documentary evidence which establishes with definiteness 
whether the parties using the term " to the north-westernmost 



37^ NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

head of Connecticut river ; thence down along the middle of 
that river to the forty-fifth degree of North latitude " actually 
intended to adopt Hall stream as the river in fact laid upon 
maps before the treaty-making powers of 17S3, or the Connecti- 
cut river having its source in the Third lake, which is further 
north and east than the waters of Hall stream ; nor have I 
found sufficient data from which to trace the growth of the con- 
troversy prior to 1S14. 

It is perhaps sufficient, however, for the purposes of this 
paper to note that the controversy had become so far interna- 
tional, and the true bound so far considered uncertain, 
that, at the close of the War of 1S12, in the treaty known as 
the Treaty of Peace and Amity adopted at Ghent on the 24th 
day of December, 1S14, it was recited in Article 5 that, 
" whereas neither that point of the Highlands lying due north 
from the source of the River St. Croix, and designated in the 
former treaty of peace between the two Powers as the northwest 
angle of Nova Scotia, nor the north-westernmost head of Con- 
necticut River, has yet been ascertained ; and whereas that part 
of the boundary line between the dominions of the two Powers 
which extends from the source of the River St. Croix directly 
north to the above mentioned north-west angle of Nova Scotia, 
thence along the said Highlands which divide those rivers that 
empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence from those which 
fall into the Atlantic Ocean to the north-westernmost head of 
Connecticut River, thence down along the middle of that river 
to the forty-fifth degree of North latitude ; thence by line due 
west on said latitude until it strikes the River Iroquois or Catar- 
aquy, has not yet been surveyed." Following this recital in the 
same article of the treaty, it is provided that commissioners shall 
be appointed for the purpose of ascertaining and making a map 
of the disputed territory, and that the boundaries ascertained 
and indicated thereon, particularizing the latitude and longitude 
of the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, the north-westernmost 
head of Connecticut river, and such other points of the boundary 
as the commissioners may deem proper, shall be considered as 
finally and conclusively fixing the bound. It is not understood, 
however, that any work was done upon the ground by the com- 





















Th e Boundary p 



OST. 






ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 377 

missioners under the treaty of 1814 which threw any light upon 
the dispute as to the head waters of the Connecticut. 

According to Coolidge and Mansfield's brief but excellent 
account of the Indian Stream affair, published in their history 
and description of New Englaud in i860, the settlement in the 
Indian Stream territory began about 18 ro. * 

The disputed territory included broad and fertile acres, and 
the settlement increased rapidly in view of the remoteness of 
the region, many of the settlers being attracted by the broad 
meadows of Indian stream, some, perhaps, by the excitement 
incident to a controversy of this character, others prompted by 
a desire to maintain a boundary believed to be right, and others 
still wishing to avoid the burdens and responsibilities incident 
to regular government. So it may be assumed that this settle- 
ment in 1830 embraced a people possessed of courage, energy, 
and intelligence sufficient to maintain all the rights which to 
them belonged. 

The treaty-making powers, having proclaimed the uncertainty 
and dispute as to the bound upon the Connecticut waters, and 
the governments of the two countries remaining inactive in 
respect to ascertaining and establishing the true line, this frontier 
controversy became locally intense, and when we consider that 
it promoted military occupation of the disputed territory by the 
state of New Hampshire, and subsequent international negotia- 
tions which saved to New Hampshire and the United States 
intact the valuable lakes and upper waters of this great inter- 
state highway, the controversy is not without general interest. 

As the controversy progressed, some were loyal to New 
Hampshire, others tiring of the lame and ineffectual assertion 
of jurisdiction by New Hampshire, favored an independent gov- 
ernment, while others stoutly maintained the Canadian view. 

For their title, they relied mainly on that descending from 
Philip, chief of the St. Francis tribe, who, lingering upon the 
upper waters of the Connecticut in his old age, still insisted 
that all the lands between the Connecticut and the Ammonoo- 
suc, the Peumpelussuck or Dead river, the Androscoggin, 
Umbagog lakes with islands, extending northerly into the St. 
Francis river region, and from thence on waters and carrying 
places to the Connecticut, belonged to him and his people. 



'"MM^tft^fltofiMHria 



37S NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

But yielding to what he believed to be the inevitable, he re- 
leased whatever rights he may have had forever " with the fol- 
lowing conditions and reservations, namely, that I reserve free 
liberty to hunt all sorts of wild game on any of the fore-going 
territories, and taking fish in any of the waters thereof for 
myself, my heirs and sucksesors, and all Indian tribes forever, 
also liberty of planting four bushels of corn and beans ; and 
this my trusty friend Thomas (Thomas Eames of Northumber- 
land) having given me security to furnish me and my squaw 
with provisions and suitable clothing which I have accepted in 
full. I have for myself, and in behalf of all Indians who hunted 
on or inhabited any of the foregoing lands or waters forever, 
quitclaimed and sold as aforesaid to them, the said Thomas, 
John, Jonathan, and Nathan as a good estate in feesimple, 
and do covenant with them that myself and my ancient fathers 
forever and at all times have been in possession of the above 
described premises, and that I have a good right to and will 
warrant and defend," etc. This deed was executed on the 
30th of June, 1796. 

Among the recitals in the early part of the deed is the fol- 
lowing : u Know ye that I, Philip an Indian and native of 
America, now resident in upper Coos and chief thereof," etc. 
It is signed Philip, Indian Chief, by his mark and seal ; by 
Molley Messell, by her mark and seal ; and by Mooseleck Sus- 
sop, by her mark and seal, and was received and recorded in 
the Grafton county registry on the 22d of November, 1796, and 
a copy thereof is published in full in an appendix to the second 
edition of the Rev. Grant Power's historical sketches of the dis- 
covery, settlement, and progress of events in the Coos country. 

With this deed the St. Francis tribe yielded all their rights, 
except the right to plant a little corn and to fish and hunt, a few 
only lingering for that purpose. Metallak, the son of a chief, 
44 the last of his race within our present boundaries, the last 
hunter of the ancient Cooash-aukes," dying at Stewartstown 
about 1S50, where in the little cemetery at West Stewartstown 
his ashes rest apart from his ancestors and the people he loved. 
The story of Metallak is interestingly and touchingly told by 
Col. Henry O. Kent in his paper on the resources, attractions, 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 379 

and traditions of the Coos country published in a recent history 
of Coos county. 

Contrary to the settlement of a similar question in Rhode 
Island, New Hampshire repudiated the Indian title. 

The legislature of 1S24, upon the report of a committee, 
asserted its title to the Indian Stream territory, but protected 
actual bona-fide settlers by what is known as the quieting act, 
which operated to establish the title in the actual settlers with 
certain limitations as to quantity of land claimed, and in 1840 
Chief Justice Parker in Bedel v. Loomis, \\ New Hampshire 
9, 15, affirmed this view as to the title of the state, adopting 
the theory that in absence of subsequent grant that the title 
referred back to the time of the separation of this country from 
Great Britain. 

At an early date some of the settlers in this territory either 
claiming that it belonged to neither country, or that it belonged 
to the Dominion of Canada, resisted the process of the state of 
New Hampshire, and in 1S20 the legislature of New Hamp- 
shire by resolution directed the attorney-general to proceed 
against such parties as resisted her authorities. The destruc- 
tion of the court records of Coos county by a recent fire re- 
moves all authentic and reliable information as to what was 
done under this resolution. But the resolution itself is of his- 
toric importance in this respect, that it signifies clearly the 
intention of New Hampshire to maintain her jurisdiction over 
the territory westerly and northerly to Hall stream. 

The British and American commissioners acting under the 
provisions of the treaty of 1S14, to which I have referred, made 
an attempt in 1S19, by joint action to ascertain and establish the 
boundary between Canada and New Hampshire, but failed to 
agree, the American commissioners insisting upon what was 
known as the Eames survey and Hall stream as the boundary 
intended by the treaty of 17S3, while the British commissioners 
contended for lines according to the British construction. 

In the convention of 1827 all controversies relating to the 
north-eastern boundary which, of course, included the bound- 
ary of Maine, as well as New Hampshire, were referred to the 
king of the Netherlands who adopted "the head of the Con- 
necticut " as the waters intended by the original treaty, the 



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3S0 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

effect of which would throw the disputed territory into Canada. 
This result was, of course, unsatisfactory to New Hampshire, 
and as the award in this respect as well as in respect to the 
Maine boundary was rejected by the United States, the ques- 
tion was left for further controversy. 

It is true that whenever New Hampshire acted she con- 
sistently adhered to Hall's stream as the true boundary line, 
but it must be conceded that her exercise of jurisdiction prior 
to i834-'35 was inefficient and ineffectual, and the people of 
the disputed territory, being subjected to New Hampshire pro- 
cess, and to assertion of jurisdiction and service of process 
from the Canadian side as well, became restless under the 
annoyances and uncertainties resulting from such conditions, 
and determined to organize and establish a government of 
their own. 

It is stated in the history of Coos county, to which I have 
referred, and which was published in 1S8S by W. A. Fergusson 
& Co. of Syracuse, that " it is evident from the names of the 
councillors of Indian Stream that up to this period many of the 
people had only intended to keep a neutral position, and really 
considered themselves under no jurisdiction, save that of their 
own laws until the boundary question should be decided, and 
they allotted to New Hampshire or Canada," and that the gov- 
ernment of Indian Stream " was to prevent disorder and 
anarchy, not to cause it." 

Beyond question this government was designed as a provis- 
ional government, and at its inception was intended to be 
effectual only until such time as the international dispute should 
be settled. 

The original book of records of the Indian Stream govern- 
ment, now in my possession, and which I now pass to the New 
Hampshire Historical Society for safe keeping, describes the 
government and the action of the various branches thereof 
under the constitution of the Indian Stream territory adopted 
July 9, 1832. 

If it should be said after inspection that the form of govern- 
ment closely resembles the federal and state governments, it 
may be said in return that the federal and state governments 
embraced the ideas of government set forth by Aristotle of 






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ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 3S1. 

old, as the essentials of all governments possessing a proper 
division of powers. 

The preamble to the constitution sets forth that "whereas 
we, the inhabitants of the tract of land situated between Hall's 
Stream and the stream issuing from Lake Connecticut being, 
the disputed tract of country near the head of Connecticut 
River which is claimed by the United States and Great Britain 
respectively, and generally known by the name of Indian Stream 
. are deprived of the protection of the laws of any gov- 
ernment but that of our own until such time as the boundary 
line between the two governments shall be established, and the 
time in which that will take place is to us unknown, and 
whereas it is our ardent desire to live in peace, harmony and 
good order and considering that these great and good objects 
cannot be fully enjoyed without some wholesome rules, regu- 
lations, or code of laws, and considering it the unalienable 
right of all people situated as we are wherever in the course of 
Providence their lot is cast and a privilege which they are in 
duty bound to improve to strive by all laudable means to take 
and adopt such measures as shall be best calculated to promote 
peace and good order in society among themselves while in 
their present state, as well as to prepare them for useful citi- 
zens should they hereafter become a constituent part of some 
other government, and whereas it has been the custom of the 
inhabitants of this place to meet from time to time and pass 
such votes and by-laws as they deem necessary for their regula- 
tion and support of order without annexing penalties to enforce 
them, and as the population and improvements have consider- 
ably increased, and considering the great importance of making 
provision for the benefit of the rising generation, of adopting 
and enforcing laws on a more permanent basis for the support 
of schools and other public improvements and maintaining 
and supporting good order in society. And believing the time 
has now arrived when we must as a body politick make and 
enforce laws sufficient to protect and defend the different 
members of the community, and redress grievances, and adjust 
the disputes and controversies, which occasionally arise among 
them, or they will assume the rights of individually redressing 
their own grievances and avenging their own injuries ; . . . 



382 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

We believe that if the different members of society are per- 
mitted to become their own avengers, they would commit 
great injustice and become aggressors, that retaliation would 
produce fresh injuries and call into action the worst passions of 
the heart, which would throw our society into a state of 
anarchy and confusion which would destroy all the peace, 
happiness, and pleasant prospects we have heretofore enjoyed. 
Therefore, we, the inhabitants of Indian Stream Territory 
being assembled in general meeting, and having considered 
our situation and circumstances with all the impartiality and 
candor which we are capable of exercising, feel a full convic- 
tion that under present existing circumstances we cannot apply 
to any government for protection with any probability of 
success. But by the agreement between the United States and 
Great Britain that neither party should exercise jurisdiction 
over the disputed territory we are left to our own resources for 
preserving order in society without any probability of receiv- 
ing any assistance from either government, or any change in 
our circumstances till the boundary line is established. We, 
therefore, believe that while it is unknown to what government 
we owe allegiance, we possess full right, and imperative neces- 
sity requires, that we should adopt some form of government 
which will secure the rights, happiness and prosperity of 
the people who inhabit this territory, and feel confident by so 
doing we shall promote the interest and secure the approbation 
of the government to which we shall eventually belong, — 
Therefore, resolved that to preserve union among ourselves, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for our 
common security and defense, and secure the important bless- 
ings of civilized society, we do ordain and establish this consti- 
tution, and the principles of government therein contained for 
our future guide and direction in forming and enforcing laws 
for the government of the territory of Indian Stream." 

The preamble, which I have recited, establishes with sufficient 
historical certainty that the inertness, if not the suspension of 
the claims of the two countries, rendered some local govern- 
ment necessary, and that individual opinions with respect to the 
dispute between the two governments were wisely subordinated 
for the time being. 



ffigfTfl^^^rWff^^ 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 383 

The purposes of this paper do not justify me in resorting to 
details which relate to the opinions of individuals or factions 
which held and expressed views relating to this dispute. I must, 
therefore, content myself with some general observations upon 
the more prominent events connected with the provisional gov- 
ernment and to the action of the stronger governments pending 
hostilities and the negotiations, which led to peace and the final 
establishment of a boundary which included the Indian Stream 
country within the borders of New Hampshire and the United 
States. 

The constitution to which I have referred was divided into 
two parts ; part 1 being a Bill of Rights, and to the 13th Article 
I wish to call special attention, as it declares the right of inde- 
pendent local government in view of the conditions resulting 
from the inactive and unsettled policies of Great Britain and the 
United States. 

This article declares that u man being originally formed by 
his Creator for society and social intercourse, and for mutually 
aiding, assisting, and defending each other, and promoting 
their welfare and happiness, * * * all societies of men placed 
by circumstances of fortune without the jurisdiction or con- 
trol of any other society or government have a right to unite 
together, and institute such government for the regulation of 
their society as they deem most conducive to the general good, 
and where a large majority of the people so situated unite 
together and establish a government, the minority of right 
ought to submit to the majority and be controlled by them." 

Part 2 of the constitution describes the form of government, 
the supreme legislative power to be vested in a council and as- 
sembly to meet on the 2nd Monday in March of each year, 
and at such other times as the council might judge necessary, 
the legislative power to be k4 styled the General Assembly of 
Indian Stream." It provides for the creation of courts in which 
the couucil should be the high court of error. It provides for 
the encouragement of literature and moral virtue, for the issu- 
ance of writs and other process, and contains all provisions 
necessary for putting the government in operation, as well as a 
provision for altering and amending the constitution, the latter 
provision declaring that "The speaker of the assembly shall, 
21 



384 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

at every annual session when a quorum is present, put the ques- 
tion, is it necessary to alter or amend the constitution, and take 
the vote by yeas and nays by calling the names ot every mem- 
ber." Upon the vote adopting the constitution there were fifty- 
six yeas and three nays. 

It was also voted in the same convention, and after the adop- 
tion of the constitution, that the council draft a set of rules for 
the government of the house when in session. 

The assembly passed an act to establish courts of justice, an 
act to regulate the collection of debts, damages, and fines, an 
act regulating the fees of the sheriff and defining his duties, an 
act to provide for the forming of juries, an act to prevent sell- 
ing spirituous liquors in or near the assembly room, an act to 
exempt certain property from attachment, an act for organizing 
the militia, acts providing for the assessment and collection of 
taxes, acts to support the government, and for making and re- 
pairing highways, an act regulating marriages, an act to prevent 
vexatious suits at law, an act for the punishment of assault, and 
battery, and murder (attaching the death penalty to wilful mur- 
der), an act making provision for confinement of criminals, an 
act authorizing the sheriff to appoint deputies, an act to pro- 
vide for laying out and discontinuing public roads or highways. 

The government entered in negotiations with Maine authori- 
ties upon the subject of a contemplated road designed to open 
communications between the Indian Stream country and the 
state of Maine. 

Among the last acts recorded is an act to prevent unlawful 
service of process, an act for the punishment of perjury, an act 
for the protection of officers in their official duties, an act to 
compel witnesses to attend when summoned, and the last re- 
corded, which was passed on the 18th of April, 1835, provides 
for the extradition of persons charged with crime and escaping 
from other governments. 

All functions of this government, so formed and put in opera- 
tion, were quite vigorously exercised, and for nearly three years 
the Indian Stream government, unique in circumstance and 
democratic in form, was altogether quite potential. 

It would seem that in the latter part of '34 and the early part 
of '35 New Hampshire began to show a more vigorous activity 



iiTrtiiiitiInimiiBmr'-- jai *' IBMM,MM 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 385 

in the assertion of her jurisdiction than theretofore; and while 
the United States and Great Britain both claimed the territory, 
it is apparent that such powers were content with so shaping 
their policies as not to waive their rights, and not to precipitate 
active hostilities. It is also apparent that New Hampshire, 
maintaining more vigorously than the general government the 
American view, was still disposed, while negotiations were 
pending between the greater powers, to proceed cautiously, and 
content herself with declaratory acts, setting forth her unrc::.;- 
takable purpose of an ultimate vigorous insistance upon her right 
to exercise jurisdiction over this territory. 

During the decade prior to 1834, a Canadian magistrate, im- 
pressing his importance upon the Canadian settlers on the fron- 
tier, and insinuating his influence among the settlers of the 
disputed territory, was the cause of much annoyance to the 
inhabitants of these localities, the government of New Hamp- 
shire, the government of the United States, the general govern- 
ment of Lower Canada, and the government of Great Britain 
as well. 

As a result of the disturbed and irritated conditions caused 
by the encroachments of this magistrate, the government 
of New Hampshire during the administration of Governor 
Badger, under the advice of George Sullivan as attorney-general, 
became more vigorous, and under the direction of John H. White 
sheriff of Coos county, the state asserted its jurisdiction by the 
service of process upon the inhabitants within this territory. 

The government of Indian Stream having been rendered 
necessary by the failure of the contending powers to establish 
an effectual government, and having been established, it became 
the purpose of the inhabitants to stoutly exercise the right of 
self-government until the jurisdictional question should be 
definitely and finally determined. 

Prompted by such purpose, the assembly passed an act on the 
iSth of April, 1S35, reciting in substance that process was being 
served by persons claiming to be officers, who were not such 
under the constitution and laws of Indian Stream, and provid- 
ing for their arrest and punishment. 

Prior to this action, however, on the part of the assembly, 
and on the second day of September, 1834, a council of the 



386 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Indian Stream territory, being influenced unquestionably some- 
what by a growing theory that this territory, if within the 
United States, was not in New Hampshire, and therefore a ter- 
ritory of the United States (a theory which is more fully shown 
by the opinion of Chief Justice Parker in Bedel v. Loomis, 11 
N. H. 9, 15) memorialized the attorney-general of the United 
States on the subject. 

Mr. Remick, chief clerk of the state department at Wash- 
ington, writes that this document cannot be found. The reply 
of the attorney-general, Mr. Forsyth, however, unquestionably 
recites the ground of the memorial, which was that the council 
considered themselves " if within the jurisdiction of the United 
States as under that of the general government and not of New 
Hampshire." Mr. Forsyth was a Georgian, and his conclu- 
sion upon the subject was stated in the following epigramatic 
sentence : " If you are within the limits of the United States, 
as has always been maintained by this government, it is because 
you are within the limits of the state of New Hampshire." 

On the day that this memorial was sent to the attorney-gen- 
eral of the United States, the same committee addressed a 
communication to John H. White, sheriff of the county of 
Coos, in which they asked him to suspend the exercise of juris- 
diction within this territory " until such time as we can obtain 
an answer from the United States government whether the 
boundary line has been settled and affixed between the United 
States and Great Britain, and if so. if we are considered to 
belong to New Hampshire." They also informed the sheriff 
that they had sent a communication to the general government 
on the subject saying, tk we have taken this method to secure the 
rights and calm the irritated feelings of the people which are 
daily increasing, considering that New Hampshire has no legal 
right to claim jurisdiction over this place and enforce her laws 
upon us, if in answer we should be informed otherwise, we as 
loyal subjects shall quietly and peaceably submit to her lawsand 
authority . . . we are anxious to take every precautionary 
measure in our power now, and shall continue so to do to pre- 
vent the effusion of blood." 

A copy of a letter in the office of the secretary of state at 
Concord, which is without date, (but the report of the judiciary 



il MrM ^ Mai fr ja fl g^ 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 387 

committee to whom was referred the special message of the 
governor at the June session, 1835, shows that it was subse- 
quent to the communication to Mr. Forsyth,) signed by another 
committee of Indian Stream and addressed " To His Excel- 
lency the Governor of the Province of Lower Canada," sets 
forth that the territory on which the settlement is located " has 
been, and still is claimed by the government of the United 
States and that of Great Britain, that we have until a few days 
since been permitted by said governments to enjoy ourselves as 
a neutral nation or people and govern ourselves by our own 
laws, but that a few days since invasions have been made upon 
our rights by the slierifF of New Hampshire, by his Deputy, 
William Smith of the County of Coos in said state, by exercis- 
ing his authority over this territory as being a part and belong- 
ing to said state . . . and it is said that the government of 
said state has directed him so to do, all which doing we are 
fully of opinion is without any lawful authority, and a viola- 
tion upon our rights and contrary to treaty between said gov- 
ernments, and whereas said inhabitants are unable to defend 
ourselves against said state, we, the undersigned, in behalf of 
said inhabitants, pray your Excellency to take our case under 
your wise consideration, and grant us such relief as you in your 
wisdom shall judge proper and just, for we expect new invasions." 

A letter dated September iS, 1S34, ^ rom W. M. Richardson, 
then chief-justice of New Hampshire, addressed to John H. 
White, Esq., who was sheriff of Coos county, a copy of which 
is now in the office of the secretary of state at Concord, sets 
forth " that a question of boundary between the territories of 
nations is purely a political question to be settled by treaty, 
and does not belong to the courts of either nation." He says 
further, in the same communication, k4 what the views of the 
government of this state now are I am not advised. It will be 
the duty of courts to enforce the laws co-extensively with the 
territory which the state claims. Perhaps your wisest and 
safest course will be to take the advice of the executive and 
follow that. I trust nothing will be done that may lead to 
violence and bloodshed." 

Mr. White, on the 17th of January, 1S35, addressed a com- 
munication to the council of Indian Stream in reply to their 



388 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

communication of the 2d of September, 1834, to which I have 
referred, in which he sets forth that he has consulted the chief- 
justice of the superior court and the executive of the state, and 
transmits a letter from George Sullivan, attorney-general, to 
the governor who had taken his advice. This communication 
with the opinion of the attorney-general, made known the pur- 
pose of New Hampshire to exercise with vigor and aggressive- 
ness her government to the bound claimed by the United States. 

About this time factions were developed which favored the 
Canadian view, others which favored the New Hampshire 
claim as to jurisdiction, others the idea of a United States terri- 
tory, and others, probably constituting a majority, maintaining 
and contending that they should " abide by and support our 
constitution and laws," — the constitution and laws of the Indian 
Stream territory, " agreeably to our oaths until known to what 
government we properly belong when our constitution is at an 
end." 

About this time, the Canadians, under the lead of the magis- 
trate to whom I have referred, became more aggressive, advo- 
cated resistance to New Hampshire laws, promised help from 
Canada, and made efforts to serve process within the territory 
and what the Canadians claimed to be the township of Drayton, 
and preparations were made for the organization of battalions 
on the Canadian side of the frontier. 

Such conditions, together with the act of April 18, 1835, to 
which I nave referred, and which related to the service of pro- 
cess by outside authorities, and the attempt to enforce laws for 
the punishment of perjury, and for the forfeiture of citizenship 
within this territory on the ground of treason, prompted atti- 
tudes of belligerency and created such conditions of excitement 
and insecurity as to occasion a special message from Governor 
Badger to the legislature at the June session, 1S35 ; and after 
an investigation and a report from the judiciary committee to 
whom the message was referred, the legislature adopted a res- 
olution declaring "that the state of New Hampshire should 
continue the possession of the Indian Stream territory, and 
maintain the jurisdiction of the state over the same, until the 
question of boundaries now in dispute between the United 
States and Great Britain affecting the limits of said territory 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 389 

shall be finally settled ; and His Excellency the Governor be 
requested to render all necessary aid to the executive officers of 
the county of Coos in causing the laws of said state to be duly 
executed within the limits of said territory." It was further re- 
solved at the same time that " it is inexpedient for the state dur- 
ing the pendency of the controversy in relation to said boundaries 
to make any disposition of the interests of the state in the land of 
said Indian Stream Territory." 

Following this resolution Governor Badger as commander-in- 
chief of the New Hampshire forces, through Adjutant-General 
Joseph Low, issued an order upon Ira Young as colonel of the 
Twenty-fourth regiment, which caused Captain James Mooney 
to rendezvous with his company at Stewartstown " for the pur- 
pose of rendering to John H. White Esquire, Sheriff of said 
county, such assistance as might be necessary to enable him to 
serve process in Indian Stream Territory." The company 
encamped at Stewartstown from the fourth to the sixth of Aug- 
ust, 1835. It later became necessary to occupy the territory of 
Indian Stream by military force, and a detachment of the 
Twenty-fourth regiment, consisting of Captain Mooney's com- 
pany, was ordered into the territory in November, 1835. The 
instruction of Governor Badger to General Low being 4 ' to 
take such steps as might be found necessary to maintain the 
integrity of the state and its laws, and if necessary to call out 
so much of the Twenty-fourth regiment as will enable the 
executive officers of the county of Coos to execute the laws and 
suppress and put down all insurrectionary movements. " 

Accordingly General Low ordered Col. Ira Young to 
44 detach and order into service, and place at the disposal of 
John H. White, Esquire, Sheriff of the County of Coos, one 
captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, four sergeants, two musi- 
cians, and forty-two privates, for three months unless sooner 
discharged." 

Between the time of the rendezvous of Captain Mooney's 
company at Stewartstown in August and its subsequent occu- 
pation of Indian Stream territory, there were Canadian en- 
croachments, which aroused not only the inhabitants of Indian 
Stream, but of all the towns of the northern part of the state. 

This paper is not the place for details, but as the episode had 



390 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the effect to prompt international investigation and accelerate 
negotiations which speedily ascertained and established the 
jurisdictional line, it becomes historically important, and I 
must refer to it briefly and leave those who are interested to 
pursue inquiries with reference to this affair to detailed accounts 
in the history of Coos county, to which I have referred, and to 
the evidence and the report presented to the legislature in 1836 
by a committee consisting of Joseph Low, Ralph Metcalf, and 
John P. Hale. - 

The story in brief is as follows : In October, 1835, tne execu ~ 
tive officers of New Hampshire having in custody an inhabitant 
of Indian Stream territory were forcibly resisted and the pris- 
oner rescued, escaping into Canada. During the same month an 
armed body from the Canadian side came into the Indian Stream 
territory executing a warrant upon an inhabitant of Indian 
Stream who had rendered aid to the executive officer ot New 
Hampshire in respect to the prisoner to whom I have just 
referred. When asked by what authority they acted, they 
answered, " the king's." The inhabitant against whom the 
warrant was directed was taken into custody, and while the 
Canadian party were proceeding to the place where the war- 
rant was returnable, was in turn rescued by a mounted body of 
Americans. 

News of this Canadian encroachment spread rapidly, and 
within a few hours there were assembled on the frontier 
between two and three hundred mounted men, from the towns 
of Colebrook, Stewartstovvn, Clarksville, and the Indian Stream 
territory, embracing a portion of Captain Mooney's company. 

Acting under the excitement and impulse of the occasion, 
some of the more aggressive, who were not members of the New 
Hampshire militia, organized a mounted party, and proceed- 
ing, I suppose, on the ground of the right of recapture, in- 
vaded the king's dominion for the avowed purpose of recaptur- 
ing the party who had early in the month been wrested from 
the New Hampshire authorities. 

This raid resulted not only in recapture, but in making pris- 
oner of the Canadian magistrate, who violently resisted the 
recapture,, and attempted to make prisoners of the raiding 
party. The magistrate, after being brought from the Canadian 







3 1 


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1 




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Daniel Webster. 









immtiMtt^i^-Jii 



Isaac Hill. 



Jonx I'. Hale 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 39I 

dominion into Vermont, was finally released and allowed to 
return. 

Military occupancy of the Indian Stream territory during a 
part of the years i835~'36 was for the ostensible purpose and 
upon the avowed necessity of aiding the civil authorities of 
New Hampshire, but it is to be presumed that the underlying 
purpose was broad enough to resist any organized military 
torce from the Canadian side. 

However this may be, this show of military power in con- 
nection with the invasions and recapture, to which I have 
-alluded, precipitated an emphatic complaint and protest from 
Lord Gusford, captain general and governor of Lower Canada, 
issued from the c?stle of St. Louis, Quebec, in February, 
1836, to Charles Bankhead, Esq., His Britannic Majesty's 
Charge d'Affaires, at Washington, nr which he says, "It has 
become my duty to communicate to you the details of an out- 
rage of a very grave character which has recently been com- 
mitted within the undoubted limits of this province by an 
armed* body, consisting principally of citizens of New Hamp- 
shire, on two of His Majesty's subjects — one a Justice of the 
Peace, and the other a peace officer, while in the execution of 
their official duties. And I have to request that you will take 
such steps as you may judge advisable to obtain immediate 
redress from the Justice of the central government of the 
United States for this infraction of the Law of Nations, 
accompanied by acts endangering the lives and violating the 
liberties of His Majesty's Canadian subjects." He also trans- 
mits the report of a Canadian commission consisting of Ed- 
ward Short, I. McKensie, and Benjamin Pomroy. This com- 
mission was created for the purpose of investigating and 
reporting the condition of affairs in the disputed territory, and is 
dated from Lenoxville the 1st of January, 1S36, and among other 
things sets forth " that the territory is now in the possession of 
a body of New Hampshire militia consisting of fifty men 
under the immediate orders of the same James Mooney who 
was conspicuous in the affray at Hereford, that in our progress 
thro' the Indian Stream settlement in the prosecution of our 
inquiry, we were stopped on the highway near the house of one 
Fletcher by a military guard composing a part of the force 



392 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

above mentioned, who at the point of the bayonet commanded 
us to stand and would not permit us to pass, altho' made 
aware of the authority under which we were acting." 

After an interesting correspondence between Secretary For- 
syth and Isaac Hill, then senator from New Hampshire, in 
which Mr. Hill maintains the New Hampshire claim, and 
indicates that the discontent and the disturbance was the result 
of a course pursued by the Canadian government calculated to 
encourage malcontents, the correspondence was forwarded to 
Governor Badger by Mr. Forsyth, secretary of state. 

The dispatches between the two general governments were 
at all times dignified and conservative. That which I have 
been able to examine begins with Lord Aylmer in April, 1835. 
Lord Aylmer, who was then governor-in-chief of Canada, in 
a dispatch to Sir Charles R. Vaughan, His Majesty's minister 
at Washington, recites an instance of the exercise of judicial 
authority on the part of the state of New Hampshire within 
the limits of the provisional government of Indian Stream and 
sets forth that such action " cannot be acquiesced in without 
prejudice to the pretentions of Great Britain to the possession 
of the territory of the Indian Stream as a portion of the province 
of Lower Canada," and says : " From the commencement of 
my administration I have considered it a very essential part of 
my .duty as Governor-in-Chief of his Majesty's North Ameri- 
can possessions, to cultivate the good will of the neighboring 
states of the American union being assured that, in so doing I 
have been acting in accordance with the well-known friendly 
disposition of His Majesty's government towards the United 
States." 

A communication from Adjutant-General Low to Colonel 
White, sheriff of the county of Coos, under date of January 
29, 1836, sets forth that the authorities of New Hampshire are 
advised " that the British government will not interfere with 
our jurisdiction at Indian Stream until the question of bound- 
aries shall have been settled by proper authorities," and that he 
is directed by the governor to ask the opinion of Sheriff White 
and Solicitor Williams as to the necessity of continuing mili- 
tary occupancy of the Indian Stream territory. 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 393 

Peace and quiet having been restored, withdrawal of the 
troops soon followed. 

At the June session, 1836, the New Hampshire legislature 
again resolved U that the state of New Hampshire should con- 
tinue the possession of the Indian Stream Territory and main- 
tain the jurisdiction of this state over the same until the question 
of boundaries now in dispute between the United States and 
Great Britain affecting the limits of said territory shall be 
finally settled." The governor is again requested to render all 
necessary aid to the executive officers of the county of Coos in 
causing the laws of the state to be duly executed within the 
limits of said territory. The governor is also ct authorized to 
appoint commissioners to repair to Indian Stream and collect 
and arrange such testimony as may be obtained to rebut and 
explain the charges and testimony obtained and preferred 
against the citizens of this state by Lord Gosford, Governor of 
the province of Lower Canada." Under this resolution the 
committee consisting of Low, Metcalf, and Hale, to which I 
have referred, was appointed for such purpose. 

The depositions were taken before Mr. Hale and Col. Ira 
Young, and the evidence there gathered and preserved by this 
committee in connection with its report, sets forth in detail the 
heroic and courageous action of the people of northern Coos 
in the maintenance of what to them seemed right. 

With the assurance of the British government through the 
proper channels that no further interference with the jurisdic- 
tion of New Hampshire over the Indian Stream territory 
should take place, local and military hostilities ceased, and 
peace was restored. 

Forsyth, Hill, Badger, Sullivan, Low, and White were all 
men of courage and determination, and well calculated to 
maintain the, rights and establish the authority of the nation 
and state to such a bound as they were entitled to go. 

At about this period the work of negotiation with respect to 
the establishment of boundaries between the United States, 
Great Britain, and other countries was pushed more vigor- 
ously, and being only partially closed by Webster was contin- 
ued by Calhoun ; that part with which we are now dealing, 
however, being definitely and finally settled by article 1 of the 



394 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

treaty of 1842, executed at Washington by Webster and Ash- 
burton, wherein after defining the northeastern boundary of 
Maine, and coming to the source of the southwest branch of 
the St. John in the Highlands at the Metjarmette portage, it is 
provided that the boundary shall go " thence down along the 
said Highlands, which divide the waters which empty them- 
selves into the River St. Lawrence from those which fall into 
the Atlantic Ocean to the head of Hall Stream ; thence down 
the middle of said stream till the line thus run intersects the 
old line of boundary surveyed and marked by Valentine and 
Collins, previously to the year 1 774, as the forty-fifth degree of 
North Latitude," thus giving to New Hampshire all the terri- 
tory which she claimed. 

According to an article published in Volume II of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society Collections, written in 1827 
from Portsmouth, wherein the writer sets forth from recollec- 
tion the arguments made by the two countries, which he 
perused through the politeness of the secretary of the English 
council ; the claim of England was that the Maine branch of 
the river issuing from Lake Connecticut must be deemed the 
fct north-westernmost head of Connecticut river," because the 
other streams did not bear the name of u Connecticut," but 
distinct names ; while on the contrary, it was shown by the 
United States that this is the case with almost all rivers having 
different heads, and that this "head" coming from the lake 
can hardly be said to spring from the u Highlands," and would 
have been designated for a boundary by the name of the main 
branch if one more northwest had not been intended as the 
boundary. According to the same authority the British next 
contended for Indian Stream as the northwesternmost head, 
while on the other hand it was argued that Leach stream is 
farther west, etc., and that the treaty does not say the most 
northerly head, the main head, or the northwest head, but the 
northwesternmost head. 

It must also be said in the same connection that the survey- 
ors of New York and Canada, in 1772, passed by Hall stream 
on the forty-fifth degree of north latitude to the main branch of 
the river. New Hampshire did not take part in this survey, 
however. 




Gov. William Badger. 





I 
J 



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0^\ 



-■•---?. 

I 



V 4 /,- 






Gov. Jaked \V. Williams. 



Capt. James Moon e v. 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 



395 



It must also be recalled that as late as 1835, Sir Charles R. 
Vaughn, then Great Britain's envoy extraordinary, in a com- 
munication to Forsyth, the American secretary of state, sets 
forth M that the British government contends that the north- 
westernmost head of the Connecticut river ought to be estab- 
lished at the source of a stream which flows into a lake above 
the Connecticut lake." 

It may be safely assumed, that Mr. Webster, a native of 
New Hampshire, loving her people, and knowing and loving 
her rivers, lakes, and hills, looking at this great highway, hav- 
ing its source in her highlands, flowing and broadening through 
the valleys of the state of his adoption, prompted by love for 
his native state and his view of the national importance of this 
great river in a commercial and military sense, brought to the 
support of New Hampshire's claim and the contention of the 
federal government all his energy, and all the power of his 
persuasive eloquence. 

The territory in dispute embraced something like 200,000 
acres, and at the time the provisional government of Indian 
Stream was formed, there were between ninety and a hundred 
voters, and a population of three or four hundred. 

At this time the people of the settlement understood that the 
treaty-making powers had at least tacitly agreed that neither 
should exercise jurisdiction pending treaty negotiations. 

Occupation of the territory by military force did not bring 
on a conflict between the regular organizations, but unques- 
tionably the presence of military force quieted the disturbed 
conditions within the territory, and caused the local, civil, and 
military authorities of Canada to stand off, and therefore had 
the effect to avoid conflicts and bloodshed which otherwise 
would have taken place between the frontier settlements. 

The legislature of New Hampshire promptly and at the 
November session, 1S36, passed a resolution setting forth that 
the military and other expenses incurred by the government 
of New Hampshire in protecting its citizens from unlawful 
attempts on the part of the authorities of the province of lower 
Canada to possess and exercise jurisdiction over Indian Stream 
territory, were proper charges against the government of the 



396 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

United States as such resistance was made necessary u in con- 
sequence" of the foreign interference with such territory. 

The expenses attending this campaign were finally assumed 
by the general government upon the ground that as it related 
to a bound between the United States and a foreign country, it 
in effect involved an international dispute, and the state was 
reimbursed through special acts of congress in 1849 an< ^ i ^5 2 * 

So far as actual maintenance of jurisdiction was concerned, 
the burden for a long time rested upon New Hampshire, the 
federal custom officials confusing the conditions and rendering 
the situation more uncertain for a time, by exacting duties from 
the people of the Indian Stream territory, who brought their 
products into Vermont and New Hampshire. 

The assertions and administrative acts of New Hampshire, 
as has been stated, were, prior to 1S34, lacking in force and 
vigor, and on the whole, the condition of affairs in this terri- 
tory resulting from the inertia of- the two governments would 
seem to justify the establishment and maintenance of the pro- 
visional government of Indian Stream. Its form and provi- 
sions show that the people possessed wisdom and were inspired 
by principles of morality. The subsequent conflicts are suffi- 
cient evidence of their metal and courage. The only official 
stain upon the local government results from the application to 
the Canadian powers for protection against New Hampshire, 
but viewed in the light of the preamble to their constitution, 
and the communications to the various powers, this should be 
accepted, perhaps, as a diplomatic effort on the part of the peo- 
ple to secure aid necessary to sustain themselves in a position 
of neutrality pending treaty negotiations, in order that they 
might the more naturally and gracefully adjust themselves to 
the government under whose jurisdiction they should finally 
fall. 

Whatever may have been the views of individuals or factions 
during the unsettled and disturbed periods, when the jurisdic- 
tional line was finally established, all became loyal to their 
state and country, this territory furnishing more soldiers to the 
Civil War, according to her population, than any other in New 
Hampshire save one. And there were none more brave. 
The boundary conflict is no more. Peace and prosperity 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 397 

reign in the valleys of the upper Connecticut. Only a few of 
tire strong and brave actors in this affair remain. The great 
majority have been removed from the stage of action, some 
sleeping among other scenes, many having their final resting- 
place among the hills and in the valleys they loved so well. 



Appendix. 

I first wish to express my appreciation of the courtesies 
extended to me by the Honorable William B. Ives, president 
of the council of the Canadian government at Ottawa, and to 
the Honorable John Costigan, secretary of state, Canada, who 
have kindly furnished copies of such papers as I have needed 
from Canadian Archives, in the prosecution of this work. 

The Honorable Joseph B. Walker of the Historical society 
requests that I refer to documents and histories connected with 
the affair to which I have directed attention in the foregoing 
paper. Consequently, I refer (not as including all) to the fol- 
lowing treaties, official correspondence, messages, reports, his- 
tories, etc., some bearing directly, others remotely, upon the 
subject : 

Treaty of 17S3, Art. 2. Treaty of 1814, Art. V. Treaty of 
1842, Art. 1. 

Correspondence between the governors of Lower Canada 
and the British ministers at Washington and Mr. Forsyth, par- 
tial copies of which with other papers are in the secretary of 
state's office at Concord, marked '* Papers relating to Indian 
Stream, 1S34-5-6." 

Other copies of Canadian and Federal official correspond- 
ence, which I pass to the New Hampshire Historical Society. 

Correspondence between Governor Badger and the attorney- 
general of the United States, and between the governor and the 
attorney-general of New Hampshire, a part of which is in the 
secretary of state's office at Concord. 

A paper on the Northern Boundary, written from Ports- 
mouth, April 20, 1S27, to which I have heretofore referred. 

The Critical Period of American History, by John Fiske, 
1891. 

Book of Indian Stream Records, now in the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society collection. 

History and Description of New England, by A. J. Coolidge 
and J. B. Mansfield, i860. 390. 

New Hampshire Patriot, 1820 to 1S38. 

Military History of New Hampshire, by Chandler E. Potter, 



398 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

published in Adjutant-General's Report, New Hampshire, 
1868, 12, 269. 

Garneau's History of Canada, 1862. 

The Northeastern Boundary, by* Honorable Israel Wash- 
burn, Jr., LL. D., Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 
Vol. 8, p. 1. 

Thirty Years in the United States Senate, by Thomas H. 
Benton, Vol. 2, 420-445. 

Judge William L. Putnam of the United States Circuit 
Court has a valuable collection of documents relating to the 
north-eastern boundary, among which is a volume consisting 
of documents and papers, principally extracted from the state- 
ments laid before the King of the Netherlands, revised by 
Albert Gallatin, with an appendix and eight maps. Another 
volume of documents relating to the north-eastern boundary of 
the state of Maine, printed by Dutton & Wentworth, Boston, 
printers to the state of Maine in 1828. Another, consisting of 
the governor's message and documents on the subject of the 
doings of the arbiter (King of the Netherlands) w T ith a report 
of the committee of the legislature in relation to the north-east- 
ern boundary of Maine, printed by Todd & Holden, printers to 
the state in 1831. The maps in the appendix to Gallatin's vol- 
ume strongly sustain the American view, both as to the High- 
lands between the St. Lawrence and the St. John as the 
boundary of Maine, and as to Hall stream as the northerly 
bound of New Hampshire. 

Address by Honorable Sidney Webster before the Grafton 
and Coos Bar Association in 1892, on Franklin Pierce and the 
Reciprocity Treaty of 1S54, Bar Publications, Vol. 2. 

History of Coos County, Fergusson, 1888, 95, 696—720. 

Grant Power's History of the Coos Country, 2d edition pub- 
lished 1880. Old edition, 1 841. 

Report of Legislative Committee and Resolution, November 
session, and Act approved December 22, 1824. 

Resolution of the Legislature approved June 18, 1836, creat- 
ing a Committee of Investigation. 

The Report and Evidence filed by Joseph Low, Ralph Met- 
calf, and John P. Hale, November 23, 1836, a copy of which 
is now with Richard Fletcher, Esq., Lancaster, bound in Vol. 
13 Pamphleteer, such volume being a collection of interesting 
documents made by Hiram A. Fletcher, Esq. This report is 
published in the Journal of the Legislature, 1836, p. 397, but 
it does not contain the evidence taken by Mr. Hale as does 
Fletcher's collection in his Vol. 13 of the Pamphleteer. 

Another copy with Mary Bedel Drew, daughter of Col. 



ADDRESS OF JUDGE ALDRICH. 399 

Hazen Bedel and grand-daughter of Lyman Lombard, a mem- 
ber of Corresponding Committee to the Governor. 

Report of Glines, Land Agent, Journal of the House, June 
session, p. 297. 

Report of James W. Weeks, Surveyor. Appendix to Jour- 
nal, June session, 1849, p. 600. 

Report of John Flanders and David Blanchard, Agents, 
Id. 596. 

Plan of Pittsburg prepared and filed in the Secretary of State's 
office by Honorable James W. Weeks June 15, 1S49. 

Governor Badger's Special Message to the Legislature, 1835. 
House Journal, p. 33. 

Report of Judiciary Committee, appendix, Journal 1835. 

Any one interested in the history of this affair should examine 
carefully the Journals of the House and Senate from 1800 to 
1850 (as I do not undertake to refer to them all), and for this 
purpose it would be well to refer to Aiken's index under the 
head of " Indian Stream " and u Pittsburg." It would be well, 
also, to look for the Governor Badger papers among his de- 
scendants, as well as the papers of General Low, Colonel 
Young, and Sheriff White. Honorable James W. Weeks, of 
Lancaster, and David Blanchard, Esq., of Pittsburg, have per- 
sonal knowledge of the Indian Stream affair, and have made 
valuable collections of papers. 

Unfortunately, there are few, if any, papers or records in the 
office of the adjutant-general, where one would naturally expect 
to find a full account of the military operations. The late Amos 
W. Drew, of Stewartstown, was ensign of Captain Mooney's 
company. His record book of the company is now in the pos- 
session of his son, Hon. Irving W. Drew, of Lancaster. It is 
to be hoped that the Historical Society will obtain and preserve 
this. I should also examine the records of the state treasury 
department for evidence of the financial transactions between 
the state and federal governments. 

The northern boundary was by actual survey ascertained 
under the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, and marked by iron posts 
inscribed as follows : 

On Easterly side — " Boundary Aug 8t 9th, 1842." 
On Westerly side — 4k Treaty of Washington." 
On Northerly side— " Col. I. B. B. Estcourt, H. B. M. 
Com"'." 

On Southerly side— "Albert Smith, U. S. Com""." 
22 



400 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On motion of Hon. J. B. Walker, a vote of thanks was pre- 
sented to Judge Aldrich, for his very able and exhaustive 
address; and a copy of the same requested, for publication in 
the proceedings of the society. 

Voted, To adjourn, to the call of the President. 

John C. Ordway. 

Recording Secretary. 



SECOND ADJOURNED SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL 
MEETING AND FIELD-DAY. 

Franklin, N. H., October 4, 1894. 

The second adjourned seventy-second annual meeting and 
field day of the New Hampshire Historical Society, was held 
at Franklin, October 4, 1894, a large number being in atten- 
dance. Upon arrival at the railroad station, carriages were in 
readiness to take the party to places of historic interest. The 
first point was the birthplace of Daniel Webster, New Hamp- 
shire's greatest son ; and after an hour's ride the party reached 
the memorable spot, and visited the room in which the famous 
lawyer, orator, and statesman first opened his eyes to the light 
of day, as established by indisputable evidence, by Dr. J. J. 
Dearborn, the historian of Salisbury, who was present and 
gave the company much interesting information. 

The party were next driven to the Webster farm, whither the 
family moved while Daniel was quite young. It is now the 
site of the New Hampshire Orphans' Home, where at present 
nearly one hundred children are kindly cared for. The com- 
pany were courteously received by Rev. James Noyes, the 
superintendent, and his wife, the matron, who conducted them 
through the Home, and gave them the opportunity to become 
eye witnesses of its internal arrangement and management, 
beyond mistake convincing them of the good work it is doing, 
and the worthiness of its appeals to public charity. 



SECOND ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 4OI 

The party were next driven to the town hall, Franklin Falls, 
where an ample collation was served, through the kindly fore- 
thought and generosity of Honorables Warren S. Daniell and 
Alvah W. Sulloway, by Mrs. and Miss Daniell, Mrs. Sulloway, 
and an efficient corps of assistants ; after which the party 
repaired to the public hall, where the business meeting of the 
society was held, and after-dinner speeches made, Hon. Amos 
Hadley, the president of the society, in the chair. 

In the absence of the secretary, Rev. N. F. Carter was chosen 
secretary pro tern. 

The report of the committee on new members was presented 
by Charles L. Tappan ; and after its acceptance, the following 
gentlemen were unanimously elected : 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Captain William Lithgow Willey, 17 W. Cedar street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; Colonel Adolphus Skinner Hubbard, 819 Market 
street, San Francisco, Cal. ; Captain Henry Hobart Bellas, 
U. S. A., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

President Charles S. Murkland, Durham ; Captain James 
Miller, U. S. A., Concord ; Miss Jane Elizabeth Hoyt, M. D., 
Concord ; Mrs. Mary Whittemore Eastman, Concord. 

Hon. L. D. Stevens introduced the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the grateful and cordial thanks of the New- 
Hampshire Historical Society are tendered Messrs. Daniell, 
Sulloway, and other citizens, and ladies of Franklin, for the 
kind, gracious, and generous manner with which its visiting 
members have been received and entertained. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted by a rising vote. 

Hon. \V. F. Daniell made response, regretting that, through 
neglect of the local comm»ttee of arrangements, no invitation 
had been given to the citizens of Franklin, who, in response to 
such invitation, would have filled the hall. 

Hon. Amos Hadley, Ph. D., gave a brief Historical Sketch 
of Franklin. He spoke as follows : 



402 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



President Hadley's Address. 

Pranklin, as a distinct municipality, is not old ; having come 
into being as such only 66 years ago. Its territory is a mosaic 
of four pieces, clipped from as many older towns, and veined 
by three rivers, about whose confluence the parts harmoniously 
adjust themselves. Fair and fortunate is Franklin for situation, 
where the Pemigewasset and the Winnipiseogee become one, 
and the Merrimack is born. 

While the propitious wedding of the bright son of the moun- 
tain with the fair daughter of the lake is a fit theme for poesy, 
it also has an interesting connection with the history of Franklin 
and of our state. For, in the year 163S, the colony of Massa- 
chusetts, claiming her northern boundary along a line three 
miles to the northward of the Merrimack, and " any and every 
point thereof," sent a committee " to discover the running of 
the" river. The committee decided the head of the Merrimack 
to be at its " forks," or the point of union of the Pemigewasset 
and Winnipiseogee rivers, — a very natural conclusion, — and 
then journeying on three miles further north, marked a great 
pine tree, to indicate the northern boundary line of the colony. 
The pine was called " Endicott's Tree." But it lost its signifi- 
cance as a boundary mark, when, fourteen years later " Endicott 
Rock," at the head of the Winnipiseogee confluent, was traced 
with historic initials, to denote the head of the Merrimack, while 
incidentally signifying the widening ambition of the Bay col- 
ony. That official visit in the summer or autumn of 163S, was 
probably the first visit of any kind made by civilized man within 
the territory of the present Franklin. 

Little intimation did its deep, dark woods then give those vis- 
itants, that 190 years later, a chartered town would there stand, 
upon whose 9,000 acres, and along whose rapid waterfall, ener- 
getic enterprise, skillful and enlightened endeavor, and virtuous 
doing should achieve their high commensurate success ; — should 
build up a Franklin to be a garden of agricultural prosperity, 
a very palace of mechanical and manufacturing industry, and 
the home of intellectual, moral, social, and religious enjoyment. 

With the contributions of territory made by Andover, Salis- 



PRESIDENT HADLEYS ADDRESS. 403 

bury, Northfield, and Sanbornton, to the Franklin mosaic, went 
some of the history of the older townships. The territory, 
Franklin may hold in exclusive right ; the history, she must 
share in moiety with former possessors. This transfer of his- 
tory with transfer of soil finds special illustration in the case of 
Salisbury, whose eastern extremity, lying along the Merrimack 
and Pemigewasset, fell to the domain of Franklin. 

It was in the year 174S, that the first permanent settlement 
was effected in Stevenstown, or Salisbury. Then it was that 
Philip Call, a brave pioneer, who had been much on scouting 
service in these parts during the Indian war just closing, took 
up his abode within the limits of the township near by " Salis- 
bury fort," and the Merrimack. There he dwelt with his wife 
and son, near the locality that should, in later days, become the 
" Webster place," and the site of that blessed charity — the Or- 
phans' Home. There upon the very rim of northern English 
occupation, he lived during the ominous lull between King 
George's and the Seven Years' Wars. With the renewal of 
hostilities, the red allies of the French returned to plague the 
frontier settlers of New Hampshire. 

On the 1 6th of August, 1754, thirty savages, hot from Can- 
ada, and headed by their bloody captain, Sasup, by name, ap- 
peared upon the premises of Philip Call. He and his son 
Stephen had gone out to their summer labors, leaving in the 
supposed security of home, their wives and an infant child. At 
work in the field with their hired man, Timothy Cook, they 
were startled by the sudden fearful apparition of the stealthy 
foe, whose fatal approach to their dwelling they would fain an- 
ticipate by reaching it first. But with all their speed, the three 
men can only get near enough to hear the tomahawk's fell blow 
crash upon the head of the elder woman, — Stevenstown's first 
settler of her sex, — who had met the savages at her door, there 
to fall smitten in death upon her threshold, and to afford the 
scalping-knife one ghastlv trophy more. The three white men 
cannot match the overwhelming numbers of their dusky foes, 
and they betake themselves to the woods. The two Calls effect 
escape, but Cook, plunging into the river, is shot and scalped. 
The house is rifled ; the mother of the family lies at her door — 
dead, disfigured ; and Sasup has led his exultant band away. 



404 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

But, now, — strange to relate ! — another and the younger mother 
comes forth alive, and bearing in her arras her living son ; for, 
hidden in a dark and friendly recess behind a providential chim- 
ney, she and her hushed infant have escaped the ferret search of 
savage eyes, and imminent savage death. 

Such is one story of the early settlement of Stevenstown, and, 
by historical transfer, of that of Franklin. There is much more 
of history of the years before the younger town distinctly " found 
herself* in 1828, which she shares with Salisbury, but which 
this brief effort may not touch. Only slight and parting allusion 
is allowed even to her share with the elder town in that proud 
historic honor which crowns with a nimbus of reverential glory 
the places of birth, the nurture, and the recreation of Webster — 
New Hampshire's greatest intellect, America's, nay, the world's, 
great among the greatest. 

Mr. Daniell introduced Maj. W. A. Gile of Worcester, 
Mass., whose father was a former citizen of Franklin, and a 
neighbor of Daniel Webster. He made many felicitous allu- 
sions to the great statesman, and w T as warmly applauded. 

President C. S. Murkland, being called for, spoke in a very 
happy manner of Daniel Webster. 

Hon. Henry M. Baker, member of congress, made touching 
allusions to the late Judge Nesmith, so long identified with the 
interests of Franklin and the state, a life-long friend of Mr. 
Webster, and a long and useful member of this Society. 

Hon. L. D. Stevens of Concord made the closing address ; 
after which the Society adjourned to the call of the President ; 
and the visiting members returned to their homes, happy and 
grateful for the privileges of the day. 

Nathan F. Carter, 



A true copy : 

John C. Ordway, 

Recording- Secretary. 



Secretary pro tern. 



THIRD ADJOURNED ANNUA!. MEETING. 405 

THIRD ADJOURNED SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL 
MEETING, AND SECOND QUARTERLY MEET- 
ING. 

December 13, 1894. 

The second quarterly, and third adjourned seventy-second 
annual meeting of the New Hampshire Historical Society was 
held in the rooms of the Society in Concord, on Thursday, 
December 13, 1S94, at 2 p. m., President Hadley in the chair. 

Charles L. Tappan, chairman of the committee on new 
members, reported favorably the following named candidates 
for 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 

George Waldo Prescott, Esq., Manchester; Charles B. Stur- 
tevant, M. D., Manchester. 

The report was accepted, and the persons named duly elected 
by ballot. 

On motion of John C. Ordway, 

Voted, That the librarian, with the advice and consent of the 
Standing Committee, be authorized to extend the gas piping 
already in the building to the office, and to the library room on 
the second floor, and procure necessary fixtures. 

On motion of Joseph B. Walker, 

Voted, That Hon. Benjamin A. Kimball be a committee to 
look after the Society's interests in matters of legislation affect- 
ing the Society, which may come before the next legislature. 

Report. 

A majority of the committee appointed to consider the ques- 
tion of printing the Plumer Memoirs respectfully report: 

1. The Memoirs, if completed, would take six or seven 
octavo volumes. The amount that would be received from the 
sale of these volumes is, in the opinion of the committee, quite 
small compared with the cost, and the committee are unani- 



406 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

mously of the opinion that it is inexpedient for the Society, in 
the present condition of its finances, to attempt to carry through 
this undertaking, and they, therefore, recommend that the plan 
of printing the Memoirs in full be abandoned. 

2. These volumes of Memoirs contain brief notices of many 
individuals who were remarkable for nothing but having attained 
a hundred years of age, and the notices of these persons are 
generally exceedingly brief and contain nothing but the state- 
ment of the fact that the person died at such a place, having 
reached such an age. These records were evidently made up 
from newspaper accounts and, as is well known in such cases, 
are generally inaccurate and not to b.e depended upon, so far 
as the age is concerned. It would seem to be a waste of 
money and paper to include any of these in any edition of the 
Memoirs. 

3. Many of the memoirs, like that of Hannah Adams, are 
simply abstracts and condensations of printed books. These 
are, as a rule, sufficiently accessible elsewhere, and no particu- 
lar reason exists for printing Mr. Plumer's sketches, as they 
add nothing to what is already known. 

4. If it is desirable to print any portion of these Memoirs, it 
should be confined to persons who lived in New Hampshire or 
who were, in some way, connected with its history and whete 
the sketches are not made up from printed accounts given else- 
where. If the Society deem it desirable to undertake this, the 
selection should be made with great care and any errors that 
exist as to dates, or otherwise, should be corrected in foot-notes 
so as to make the book worthy of acceptance. They recom- 
mend that the printing already begun be suspended. 

Samuel C. Eastman, 
Ezra S. Stearns, 

Committee. 

MINORITY REPORT. 

Mr. JEastman : 

I can cheerfully assent to sections 1 and 4 of this report ; 
these seem to cover the ground sufficiently. 

My preference would be to strike out sections 2 and 3 as the 

latter seem to needlessly depreciate the value of the memoirs. 

You can append my name to the report as amended if desired. 

Very truly, 

John C. Ordway. 
December 6, 1S94. 

The report, after some discussion, was laid upon the table 
for action at the next regular meeting. 



FOURTH ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 407 

Voted, That the Publication Committee are hereby author- 
ized to print Part IV of Volume II of the Proceedings of the 
Society, make an Index, and bind three hundred copies of the 
thus completed Volume II. 

Voted, That a recess be taken until half past seven o'clock 
this evening, at which hour the Society will reconvene in the 
senate chamber at the state house. 



EVENING. 

The Society met in the senate chamber at the state capitol 
agreeably to adjournment at 7 : 30 o'clock, p. m. 

The President introduced to the Society Hon. Roswell Farn- 
ham of Bradford, Vermont, who delivered an address upon the 
life and public services of Gen. Israel Morey, at the conclusion 
of which, upon motion of Hon. Lyman D. Stevens, 

Voted, That the cordial thanks of the Society be tendered 
to ex-Governor Farnham for his able and interesting address. 
and that a copy of the same be requested for publication in the 
Proceedings of the Society. 

Interesting remarks, reminiscent in character, followed by 
Mr. Stevens, Judge Dana, and others. 

Voted, (9 o'clock) to adjourn, subject to the call of the Pres- 
ident. 

John C Ordway, 

Secretary. 



FOURTH ADJOURNED SEVENTY-SECOND ANNUAL 
MEETING, AND THIRD QUARTERLY MEETING. 

Concord, N. H., March 20, 1S95. 

The third quarterly, and fourth adjourned seventy-second 
annual meeting of the New Hampshire Historical Society was 
held in the rooms of the society in Concord, on Wednesday, 
March 20, 1S95, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, Hon. Amos 
Had ley, Ph. D., president of the society, in the chair. 

The following named gentlemen were unanimously elected 
resident members of the society : 



408 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Rev. T. Eaton Clapp, D. D., Manchester; Fred Gilmore 
Hartshorn, Manchester; John D. Marston, Esq^ -Rye; Wil- 
liam C. Todd, Esq., Atkinson. 

The committee on the boundary line of the society's lot made 
a verbal report, which was by vote accepted, and the committee 
continued. 

A communication from Dr. Anton Blomberg, librarian of 
the Royal Academy of Belles-Lettres, History, and Antiquities 
of Stockholm, Sweden, was presented, asking for an ex- 
change of the society's publications. 

It was voted that the corresponding secretary and librarian be 
authorized to make the exchange. 

A request from the librarian of the University of Vermont,. 
for a gift of this society's publications, was presented ; and it 
was voted that the librarian be authorized to make the exchange 
asked for. 

On motion of Hon.* S. C. Eastman, it was voted that the 
librarian be authorized to procure the binding of certain publi- 
cations at a cost not exceeding fifty dollars. 

Voted, That a recess be taken until 8 o'clock this evening ; at 
which time the society shall re-convene in the senate chamber 
at the state house. 

The society re-convened in the senate chamber in the slate 
capitol at 8 o'clock in the evening, a large number being in 
attendance. 

President Hadley presented Rev. Dr. Samuel Colcord Bart- 
lett, ex-president of Dartmouth College, who delivered an 
address npon Dr. John Wheelock, second president of the 
college. 



Dr. John Wheelock. 

Notwithstanding the length of John Wheelock's presidency 
of Dartmouth college and the publicity of its termination, it is 
no easy matter to form a just estimate of his life and character. 
The chief available sources of information are the following : 
A sketch of his life by his son-in-law, President William Allen, 
in the "American Biographical Dictionary;" the records of 



DR. BARTLETT's ADDRESS. 409 

the trustees of Dartmouth college ; the action of the legislature 
of Vermont in behalf of Moor's Chanty School and Dartmouth 
college ; that of the legislature of New Hampshire at several 
times concerning the Charity school and Dartmouth Univer- 
sity, and documents connected therewith ; the " Sketches of the 
History of Dartmouth College," prepared unquestionably by 
Dr. Wheelock, aided to some degree probably by two or three 
of his friends ; "A Candid Analytical Review " of the same by 
a warm admirer ; the " Vindication," afterwards put forth by 
the eight trustees who removed him from office ; much contem- 
porary correspondence collected by John M. Shirley, Esq., 
in " The Dartmouth College Causes ;" some facts contained in 
Chase's " History, of Dartmouth College and Hanover," and 
manuscript correspondence between Dr. Wheelock and the 
Scotch trustees of the Indian fund. Some facts have been 
gleaned from other sources, such as " Smith's History of Dart- 
mouth College ;" McClure's " Life of Eleazer Wheelock ;"* 
C. Stark's " Life of Gen. John Stark ;" Hon. Nathan Crosby's 
" First Half Century of Dartmouth College." Two or three 
other contemporary pamphlets, one of them on certain church 
controversies in which Wheelock was concerned, and the oth- 
ers chiefly of a personal character, cast no essential light on the 
main subject. Nor are the heirs of Dr. Wheelock able to fur- 
nish any unpublished documents which would aid in forming 
a judgment. 

John Wheelock was born in Lebanon, Conn., June 28, 1754* 
and died in Hanover at the age of sixty-three. He was the 
second of Eleazer Wheelock's four sons. With three other 
young men he came from the senior class of Yale college to 
Dartmouth, the four constituting the first graduating class, that 
of 1771 . His subsequent advancement was somewhat rapid. 
For two years he was a tutor in the college. In 1775 he was a 
member of the New Hampshire Assembly. In 1777 he was 
appointed a major in the service of New York, and later in 
the same year lieutenant-colonel in the Continental army in 
the regiment of Colonel Bedell, under the command of Gen- 
eral Gates. In 1778, we are told by Dr. Allen, he marched a 
detachment from Coos to Albany, and by direction of General 
Stark conducted an expedition into the Indian country. It 



4IO NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

appears from Stark's letter to Washington (August 19, 177S) 
that tills was a scouting expedition to Unadilla. Stark speaks 
of him to Washington as a " gentleman of undoubted charac- 
ter," whose information in his report transmitted " may be 
depended upon." Several years after the war Stark spent the 
night with Wheelock at Hanover, and was accompanied on his 
way by an escort of citizens, his host riding in the company. 
Wheelock was for a short time in the family of General Gates 
in New Jersey, and in 1779 was summoned to Hanover on the 
death of his father, President Eleazer Wheelock. 

The charter of Dartmouth college gave to its first president 
the right to appoint his successor, who should hold office until 
the appointment should be disapproved by the board of trus- 
tees. It is stated, on what authority does not appear, that 
the elder Wheelock had long intended to appoint his eldest 
son, Ralph, and when he was incapacitated by disease, Whee- 
lock's thoughts were turned to his step-son, Rev. John Maltby. 
But the latter had died in 1 77 r ; and the elder Wheelock by 
his last will appointed his son John, then twenty-five years of 
age, and eight years out of college. The son was in no haste 
to accept the place. He attended the annual meeting of the 
trustees in August, 1779, expressed reluctance to take the 
office, and only consented to preside at Commencement pro- 
vided it should not be interpreted as an acceptance of the pres- 
idency. He was persuaded by the trustees to enter on its 
duties in October, but in September, 17S0, he proposed to 
resign. The trustees then voted that '* the Board is greatly 
reluctant to accept it [the resignation], as they are entirely sat- 
isfied (as far as they are acquainted with) his past administra- 
tion and discharge of the office, and think it of great importance 
that he enter on the work of the ministry, if he finds his heart 
inclined thereto, as soon as may be convenient." This seems 
to have settled the question. 

The college at this time was undoubtedly in a formidable 
condition. In 1780 it had but thirty students, heavy debts, and 
property consisting mainly of unproductive and unsalable 
wild lands. The college treasurer reported that all the prop- 
erty of the corporation, if sold at vendue, would not cancel its 
debts. 



DR. BARTLETTS ADDRESS. 4.II 

Wheelock entered on his work with no little activity. Hrs 
first efforts were directed towards remedying the disastrous 
financial condition of the college. In 1781 he visited Philadel- 
phia, hoping to obtain some appropriation from the Continen- 
tal Congress, but failed, as perhaps was inevitable. In 
December, 17S2, he sailed for Europe, provided with a remark- 
able array of letters, from Washington, army generals, state 
governors, and other prominent men, supplemented by letters 
from Franklin and John Adams, who were then in Europe. 
He reports that he obtained a "considerable sum" in Holland, 
but in England was frustrated by the bitter feelings engendered 
by the revolution. He succeeded, however, in renewing the 
remittances of the Scotch fund for Indians, which had been 
suspended on account of suspicions of misapplication. He' 
speaks also of a collection of "curiosities" made by him for 
the museum t .an,d of securing a philosophical apparatus of the 
value of fifty-one pounds and eleven shillings. The " curiosi- 
ties" and the apparatus, which were brought over after his 
return, appear to have been the sole results actually accruing 
to the college from his year's work abroad. For on his return 
voyage the vessel was wrecked off Cape Cod, and he escaped 
with only the clothes he wore. How much was lost does not 
appear, inasmuch as, according to a statement of the treasurer, 
no account of his expenditures and receipts was rendered. 
Dr. Allen explains that his " strong box" which was lost con- 
tained his money and papers ; and according to Mr. Chase, 
Wheelock claimed that some of his papers were, or would 
have been, worth five thousand pounds to the institution. 

In 17S4 the trustees voted, in case the funds could be pro- 
cured, to erect Dartmouth hall. The president, professors, and 
some of the trustees of the vicinity were requested to solicit 
subscriptions. Dr. Wheelock was undoubtedly prominent 
in the effort. The sum of $15,000 was subscribed, less than 
half of which, according to Mr. Chase (though not so indi- 
cated by the trustees) was realized. At all events, the cost far 
exceeded the money raised. About $1,100 were added by 
means of a lottery, authorized by the legislature of New 
Hampshire on the application of Dr. Wheelock in accordance 
with a vote of the trustees — a striking proof that the world 



412 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

has moved. The building was begun in that year (17S4), but 
not completed till the seventh year. The deficit and the debt 
thereby incurred were the cause of long and grave embarrass- 
ment. The trustees in their " Vindication " say that the amount 
expended was never officially reported to them, but that the 
building is believed to have cost the corporation $30,000, 
which, they maintain, was three times its actual value. Some 
$3,000 of the excess remained as an indebtedness to President 
Wheelock at six per cent, interest till the time of his removal, 
a quarter of a century later. It was under the long and heavy 
strain of this unfortunate venture, apparently, that nearly all 
the lands originally given to the college disappeared. It may 
also be mentioned that the first college grant of 40,960 acres, 
given by the state in 17S9 to make amends, as matter of justice, 
for the failure of the LandafT grant of Gov. Benning Went- 
worth and for the heavy losses in improvements, was mostly 
extinguished under the pressure of debt as early as 1794, half 
of it at one shilling, and a quarter of it at two shillings six 
pence, per acre. The building remains, modelled after Nassau 
hall at Princeton, of excellent proportions and commanding 
situation ; and long may it remain as the one antiquity of the 
institution. 

In 1786 President Wheelock procured from the legislature 
of Vermont a grant of the township of Wheelock, on such 
terms, however, that one half was for the college, the other 
half for the " President of Moor's Charity School." This grant 
was attended with unfortunate influences and consequences. 
Complaints gradually arose in Vermont and took substantial 
form on the ground that the school had no chartered existence, 
and the grant was therefore void. Protracted discussions, 
repeated committee reports, and intimations of legal proced- 
ures, compelled an application, in 1807, to the New Hamp- 
shire legislature for incorporation of " the President of Moor's 
Charity School," the trustees being associated with him for 
advice and concurrence, which was granted the next year 
(1S08). The next year this act was explained by an addi- 
tional act, giving the president and the trustees each a negative 
on each other. Indications of friction in the board of trustees 
had begun now to appear, at first more especially between Dr. 



DR. BARTLETT'S ADDRESS. 413 

Wheelock and Hon. Nathaniel Niles ; and about this time dis- 
cussions and difficulties arose between the original Presbyterian 
church and the newly formed Congregational church, in which 
Dr. Wheelock became involved. But the church difficulties, 
though much has been said of them, were not causes but symp- 
toms. 

He had meanwhile superintended the erection of a chapel 
which had been voted by the trustees and was ultimately paid 
for from the college funds, although half the cost had been 
advanced by a subscription of citizens to secure a place of wor- 
ship. This building, remarkable for a curious diagonal echo, 
served its purpose from 1790 to 1S28 ; and what little remains 
of it is part of a barn. Wheelock must have had influence in 
procuring the second college grant of land in 1807, as well as 
in the scheme of 1 785— 'S8 for the special alliance of several 
academies with the college, which took effect for a time in the 
Kimball Union and New Ipswich academies. He also held, 
under the name of " financier," an office co-ordinate with that 
of the treasurer, having exclusive control of the lands, an office 
surrendered by him in 1804, and giving occasion for subse- 
quent intimations of mismanagement. 

The chief accession of productive funds during his adminis- 
tration was the bequest (in 1S07) by Rev. Israel Evans of Con- 
cord, of the Evans professorship, now yielding an income of 
six hundred dollars. The Phillips professorship came from 
lands given by Hon. John Phillips (in 1770 and 1781 ) origin- 
ally without conditions, but afterwards, on an additional gift of 
thirty-seven pounds and a half, set apart for a professorship, 
and later a subject of controversy. In 1798 the medical school 
was established, through the persevering efforts of Dr. Nathan 
Smith. 

No special outside efforts of Dr. Wheelock in behalf of the 
college can be traced later than 1S07. He mentions in his 
44 Sketches" that with brief intervals of absence he had con- 
ducted morning and evening chapel services, instructed the 
senior class, superintended all the public literary exercises, and 
given two lectures a week on "Systematic Theology" for 
twenty-three years, and one a week for ten years on *.* Ecclesi- 
astical History "and the " Prophecies," — a busy record. He 



4I4 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

also mentions having made large donations to the college, 
which, however, the eight trustees maintain had been fully com- 
pensated to him. 

Notwithstanding its external and internal difficulties the col- 
lege made progress under him. Between 1790 and 1S00 it 
graduated 363 men, Yale 295, Princeton 240, Harvard 395. 
In 1 791 its graduates (49) were more than those of either of 
these institutions. The numbers fell off towards 1795, rose in 
1 8 10, after which there was some falling off. 

There were gathered round Dr. Wheelock some excellent 
men as professors. Smith, Ripley, Hubbard, ShurtlerY, Adams, 
were men of ability and scholarship, although it appears from 
his " Sketches" that the last three were in the places they 
occupied not in accordance with his desire. It should also be 
mentioned that during his administration the college graduated 
a large number of able men. Even during the last troublous 
years of his presidency among those who came were such men 
as Levi Woodbury, Amos Kendall, George Ticknor, Thaddeus 
Stevens, Daniel M. Christie, Sylvanus Thayer, Ichabod Bart- 
lett, Professor Haddock, Presidents Torrey, Wheeler, Marsh 
of Burlington, and Brown of Dartmouth, William Goodell, 
Daniel Poor, Judges Wilde. Fletcher, Parker, Professors Fiske, 
Porter, Hall, Mussey, Bush, Chamberlain, and Upham, — the 
last three having entered the year before his removal. Dart- 
mouth, however, had then no considerable competitor north or 
Harvard. 

It is impossible to avoid alluding to the progress of the dis- 
sensions which terminated Dr. Wheelock's official life. They 
seem to have begun as early as 1S00 in connection with the 
Vermont grant of the township of Wheelock, making their ap- 
pearance in a complaint made by Dr. Wheelock to the board 
of trustees against Nathaniel Niles, one of its members, for 
adverse influences. The frictions, though for some time kept 
within the meetings of the board, were slowly increasing and 
extending, showing themselves in the election of professors and 
trustees, until in 1808 the lines must have been distinctly 
drawn, and in 1S09 the majority of the trustees were not in 
sympathy with him. When in 1S11 the board for the first 
time substituted in a resolution the phrase M executive officers"' 



DR. BARTLETT'S ADDRESS. 415 

for the " executive authority," the change was deliberate and 
significant; and Dr. Wheelock, sustained by Messrs. Bur- 
roughs and Jacob, viewed it as an intended infringement of his 
chartered functions as president. Matters culminated in No- 
vember, 1814, when the board voted to " excuse " the presi- 
dent from giving further instruction in the college on account 
of the other 4t burdens " resting upon him, and to commit to 
Professors Adams, Shurtleff, and Moore the studies he had 
taught, — all without consulting him. He in the same month 
proposed to the trustees an investigation by the legislature, to 
which they did not assent. 

Early in April, 18 15, there appeared, without Dr. Whee- 
lock's name, but undeniably with his sanction and active par- 
ticipation, a pamphlet of 8S pages, " Sketches of the History 
of Dartmouth College and of Moor's Charity School," in 
which, with vehement language and incautious statements, his 
services and deserts were abundantly set forth, and grave 
charges made against the trustees. In June he petitioned the 
legislature for an investigation, reiterating the charges, which 
he afterwards reaffirmed before the legislative committee. On 
the 26th of August the trustees took action, disapproving his 
original appointment, on five specified grounds presently to be 
mentioned, and removing him from office. In September 
appeared their caustic " Vindication," defending their action 
and the charges against him on his removal. 

Before the next session of the legislature, William Plumer, 
an open sympathizer with Dr. Wheelock, had been elected 
governor, and had received the vote of Wheelock's friends. 
In his message he urged the legislature to "interfere" in the 

o cy o 

concerns of the college, to increase the number of trustees, to 
change the mode of their election, to make the college bv 
annual reports directly responsible to the legislature, so as to 
enable that body " to act upon whatever may relate to that 
institution," that is, have entire control of it. 

The governor's recommendation was adopted by a vote of 
190 to 75, the minority entering a protest on the journal. Dart- 
mouth College was changed to Dartmouth University, with 
twenty-one trustees and twenty-five overseers, nine of the for- 
mer and all of the latter being members of the state govern- 
23 



416 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ment or its appointees. Eight of the original trustees and the 
three permanent members of the faculty declined to accept the 
new situation till it should have been judicially tested. Gov- 
ernor Plumer, in his message (November 20, 1816), then pro- 
ceeded to charge these gentlemen with " inculcating resistance 
to the law" and 4k disseminating principles of insubordination 
and rebellion against government ;" and he made the mistake 
of asserting that the law u had been approved by all the consti- 
tuted authorities of the state," when as yet the judges of the 
Superior Court, consulted by him, were withholding their opin- 
ion, and shortly after declining to give an opinion at that stage 
of the case. 

The legislature was also aroused to pass the drastic act, 
declaring that '* whoever shall presume to exercise any office 
in Dartmouth University except in subordination to its trus- 
tees, under any name or pretext whatsoever, shall forfeit and 
pay for every offence the sum of $500," an act, of course, 
aimed at the faculty of Dartmouth college, and suggesting the 
times of Charles First. I scarcely need to add that when the 
case was carried before the Superior Court of New Hampshire, 
its highest tribunal then, Richardson and Bell on the bench 
(Woodbury not certainly present), the university was sus- 
tained ; but in the Supreme Court of the United States that 
action was reversed (February 2, 1S19), and Dartmouth col- 
lege reinstated. 

Dr. Wheelock's course was now nearly run. In 181 7 the 
trustees of the fugitive university appointed him its president. 
But his health was broken, and in a few weeks he died, leav- 
ing half of his large property to Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary, and (as stated by Mr. Shirley) $40,000 to the univer- 
sity. 

On account of the controversies that enveloped the closing 
years of Dr. Wheelock's life, and which had long been brood- 
ing, it is no easy task to recognize and characterize him fairly. 
But having undertaken that task at the request of this Histor- 
ical Society, I shall frankly state my conclusions, although dif- 
fering somewhat from my previous opinions. The portrait of 
Wheelock which hangs in Wilson Hall, though not an orig- 
inal nor the copy of an original, if Dr. Chapman is correct in 



DR. BARTLETT's ADDRESS. 417 

saying that a miniature taken at the age of twenty-nine is 
the only memorial of him, presents a bright and pleasant 
face. Judge Nathan Crosby, who saw him once in his study 
in 1815, and frequently on the street during his own fresh- 
man year, describes him as u a gentleman of courtly man- 
ners, tall and erect, dignified and graceful, of rare conver- 
sational powers, and making strong personal friends." 
Probably Judge Crosby expresses the opinion then cur- 
rent, in saying that *■' he was a fair scholar and a careful 
teacher." The eight trustees admit that in the earlier part 
of his presidency ( * he pursued his studies with assiduity 
and at that time he acquired a routine of classical knowledge 
sufficient to enable him to hear recitations when the students 
do not depart from the beaten track ;" but they say that in later 
times he had been so absorbed in his own private concerns as 
to unfit him for high and thorough instruction, and that they 
had learned from the best scholars of all the classes for four or 
five years that the recitations he heard " were of no use what- 
ever to the students." They allege that this fact constituted a 
sufficient reason for his removal from the work of instruction. 

As to his intellectual abilities and equipment there ai*e found 
some quite diverse contemporaneous opinions. In Smith's 
History of Dartmouth College there is quoted an extraordin- 
ary eulogium of him, in which, among two pages of similar 
material, we read that " he pushed his inquiries into every 
department of knowledge and made himself conversant with 
the various branches of science . . . for force of expres- 
sion he might be compared to Chatham, and in splendid 
imagery he sometimes rivalled Burke." This unique esti- 
mate comes from Samuel C. Allen of the class of 1794, 
afterwards a member of congress. The opinion of the eight 
trustees has been already given. Judge Jeremiah Smith, in 
1S18, wrote concerning a document drawn up by Dr. Whee- 
lock, "I have not sufficient confidence in my own powers to 
venture on a construction of anything from his pen." We 
must judge for ourselves from his utterances and procedures. 

He appears to have had an impressive manner on public 
occasions, a popular way in his general intercourse, polite 
and ceremonious. His success in some of his negotiations, 



41 8 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

as with the Scotch trustees of the Indian fund, and with the 
legislatures of New Hampshire and Vermont, would imply a 
good degree of persuasive power, although the subsequent 
complications and dissatisfactions might cast a doubt on the 
wisdom of the method and the value of the results. As an ad- 
ministrator he labored under extraordinary financial difficulties 
and should be somewhat leniently judged. But he would have 
saved himself much and grave trouble by more exact accounts, 
more rigid methods, and more careful plans of expenditure. 
One of the commissioners of the Scotch fund, Peter Thatcher, 
after an investigation in 1794, reported that " he is honest, but 
has no economy," while doubts even on the first point were 
raised by some. Certain it is that his lack of careful business 
methods proved a serious misfortune to him. 

As a writer he was able to make an effective, if not always 
decisive, presentation. His " Sketches" were too plausible for 
the trustees to leave unanswered, but offered many exposed 
points for the reply. The style, somewhat stilted, and occa- 
sionally tending to inflation ; the method, rather rhetorical than 
logical ; and the statements, not always sufficiently guarded, 
evoked sharp satire in the rejoinder. His writings, like his 
procedures, it must be confessed, commonly left something to be 
' desired and adjusted. His mental workings had scarcely fitted 
him for an encounter with strictly legal minds ; and perhaps 
the most marked evidence of his intellectual limitations was his 
commencing an open controversy with such men as Niles, 
Paine, and Marsh, all of whom were sooner or later justices of 
the Supreme Court of Vermont — to say nothing of Thompson, 
Farrar, McFarland, and Payson. But for that pamphlet, " The 
Sketches," he might have died in his office. 

It is with some hesitation that I speak further of that contro- 
versy, but it was the most notable event of his life and of the 
time, both for this state, and, in its legal aspect, for the nation. 
At this late day we should be able to estimate it fairly. The 
papers on both sides are now seen to have been needlessly 
severe and bitter. That Dr. Wheelock should have put forth 
a pamphlet so ill-advised as a whole and so unguarded in its 
details, can be explained only by his misconception of his 
status, and a morbid state of mind resulting from the frictions 



'•■■■ 



DR. BARTLETT8 ADDRESS. 419 

of many years ; and that the trustees in their " Vindication " 
should have retorted in the strain they adopted, is to be ac- 
counted for only by their sense of the emergency, and, in the 
forewarning words of Jeremiah Mason, the " severe irritation 
they must lately have experienced." 

I will not cite the harsh expressions used on either side. But 
in substance Dr. Wheelock accused the trustees of " misappli- 
cation or perversion of funds " in the use of the Phillips endow- 
ment, of '* prostrating the chartered rights of the presidential 
office, " and of an unjustifiable disregard of his wishes in elec- 
tions of trustees and instructors. 

In their rejoinder, their "Vindication," the trustees devote 
themselves mainly to a severe and satirical review of his pam- 
phlet ; and underlying their entire discussion is the implica- 
tion, — in addition to their previous formal charges, — that Dr. 
Wheelock's course of administration had been directed to his 
own interests and enrichment, and that his financial proceed- 
ings had been irresponsible. Perhaps the most damaging thing 
in their pamphlet, if correct and unexplained, is the statement 
{p. 81) that, as a result, his property cannot be estimated at 
less than $100,000, which, as they say, would yield an annual 
income of $6,000, "whereas the whole permanent income of 
the college does not exceed $1,500." If the implication were 
well-founded, it raises at once the question why they permitted 
this process to go on through a long course of years and were 
not roused to the duty of correcting it until the appearance of 
his stinging pamphlet, — a question which they find some diffi- 
culty in answering, — alleging pecuniary obligations to him, his 
personal popularity with a considerable portion of the com- 
munity, and the attendant danger of injuring the institution for 
a time. 

But waiving the manner of the controversy, what of its mat- 
ter? The eight trustees had formulated five charges as grounds 
of his removal, namely (in the briefest form) : (r) A libellous 
pamphlet upon the trustees ; (2) the claim of excessive pow- 
ers, executive and electoral ; (3) his making on students " an 
impression " unfavorable to cases of faculty discipline ; (4) 
" manifest fraud in the application of the funds" of the Moor's 
School in one alleged instance; (5) his having "given rise and 



«■!■■ g 



420 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

circulation to a report" that "the real cause" of the trouble 
■was ** a diversity of religious opinions between him and them." 
Now Governor Gilman and Judge Jacob in a protest declare 
that " whatever evidence might exist in the minds of the fram- 
ers" of the charges, kt no evidence was laid before the board of 
the same, nor any papers whatever relating thereto." 

The form of a part of the charges goes to sustain the state- 
ment of the protest. And it must now be confessed, I think, 
that with one exception they were somewhat weak or vague, 
or both, for the burden they bore — removal from office. The 
last of the five, " giving rise and circulation to a report [not a 
statement] as to diversity of religious views" and its influence, 
if proved, was not in that form a libel, and scarcely a heinous 
offence; and they do not say it was proved, but that "it is 
manifest to the trustees." So, as to the third charge, " caus- 
ing an impression [notice the word] to be made on the minds" 
of the students, they only say that kt from a variety of circum- 
stances the trustees have had reason to conclude " it to be so, — 
a way of putting things scarcely to be expected from such able 
lawyers. The second charge alleges only that he " has set up 
and insists on" certain excessive claims, which, however, 
they could and actually did control ; while, so far as he had 
stretched his functions, it was, if not with their assent, yet by 
their sufferance. The " manifest fraud" consisted in aiding 
from the fund for the benefit of the Indian tribes " a youth not 
an Indian, but adopted by an Indian tribe under an Indian 
name," — not only a tenuous legal technicality, but out of har- 
mony with the real intent of the fund and with established pre- 
cedent in its application. The only considerable charge was 
the libellous pamphlet, a grave orfence, and of public notoriety 
and injurious influence. Had they confined themselves to this 
one of the charges, or coupled with it, if true, the charge that 
he had neglected the interests of the college for his own inter- 
ests, it would have made a more satisfactory showing for the 
removal. But they would appear to have been stronger in 
demolishing him and his pamphlet than in the direct justifica- 
tion of their own action. 

The trustees, however, effectually dispose of the counter 
accusations with the exception of one or two, real or apparent. 



DR. BARTLETT S ADDRESS. 42 1 

When they began to resist his excessive claims, after having 
left him for many years to manage largely in his own way, as 
has already been indicated, they would seem in their reasoning 
and their action to have abridged his chartered rights when 
they summarily, not to say offensively, removed him from the 
work of instruction while still president of the college. The 
charter assigns to the president "the immediate care of the 
education and government" of the students, and to the profes- 
sors and tutors the duty to u assist the president in the educa- 
tion and government of the students." It may be firmly ques- 
tioned whether they had any more right to interdict his per- 
sonal share in the "education" than in the "government" 
while president ; and their justification of either would have 
been such a showing of incapacity or malfeasance as would 
require his removal from office. Their appeal to the general 
power granted them in the charter to " make such ordinances, 
orders and laws as may tend to the good and wholesome gov- 
ernment of said college," etc., did not give them power to 
override the specific functions expressly granted by the same 
charter to individual officers, but their power is expressly lim- 
ited thereby. While president, the functions of president were 
his. 

Dr. Wheelock's accusation, that the trustees perverted the 
Phillips fund by assigning to the Phillips professor of divinity 
the work of preaching, they were able to refute by showing it 
to be apparently within their legal right. Whether it was in 
conformity with the actual wishes of the donor, as denied by 
the minority, does not clearly appear, and is not a vital ques- 
tion. Wheelock's other charges consist chiefly of complaints 
for lack of conformity to his wishes, in taking no part in the 
church troubles in which he was involved, in not electing as 
trustees or instructors men whom he preferred and advocated, 
besides, of course, his removal from the work of instruction. 

The instances which he cites, however, show the strength of 
his personal feelings in such matters, and the inadmissible 
nature of his expectations and demands. He specifies one 
trustee elected in preference to his own candidate. The person 
so elected was Dr. McFarland, a choice needing no defence in 
this city. He mentions one professor thus elected. It was 



422 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Zephaniah Swift Moore, afterwards president of Williams 
College, and of Amherst College. He complains in like manner 
in regard to two tutors. Who were they? One, elected 
against his wishes after several ballots, by a majority of one, 
Was Francis Brown, afterwards the distinguished president of 
Dartmouth. The other proposed tutor, strongly opposed by 
him and therefore withdrawn, was Daniel Poor, one of the best 
scholars in his class, known to be " a modest and pious young 
man," afterwards one of the ablest and brightest missionaries of 
the American Board in Ceylon. The cases speak for them- 
selves. 

The somewhat irresponsible way in which he could proceed, 
and, it must be added, was permitted to proceed through a 
large part of his administration, appears not only in the expen- 
ditures unchecked and unaccounted for, as in the erection of 
Dartmouth Hall, the unreported expedition abroad, the gradual 
disappearance of the college lands ; but is illustrated quite dis- 
tinctly in his three negotiations with the legislatures of New 
Hampshire and Vermont, already mentioned, all of which he 
clearly managed in his own way and for his own personal con- 
trol, and with unfortunate results all round. 

All these things tend to one point. They go to show that the 
specific charges and separate grounds of controversy were but 
subordinate incidents in one fundamental issue. And what was 
that issue in its matured form ? It was the question of the legiti- 
mate relation of the president and the trustees, respectively, to 
the college. It was hardly a question of " family ascendency," 
as Mr. Chase suggests in his history, but more nearly as Judge 
Crosby finally states it, "the transfer of personal to public 
power;" or, better still, of the subordination of personal con- 
trol to constituted authority, where both parties had long been 
acting on a wrong basis, and the one party was at length con- 
vinced of the error by painful experience, and the other adhered 
to his error. The Trustees put it somewhat strongly in their 
"Vindication": "The President claims to be the sole execu- 
tive of the corporation, to control the power of appointment 
both of members of the Faculty and of the Board of Trustees," 
and, they add, " the exclusive exercise of the judicial power." 

It was not altogether unnatural that Dr. Wheelock should 



DR. BARTLETTS ADDRESS. 423 

have fallen into an erroneous view of his functions. His noble 
father had been, by force of circumstances, obliged and per- 
mitted to exercise all manner of responsibilities, or the enter- 
prise must have failed. He was compelled to fall back on his 
friends, and relatives, too, in a work of such heavy burdens 
and doubtful prospects. The original board of trustees included 
six of his neighbors and friends in Connecticut, five of them 
clergymen ; and their places when vacant were in part filled by 
Messrs. Woodward and Ripley, his sons-in-law ; Dr. McClure, 
the husband of his niece ; and Rev. Eden Burroughs, his special 
friend and advocate. In threading the way through the laby- 
rinth of the college's early struggles, the trustees had neces- 
sarily left the management and responsibility mainly in his 
hands. When John Wheelock came to the office he not unnat- 
urally fell into his father's ways, and for a long course of years, 
as the tfc Vindication" shows, the board by its acquiescence may 
be said to have encouraged him in it. And when at last from 
necessity, and the introduction of new elements into the board, 
restrictions were laid upon him, they would seem to have been 
needlessly severe, if defensible. To deprive him of his instruc- 
tion, without even a conference with him, was hardly treating the 
president of the college with the consideration due to a transient 
tutor. Dr. Wheelock's great mistake was in supposing that he 
could demand all the functions and responsibilities which had 
been forced upon his father. He had neither his father's remark- 
able sagacity and ability, his history, nor his relation to the 
enterprise. The times, the men, the situation, all were changed. 
All the conflicts in church matters, in connection with the 
Charity School, in the Board, and in the faculty, and over the 
funds, can now be seen to be but the one struggle for a personal 
control, in which he was predestined to be defeated ; and his 
eyes were holden that he should not see the situation. He 
should have retreated when he was defeated, and he did not. 

Meanwhile, it is by no means certain that the trustees were 
not precipitate and unwise in their action. It is a significant 
fact that Jeremiah Mason, on learning the intention to remove 
Dr. Wheelock, eleven days before the action took place wrote a 
long letter to Charles Marsh of the Board of Trust, dissuading 
him from such action, at any rate, at that time. He advised to 



424 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

wait for the proposed investigation by the legislature, invited 
by Wheelock ; and first to make an exposure of the alleged 
incorrectness of the complaints, declaring that such an exposure, 
if valid, would destroy all power of harm in Wheelock. He 
also warned them of the hostilities certain to be aroused by 
hasty action, on the part of " the professed friends of liberal 
religion, most of the Baptists and Methodists and all the Noth- 
ingarians," in view of the "religious grievances" alleged in the 
44 Sketches." He adds, w The Democrats will be against you, 
of course," and he closes with a reiterated caution against action 
taken or supposed to be taken under * k severe irritation." His 
advice was not adopted. It was not " a word and a blow." 
The blow came before the word. They removed the president, 
and a month later published their " Vindication." Providence 
would soon have settled the removal, for in eighteen months 
Wheelock had passed away. 

Mason's warning proved true. The college entered, as 
Judge Crosby puts it, on "a perilous night" in which " the 
terrors of poverty and a wide-spread opposition hovered over 
her future." Apparently there was long estrangement on sec- 
tarian grounds. Certainly for more than a generation the 
Democratic party was against the college. Thus, for example, 
that emphatic Democrat, Gen. Benjamin Pierce of Hillsbor- 
ough, sent his son, Franklin, at much inconvenience, to Bow- 
doin college ; otherwise Dartmouth would have had among 
her alumni one actual president of the United States in addi- 
tion to the one that ought to have been. The class ofi8i5, 
the year of Wheelock's removal, was smaller than any for the 
preceding quarter of a century, while the class of 181 1, just 
before the trouble culminated, was not equalled for the next 
quarter of a century. Had Dr. Wheelock possessed intellect- 
ual powers equal to his controversial spirit, or been a man 
of his father's Samson-like strength, he might possibly have 
dragged down the college over his head. Indeed, embarass- 
ments were created that took a generation and cost one pres- 
ident's life to overcome. So depressing was the resulting con- 
dition of the college, that, after the decision of the Supreme 
Court in its favor. President Brown wrote to Daniel Webster 
suggesting the surrender of the college to the state ; and appar- 



afctaafcaar, .bum— raw 



DR. BARTLETT'S ADDRESS. 425 

ently it was Mr. Webster's emphatic reply, which I have seen, 
that counteracted the disposition so to do. And though the 
college has been the chief glory of the state, the state has done 
but little for the college. Its funds are chiefly a benefaction 
from outside the state. 

But Providence so ordered that not only was the college finally 
rescued, although possibly to a more restricted sphere, and to 
fall permanently behind Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, then 
only its equals, but out of the stormy strife there emerged that 
great landmark and lighthouse, the decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States in the Dartmouth College Case. 
How much more nearly the institution would have kept pace 
with its contemporaries in the race but for that unfortunate 
epoch in its history, no one can tell. If so, its loss was the gain 
of the whole body of literary institutions. But whatever may 
have been the errors or shortcomings of Dr. John Wheelock, 
and however lamentable the last and greatest mistake of his 
life, they should not hide from us the fact that under his long 
administration the college was sustained " upon slender funds, 
few books, and insignificant apparatus," maintaining a high 
reputation and sending forth a body of well-trained graduates, 
some ripe scholars, and not a few distinguished men. It is 
profoundly to be regretted that his office and his life should 
have closed under so heavy a cloud. 

After-wisdom is cheap and easy wisdom ; but it is not with- 
out its uses. It was on the great battle-field of Gettysburg, as 
Longstreet has since said, that "General Lee lost his poise;" 
and on another great battle-field of the charge of the Light 
Brigade it has been written in memorable words, 4 ' somebody 
blundered." After the lapse of three quarters of a century we 
can look back on the conflict that raged through every portion 
and every function of New Hampshire and say that, as usual 
in great excitements, most of the combatants lost their poise ; 
it was a whole chapter of blunders, not a " comedy," but 
almost a tragedy of " errors." Dr. Wheelock blundered ; the 
trustees of Dartmouth College blundered ; Governor Plumer 
blundered; the legislature of New Hampshire blundered; and 
if the Supreme Court of the United States was right, the Supe- 
rior Court of New Hampshire also blundered. Two men of 



426 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

New Hampshire came forth from the thickest of that far-reach- 
ing conflict with undimmed and lasting honors, — Francis 
Brown, the admirable president of the college, a man of lumin- 
ous intellect and unerring judgment, who met the issue, in 
the words of Rufus Choate, with " the rarest qualities of tem- 
per, discretion, tact, and command," but who came forth with 
a broken constitution to an early grave ; and that other, who 
then emerged into national renown, the man of mighty intel- 
lect, massive statesmanship, and consummate oratory, the 
boast of the college, the pride of New Hampshire, the cham- 
pion of the national honor — the defender of the Dartmouth 
charter and the great defender of the Constitution. 



At the close of the address Hon. Lyman D. Stevens moved, 
and it was unanimously voted, that the thanks of the society 
be presented to Dr. Bartlett for his very able, intensely inter- 
esting, and highly instructive address, and that a copy of the 
same be requested for publication in the Proceedings of the 
society. 

At 9 o'clock the society adjourned, subject to the call of the 
president. 

John C. Ordway, 

Secretary, 



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NECROLOGY 

OF THE 

NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

ELI E. GRAVES, M. D., NECROLOGIST. 



ISAAC K. GAGE. 



Isaac Kimball Gage was born in Boscawen on the 27th of 
October. 1818, and resided there, with the exception of one 
brief interval, until his death on the 10th of September, 1894. 

The son of William Hazeltine Gage of Sanbornton and Bos- 
cawen, he was of the sixth generation from John Gage of 
Stoneham, Suffolk, England, who came to America with John 
Winthrop, Jr., landed at Salem, June 12, 1630, and became 
one of the twelve proprietors of Ipswich. His mother was 
Miss Polly Morrison of Sanbornton. 

The foundations of his education were laid in the district 
schools of his native town and at Boscawen and Franklin acad- 
emies. The superstructure, as in the case of many of New 
Hampshire's ablest and most honored sons, was the mental and 
moral increment of a wholesome, intelligent, and industrious 
life. 

In 1842 he married Susan G., daughter of Reuben Johnson 
of Fisherville, who together with four 1 children survives him. 

From 1841 to 1850 he was engaged in trade in Fisherville, 
removing thereafter to Lawrence, Mass., where he entered the 
employ of the Essex Co. When the first city government was 
organized in Lawrence in 1S52 he was elected to the common 
council and was president of that body in 1853. He returned 

*Mary M., wife of Milton \V. Wilson, died Feb. 14, 1895. 



428 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to Boscawen in 1854, and as a member of the firm of Gage, 
Porter & Co., was engaged in the manufacture of saws. From 
1857 un *il ms death his time and his energies were variously 
occupied, being devoted to both public and private concerns 
with exemplary zeal and intelligence. He was an extensive 
landed proprietor, largely occupied as farmer and dairyman ; 
serving the community also in the capacity of insurance agent, 
and notary public. 

Mr. Gage's active interest; in all projects for promoting the 
general comfort and prosperity of the communities in which he 
dwelt marked him early as a public-spirited man in the best 
meaning of that term, and his talent and energy were in con- 
stant public demand. In addition to the services already noted, 
and the frequent calls to fill places of public trust and respon- 
sibility in his native town, it was his privilege to render val- 
uable service in wider and more conspicuous fields. From 
1865 to 1S69 he was treasurer of the New England Agricultural 
Society. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention 
in 1876, and was for many years the secretary of the New 
Hampshire Orphans' Home. He joined the New Hampshire 
Historical Society in 1S72, and always evinced a deep and 
practical interest in all things relating to the past history and 
future welfare of his native state. He long enjoyed a note- 
worthy reputation as a genealogist, in which department of 
historical lore he was an enthusiastic and painstaking inves- 
tigator. In 1876 Dartmouth College bore fitting testimony to 
his personal worth and public services by conferring upon him 
the degree of A. M. 

As man and citizen Mr. Gage was a conspicuous example of 
all that is praiseworthy in New England life and character. 
The esteem and confidence of his fellow-citizens was his in 
virtue of qualities of mind and heart which always debar their 
possessor from a merely casual or perfunctory relation to 
society. 

No character could be more strongly individualized ; but his 
individuality was not of the kind that isolates by the incongru- 
ity of its elements. It was such as equips for distinguished 
service, and it identified him with that public life to whose 
needs and interests it had powers to correspond. 



ISAAC K. GAGE. 429 

He was public-spirited, conservative, yet progressive, eager to 
test new principles and methods, and to adopt such as survived 
the ordeal of experiment. With -warmth of heart and keen- 
ness of mind, he combined a firmness and tenacity of will 
which insured the success of whatever cause he espoused under 
conviction of its value or its justice. Withal his motives were 
always high, and his methods honorable, so that he invariably 
won respect even where he could not command agreement. 

Honest and upright in conduct, clear-headed and true- 
hearted in character, genial, sunny, and hospitable in temper, 
he was a good man, a true citizen, a faithful friend, and a gen- 
erous and dignified host. He has left upon kindred, friends, 
and neighbors the impress of a life strong, useful, well-bal- 
anced, and directed to worthy and enduring ends. 



DANIEL F. SECOMB. 



Daniel Franklin Secomb, a member of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society from June, 1S76, and acting Librarian from 
1875 until 1884, was born in Amherst, N. H., January 17, 
1820, and died at Concord, N. H., January 14, 1895. He was 
the fifth child of John and Rachel Durant Secombe, and of the 
sixth generation in descent from Richard Secomb, born in 
Cornwall, England, in 1645, who arrived in Boston, October, 
1680, and settled in Lynn. In 1848, he removed from Am- 
herst to Concord, where he ever after lived, being engaged for 
several years in the manufacture of musical instruments. He 
served faithfully in both branches of the city council from 1867 
to 1870 inclusive, and possessed a thorough knowledge of city 
affairs, in which he took a deep interest. To him this Society 
is largely indebted for sorting and putting in presentable and 
usable shape its wealth of papers and pamphlets, during the 
years that he was its acting Librarian. His taste for work in 
historic line was marked, and his memory of events was phe- 
nomenal. He prepared a history of Amherst, which was pub- 
lished in 1882, and for which the town appropriated five hun- 
dred dollars, at its annual meeting in 1S80, by a unanimous 
vote. In 1882, he was appointed librarian of the city library, 
a position which he filled with much ability to his death. 
Rarely does it fall to the lot of one man to fill a librarian's 
position for so many years in two such valuable libraries as 
did. Mr. Secomb, and this fact bears better testimony than 
words to his work and worth as librarian and man. He was 
twice married, first to Fanny C. Herrick, December n, 1S50, 
who died in 1S59, and second, to Eliza A. (Damrell) Gordon, 
February 28, 1S60. One daughter, Mary Grace, survives him. 



i 



BENJAMIN F. PRESCOTT. 



Benjamin Franklin Prescott, a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society from June n, 1862, was born in 
Epping, February 26, 1833, and died in the same town Feb- 
ruary 21, 1895. He was the only son of Nathan Gove and 
Betsey Hills (Richards) Prescott, and was born upon the 
homestead farm on which his great-great-grandfather settled 
about the time of his marriage in 1757. Until he was fifteen 
years of age he remained at home, working upon the farm, 
and attending the common school for a few weeks in summer 
and winter. During part of 184S and 1849 he attended Blanch- 
ard Academy in Pembroke, and in 1S50 went to Phillips 
Academy at Exeter, where he remained three years, when he 
entered the Sophomore class of Dartmouth college, and grad- 
uated in the class of 1S56. He taught school in Chester in the 
winter of 1S55, and in his native town in the autumn and win- 
ter of 1856— "5 7. In February, 1S57, ne en t eFe d the law office 
of Henry A. & A. H. Bellows, in Concord; was admitted to 
the bar August 19, 1S59 ; immediately opened an office in 
Concord, where he pursued his profession until May, 1861, 
when, upon the appointment of Hon. George G. Fogg as 
United States Minister Resident to Switzerland, he became 
associate editor of the I?idependent Dejnocrat, which position 
he held for about five years. 

He took active interest in political matters early in life, serv- 
ing as secretary of the Republican State Central Committee 
for some fifteen years ; secretary of the College of Electors six 
times from 1S60 to 1880; special agent of the United States 
Treasury Department from January, 1S65, for two years, and 
again from March 23, 1S69, for one year. He was elected 
2-t 



43^ NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

secretary of state in 1872, 1S73, 1S75, and 1876, and governor 
of New Hampshire in 1877 and 1878, filling both positions ably 
and honorably. In 1880 he was chosen a delegate to the 
Republican National Convention, held in Chicago, which nom- 
inated James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur as candidates 
for president and vice-president. In 1SS7 he was appointed a 
railroad commissioner, and held the position for six years. 

He took great interest in educational and historical matters, 
and to him, more than any other man, is our state indebted for 
the valuable collection of portraits of its governors in the coun- 
cil chamber, and of other distinguished officials and residents 
of New Hampshire, to be found in the State Capitol, at Phillips 
academy, and at Dartmouth college. His interest in this Soci- 
ety was unabated through his long membership, and he served 
it as second vice president in iS73~'74, as first vice president 
from 1875 to 1SS0, and as one of the Publishing Committee in 
1 89 1. In 1876 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Historical 
Society of Great Britain, and the same year was elected presi- 
dent of the Bennington Battle Monument Association. He 
had the supreme satisfaction of being present at, and participat- 
ing in, the laying of the corner stone and dedication of that 
monument, and in his addresses there, and upon other occa- 
sions, he did much to place before the public the honorable, 
historic record of New Hampshire men in the past. In 1874 
he was made a trustee of the New Hampshire College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts, and of Dartmouth college in 187S, 
both of which positions he held to his death. June 10, 1869, 
he married Mary Little Noyes, of Concord, N. H., who sur- 
vives him, as does an only son, Benjamin F. Prescott. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 

FROM 1823 TO 1895. 





PRESIDENTS. 




Ichabod Bartlett, 


1823 


Levi Chamberlain, 


1852 


William Plumer, 


1823 


William Plumer, 


1854 


Levi Woodbury, 


1825 


Chandler E. Potter, 


1855 


Ichabod Bartlett, 


1826 


Edwin D. Sanborn, 


1857 


Salma Hale, 


1830 


Joseph Dow, 


i860 


Matthew Harvey, 


1832 


William H. Y. Hackett, 


1861 


Charles H. Atherton, 


1834 


Joseph B. Walker, 


1866 


Joel Parker, 


1838 


Charles H. Bell, 


1868 


Nathaniel Bouton, 


1842 


Jonathan E. Sargent, 


1887 


Nathaniel G. Upham, 


1844 


Samuel C. Eastman, 


1889 


Samuel D. Bell, 


1847 


John J. Bell, 


1891 


Charles Burroughs, 


1849 


Amos Hadley, 


1893 




FIRST VICE 


PRESIDENTS. 




William Plumer, Jr., 


1823 


Edwin D. Sanborn, 


1855 


Levi Woodbury, 


1823 


Joseph Dow, 


1857 


William Plumer, Jr., 


1825 


William H. Y. Hackett, 


i860 


Salma Hale, 


1829 


Joseph B. Walker, 


1861 


Matthew Harvey, 


183O 


Asa McFarland, 


1866 


Charles H. Atherton, 


1832 


William L. Foster, 


1868 


Joel Parker, 


1834 


Benjamin F. Prescott, 


1875 


Nathaniel Bouton, 


1838 


Natt Head, 


1880 


Nathaniel G. Upham, 


1844 


Jonathan E. Sargent, 


1882 


Samuel D. Bell, 


1847 


Samuel C. Eastman, 


1887 


Henry Hubbard, 


1845 


George L. Balcom, 


1889 


Levi Chamberlain, 


1849 


John J. Bell, 


1890 


Charles H. Peaslee, 


1849 


Amos Hadley, 


1891 


Chandler E. Potter, 


1852 


Benjamin A. Kimball, 


1893 



434 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



SECOND VICE PRESIDENTS. 



Bennet Tyler, 


1823 


Levi Chamberlain, 


1857 


Salma Hale, 


1826 


Joseph B. Walker, 


i860 


Matthew Harvey, 


1829 


Asa McFarland, 


1861 


Charles H. Atherton, 


1830 


Franklin Pierce, 


1866 


Parker Noyes, 


1832 


John M. Shirley, 


1868 


Nathaniel Bouton, 


1834 


Benjamin F. Prescott, 


1873 


Nathaniel G. Upham, 


1838 


Jonathan E. Sargent, 


1875 


Samuel D. Bell, 


1842 


John M. Shirley, 


1882 


Levi Chamberlain, 


1844 


George L. Balcom, 


1887 


Jared W. Williams, 


1847 


John J. Bell, 


1889 


Edwin D. Sanborn, 


1849 


Amos Hadley, 


1890 


Asa McFarland, 


1852 


Benjamin A. Kimball, 


1891 


Nathaniel B. Baker, 


1855 


George L. Balcom, 


1893 


Joseph Dow, 


1856 








RECORDING i 


SECRETARIES- 




John Kelley, 


1823 


Dyer H. Sanborn, 


1858 


Moses Eastman, 


183I 


William F. Goodwin, 


1859 


Moses G. Thomas, 


1834 


William L. Foster, 


1862 


Asa McFarland, 


184I 


Samuel C. Eastman, 


1867 


Franklin Pierce, 


1843 


Parsons B. Cogswell, 


1872 


Edmund Worth, 


1845 


Amos Hadley, 


1874 


Joseph B. Walker, 


1849 


Charles R. Corning, 


1890 


Amos Hadley, 


1853 


John C. Ordway, 


1891 


Asa McFarland, 


1857 






CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES. 




Nathaniel A. Haven, 


Jr., 1823 


George G. Fogg, 


1878 


John Farmer, 


1825 


John J. Bell, 


1880 


Ira Perley, 


1839 


Charles L. Tappan, 


1888 


Moses G. Thomas, 


1841 


Sylvester Dana, 


1889 


Nathaniel Bouton, 


1844 








TREASURERS. 




George Kent, 


1823 


Joseph C. A. Wingate, 


i860 


Samuel Sparhawk, 


1825 


Edward Sawyer, 


1862 


George Kent, 


1830 


William R. Walker, 


1865 


Samuel Fletcher, 


I837 


Charles W. Sargent, 


1869 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



435 



Asa McFarland, 1839 

Ebenezer E. Cummings, 1844 

Ebenezer S. Towle, 1845 



Samuel S. Kimball, 
William P. Fiske, 



1875 
1885 



LIBRARIANS. 



Jacob B. Moore, 1823 

Moses Eastman, 1830 

Abner B. Kelley, 1835 

Jacob B. Moore, 1837 

Nathaniel Bouton, 1841 

Joseph B. Walker, 1845 

William Prescott, 1850 

William F. Goodwin, i860 



Charles W. Sargent, 1867 

Benjamin P. Stone, 1868 

William H. Kimball, 1871 

Nathaniel Bouton, 1872 

Samuel C. Eastman, 1873 
Daniel F. Secomb (Acting). 

Isaac W. Hammond, 1887 

Charles L. Tappan, 1890 



NECROLOGISTS. 



Irving A. Watson, 
Joseph B. Walker, 



1885 Eli E. Graves, 
1889 



AUDITORS. 



John Farmer, 1823 

Richard Bartlett, 1824 

George Kent, 1825 

Henry B. Chase, 1826 

Richard Bartlett, 1827 

Jacob B. Moore, 1832 

Samuel Fletcher, 1833 

Sidney P. Webster, 1834 

Abner B. Kelley, 1835 

Thomas Chadbourne, 1836 

Richard Bradley, 1839 

Samuel Fletcher, 1841 

Ira Perley, 1842 

Francis N. Fisk, 1849 

James M. Rix, > ~ 

Samuel Coffin, £ ■* 

Matthew Harvey, .^52 

Joseph B. Walker, 1855 

Ebenezer E. Cummings, 1861 

Francis N. Fisk, 1862 



John J. Bell, ) 

John M. Shirley, $ 

Abel Hutchins, 
Parsons B. Cogswell, 

Parsons B. Cogswell, 
Abel Hutchins, 

Abel Hutchins, > 
John A. Harris, £ 

Woodbridge Odlin, ) 
Joseph C. A. Hill, $ 

Woodbridge Odlin, 
Arthur Fletcher, 

Woodbridge Odlin, 
Isaac K. Gage, 



1894 

1866 
1867 
1868 
1872 

1875 

1878 

1882 
1888-1894 



Ebenezer S. Towle, 
xMoses H. Bradley, 



1865 






43$ 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



STANDING COMMITTEE. 



Nathaniel Adams, 
Nathan Parker, 
Hosea Hildreth, 



Nathaniel Adams, 
Nathan Parker, 
Oliver W. B. Peabody, 

Oliver W. B. Peabody, 
Matthew Harvey, 
Henry B. Chase, 

Matthew Harvey, 
Oliver W. B. Peabody, 
Henry B. Chase, 



William Prescott, 
Parker Noyes, 
Richard Bartlett, 

William Prescott, 
James Bartlett, 
Alexander Ladd, 



Richard Bartlett 
Andrew Peirce 
Henry B. Chase 



:} 



Jacob B. Moore, 
Moses G. Thomas 
Moses Long, 



•) 



Nathaniel G. Upham, 
Jacob B. Moore, 
Samuel Fletcher, 

Nathaniel G. Upham, 
Jacob B. Moore, 
Samuel D. Bell, 



William A. Kent, 
Samuel D. Bell, 
Philip Carrigain, 



Thomas Chadbourne, 
Petrus S. Ten Broeck, 
Cummings, 



Ebenezer E. Cummings, 
1823 Richard Bradley, 

Petrus S. Ten Broeck, 

Ebenezer E. Cummings, 

1825 Frank Pierce, 
Petrus S. Ten Broeck, 

Asa McFarland, 

1826 Petrus S. Ten Broeck, 
Salma Hale, 



Asa McFarland, 
827 Salma Hale, 

William Prescott. 



William Prescott, 
1829 Ebenezer E. Cummings, 
Ebenezer S. Towle, 



Asa McFarland, 

1830 Salma Hale, 
William Prescott, 

Asa McFarland, 

1 83 1 Salma Hale, 
Joshua W. Pierce, 

Asa McFarland, 

1832 Joshua W. Pierce, 
Chandler E. Potter, 



1834 



Daniel Lancaster, 
Joshua W. Pierce, 
Richard Bradlev, 



Ebenezer E. 



Daniel Lancaster, 
1837 Joseph B. Walker, 
William H. Bartlett, 



Daniel Lancaster, 
1838 Joseph B. Walker, 

Ebenezer E. Cummings, 

Asa McFarland, 
1840 Joseph B. Walker, 

Ebenezer E. Cummings, 



1841 
1842 
1844 

1845 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1856 



OFFICERS OF 


THE SOCIETY. 


437 


Joseph B. Walker, ) 
-Ebenezer E. Cummings, > 
Asa McFarland, ) 


1858 


Joseph B. Walker, ^ 
Ebenezer S. Towle, > 
William B. Towne, ) 


1871 


Benjamin P. Stone, ^ 
George W. Smith, > 
Joseph B. Walker, ) 


i860 


Joseph B. Walker, ^ 
Ebenezer S. Towle, > 
Enoch Gerrish, y 


1872 


Benjamin P. Stone, ") 
Joseph B. Walker, S 
William Prescott, ) 


1861 


Joseph B. Walker, ^) 
Joseph C. A. Hill, S 
Sylvester Dana, ) 


1878 


Benjamin P. Stone, ^ 
William Prescott, > 
Samuel C. Eastman, ) 


1866 


Joseph B. Walker, ^ 
Sylvester Dana, > 
Joseph C. A. Hill, ) 


1880 


William Prescott, ^ 
Samuel C. Eastman, > 
George W. Murry, ) 


1869 


Joseph B. Walker, ^ 
Joseph C. A. Hill, > 
Isaac K. Gage, ) 


1887 


Samuel C. Eastman, ^ 
Austin F. Pike, S 
Joseph B. Walker, ) 


1869 


Joseph B. Walker, ") 
Joseph C. A. Hill, £ 
Howard L. Porter, ) 


1888-1894 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE. 



William Plumer, 
Parker Noyes, 
John Farmer, 



Jr. 



William Prescott, 
1823 John Farmer, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 



1832 



James F. Dana, 
Richard Bartlett, 
George Kent, 



Richard Bartlett, 
William Plumer, Jr. 
Jacob B. Moore, 



John Farmer, 

1825 Nathaniel Bouton, 
Isaac Hill, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 

1826 John Kelley, 
Isaac Hill, 



1833 



1839 



John Farmer, 
Richard Bartlett, 
George Kent, 

Richard Bartlett, 
John Farmer, 
Jacob B. Moore, 



John Fanner, 
Richard Bartlett 
Jacob B. Moore 



r) 



Nathaniel Bouton, 
1829 Isaac Hill, 
John Kelley, 



1830 



Joel Parker 
Isaac Hill, 
John Kelley 



:} 



Joel Parker, 

1831 Nathaniel Bouton, 
William Cogswell, 



841 



1842 



1844 



«■ 



43» 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Joel Parker 
Nathaniel Bouton 
Alexander Ladd 



>n, i 



Nathaniel Bouton, *\ 
Alexander Ladd, 
Asa McFarland, 
Joseph B. Walker, 



William Cogswell, 
Nathaniel Bouton, 
Alexander Ladd, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 
Alexander Ladd, 
James M. Rix, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 
James M. Rix, 
John Kelley, 

William Plumer, 
Nathaniel Bouton, 
James M. Rix, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 
James M. Rix, 
Edmund Worth, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 
Edmund Worth, 
Asa McFarland, 

Nathaniel Bouton, 
Asa McFarland, 
Dyer H. Sanborn, 



Samuel D. Bell, 
William F. Goodwin, 
Nathaniel Bouton, 



Samuel D. Bell, 
Nathaniel Bouton, 
Ebenezer E. Cummings, 

Samuel D. Bell, 
Ebenezer E. Cummings, 
William L. Foster, 



1846 



1848 



1849 



850 



1851 



Samuel D. Bell 
Chandler E. Potter 
William L. Foster 



:■} 
} 
■} 

William L. Foster, *) 
John J. Bell, V 

Albert R. Hatch, ) 



William L. Foster, 
John J. Bell, 
John M. Shirley, 



William L. Foster, 
John J. Bell, 
Samuel C. Eastman 

William L. Foster 
John J. Bell, 
William B. Towne 



William L. Foster, 
John J. Bell, 

1854 Erastus P. Jewell, 

William L. Foster, 
John J. Bell, 

1855 Jonathan E. Sargent, 



1856 



1857 



i860 



1862 



1867 



William L. Foster, 
John J. Bell, 
Moses T. Runnels, 

Charles H. Bell, 
Amos Hadley, 
Samuel C. Eastman 



.} 



Charles H. Bell, 
Isaac W. Hammond, 
Albert S. Batchellor, 

Charles H. Bell, 
* Isaac W. Hammond, 
Charles L. Tappan, 

(Acting) 
George L. Balcom, 



1868 



869 



1875 



1876 



1878 



1879 



1881 



1882 



1884 



1887 



1890 



'Died, 1890. 



]f vl -•*-.»■ ,...»ti.,-»i*. „ 



HmUMi r ii m i ii ii ii rn-i i if i rrf i rn » Mii vi ii i i n -inr 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Charles H. Bell, 
Benjamin F. Prescott, 
George L. Balcom, 

Albert S. Batchellor, 
Charles L. Tappan, 
George L. Balcom, 



1892 



Charles L. Tappan, 
John L. Far well, 
Albert S. Wait, 

Charles L. Tappan, 
John C. Ordwav, 
Albert S. Wait,' 



439 
1893 

1894 



LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 



Joseph B. Walker, 
John J. Bell, 
Samuel C. Eastman, 



Joseph B. Walker, 
John J. Bell, 
John A. Harris 



:er, ^ 



Joseph B. Walker, 
John J. Bell, 
James DeNormandie 



Joseph B. Walker, 
Daniel F. Secomb 
James DeNormandie 

Joseph B. Walker, 
James DeNormand 
Samuel C. Eastman 



■Amos Hadley, 
Parsons B. Cogswell 
Samuel C. Eastman 



J 

lie,) 



Amos Hadley, 
Edward H. Spalding, 
Jonathan E. Pecker, 



873 



1876 



878 



1879 



1880 



1882 



Jonathan E. Pecker, 
Edward H. Spalding, 
John C. Ordway, 

Jonathan E. Pecker, 
John C. Ordway, 
Edson C. Eastman, 



Jonathan E. Pecker 
John C. Ordway, 
Charles L. Tappan 



':} 



John C. Ordway, 
Samuel C. Eastman, 
Jonathan E. Pecker, 

John J. Bell, 
Jonathan E. Pecker, 
Nathan F. Carter, 

John J. Bell, 
Nathan F. Carter, 
Jonathan E. Pecker, 

Albert S. Batchellor, 
Nathan F. Carter, 
Jonathan E. Pecker, 



1887 



1888 



1889 



1890 



1891 



1893-1894 



HONORARY MEMBERS, 

1874 TO 1895. 



[Continued from Vol. 1, Page 18.] 
Adams, George Franklin, Secretary of Kansas 



Historical Society, 
Amory, Thomas C, Hon. 
Andrews, Israel W. 
Bellas, Henry Hobart, Capt., 
U. S. A. Germantown, 
Beljame, U., Prof. 
Bouton, Christopher Bell 
Broglie, Due de 
Buddy, Charles R. 

Chamberlain, Mellen, Hon. 
Clapp, William W., Hon. 
Curtis, George T., Hon. 



Topeka, Kansas, 
Boston, Mass., 
Marietta, Ohio, 

Philadelphia, Penn. 
Paris, France, 
Chicago, Illinois, 
Paris, France, 
Denton, Texas, 

Boston, Mass., 
Boston, Mass., 
New York City, 



Gibson, Miss Emma Elizabeth Medford, Mass., 
Gilman, Daniel C, Pres't. Baltimore, Maryland, 

Holmes, William F. Castleton, Dakota, 

Hotchkiss, William H.,m.d. New Haven, Conn., 
Hough, Franklin B., Hon. New York City, 
Howard, Cecil Hamden Cutts Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Hubbard, Adolphus Skinner, Col. 

San Francisco, Cal., 
Hubbard, Oliver P., Prof. New York City, 

Lamb, Mrs. Martha J. New York City, 

Lainsbury, W. Noel, Esq. Assistant keeper of Her 
Majesty's Records, London, England, 



Elected. 

Oct. 13, 1892 
June 10, 1874 
June 1 r, 1884 



Oct. 
June 
Oct. 
June 
June 



4, 1894 
14, 1876 

3> 1893 
n, 1884 
it, 1884 



Sept. 30, 1887 

Dec. 20, 1888 

June 9, 1880 

June 8, 1881 

June 9, 1880 

June 11, 1884 

June 11, 1884 

June 13, 1883 

Oct. 13, 1892 

Oct. 4, 1894 

June 12, 1889 

Sept. 5, 1888 

June 12, 1889 



«j r r - fll fl rilfrftTtf i rni^^ ii'mrri mi- rwii 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 44I 

Marshall, Jonathan New York City, June * 9, 1880 

McCauley, William, Hon. Salem, Roanoke Co., Va., June 8, 1881 

Potter, Mrs. Francis McNiel Brooklyn, N. Y., June 8, 1881 

Preble, George H., Rear- Adm'l Brookline, Mass., June 9,1880 

Prime, William C. New York City, June 8,1881 

Richardson, William A., Hon. Washington, D. C, June 9, 1886 

Sawyer, Nathaniel J., m. d. Frankfort, Kentucky 

Snow, Marshall S., Prof. St. Louis, Mo., 

Stedman, Edmund Clarence New York City, 

Stephens, B. F. London, England, 

Tuttle, Charles W., Esq. Boston, Mass., 

Walker, Nathaniel U. Boston, Mass., 

Watson, Alexander T., M. D. Dresden, Saxony, 
Webster, N. B., Prof. Norfolk, Va., 

Wentworth, John, Hon. Chicago, Illinois, 

Willey, William Lithgow, Capt. Boston, Mass., 
Winslow, William Copley, Rev., D. C. L., ll. d. 

Boston, Mass., 
Winthrop, Robert C, Hon. Boston, Mass., 



June 


11, 


1884 


June 


13. 


1894 


June 


7, 


1885 


June 


12, 


1889 


June 


9* 


1880 


June 


11, 


1884 


June 


14, 


1876 


June 


9> 


1880 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Oct. 


4, 


1894 


June 


I3» 


1894 


June 


8, 


1881 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS, 
1874 to 1895. 



Barrows, Charles D., Rev. Lowell, Mass., 
Belknap, George Eugene, Capt. 



June 



1880 





Pensacola, Florida, 


June 


* * » 


1879 


Boyd, Francis, Esq. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


13, 


1883 


Brown, John B., Gen. 


Portland, Me., 


June 


II. 


1879 


Burton, George T., Esq. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1893 


Butterfield, Henry L., M. D. 


Waupun, Wis., 


June 


13. 


1877 


Butterfield, J. Ware 


Florence, Kan., 


Nov. 


15. 


1888 


Cameron, Angus, Hon. 


La Crosse, Wis., 


June 


11, 


1879 


Cate, Eliza J., Miss 


Northampton, Mass., 


June 


9> 


1880 


Cilley, Jonathan 


Thomaston, Me., 


June 


13. 


1877 


Cilley, Jacob G., Mrs. 


Cambridge, Mass., 


June 


I3» 


1883 


Crump, William C. 


New London, Conn., 


June 


11, 


1879 


Cutter, William R. 


Woburn, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1882 


Dana, Edmund L., Hon. 


Wilkesbarre, Pa., 


June 


11. 


1879 


Darling, Charles W., Gen. 


Oneida, N. Y., 


June 


10, 


1885 


Dean, John Ward 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


10, 


1874 


Dinsmoor, James, Esq. 


Sterling, 111., 


June 


14, 


1893 


Dinsmore, William 


New York City, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Eastman, Edmund T., m. d. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1882 


Elliott, George M. 


Lowell, Mass., 


June 


II. 


1879 


Ellis, George E., D. D. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


Hi 


1879 


Elwell, Edward H., Hon. 


Portland, Me., 


Sept. 


5^ 


1888 


Emery, George E. 


Lynn, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1882 


Emmons, John L. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1882 



Fearing, Albert, Hon. 
Fogg, Jennie Bouton, Mrs. 



Hingham, Mass., June 10, 1874 

South Wey mouh , Mass .,June 11, 1890 



w— 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



443 



Fogg, William Perry 
Folsom, A. A. 
Fox, Gustavus V. 

Gibson, Ellen, Miss Rev. 
Gilman, Bradley, Rev. 
Gilman, J. T., m. d. 
Goodell, Abner C, 
Gordon, George A. 
Greenough, Charles P. 

Hale, George S., Hon. 
Harvey, Peter, Hon. 
Haskell, Edwin B. 
Haynes, Henry W., Prof. 
Hewey, Hetta M., Miss 
Hill, Horatio, 
Hobart, Harrison C, Gen. 
Huguet-Latour, L. A., Major, 
Hutchinson, Charles W., Hon. 

Jameson, Ephraim O., Rev. 
Jenness, John S. 

Ketchum, Silas, Rev. 
Kingsley, William L. 

Landham, Alfred 

Le Bosquet, John, Rev. 

Littlefield, George E. 

Mason, John Edwin, m. d. 
Mason, Robert M. 
McClintock, John N., Esq. 
McMurphy, J. G., Rev. 
Merrill, Samuel, Hon. 

Parsons, Calvin 
Peabody, Charles A., Hon. 
Perry, John T. 
Pierce, Fred. C, Col. 
Poore, Ben Perley, 
Porter, Edward G., Rev. 



Cleveland, O., 


June 


12, 


1878 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


8, 


1887 


Lowell, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1876 


Barre, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1882 


Springfield, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1893 


Portland, Me., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Salem, Mass., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Lowell, Mass., 


June 


12, 


1878 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


9, 


1880 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


9, 


1875 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


io, 


1874 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


9, 


1880 


New Bedford, Mass., 


June 


ii, 


1890 


Chicago, 111., 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Milwaukee, Wis., 


June 


8, 


1887 


Montreal, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Utica, N. Y. 


June 


12, 


1876 


Millis, Mass., 


June 


9, 


1886 


New York City, 


June 


9, 


1875 


Maple wood, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1876 


New Haven, Conn., 


June 


10, 


1874 


Montreal, 


June 


9, 


1875 


Southville, Mass. 


June 


ii, 


1884 


Boston, Mass., 


Nov. 


15, 


1888 


Washington, D. C, 


June 


21, 


1888 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


10, 


1874 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1893 


Racine, Wis., 


June 


13, 


1894 


Des Moines, la. 


June 


14, 


1882 


Wilkesbarre, Pa., 


June 


1 1, 


1879 


New York City, 


June 


9, 


1875 


Cincinnati, 0., 


June 


12, 


1878 


Rockford, 111., 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Newburyport, Mass., 


June 


n, 


1879 


Lexington, Mass., 


June 


14. 


1882 



444 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Prescott, Addison, 


Topeka, Kan., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Prescott, John H., Hon., 


Salina, Kan., 


June 


14, 


1882 


Quincy, Edmund, 


Dedham, Mass., 


June 


10, 


1874 


Raikes, G. A., Major 


London, Eng., 


June 


8, 


1887 


Rollins, Daniel 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


13, 


1883 


Rollins, Edward A., Hon. 


Philadelphia, Pa., 


June 


ii, 


1879 


Savage, James \V. 


Omaha, Neb., 


June 


9. 


1875 


Seward, J. L., Rev. 


Lowell, Mass., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Slafter, Edmund F., Rev.,D.E 


. Boston, Mass., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Spaulding, Samuel J., Rev. 


Newburyport, Mass., 


June 


9> 


1875 


Stearns, Charles S. 


Charlestown, Mass., 


June 


12, 


1878 


Stone, Eben F., Col. 


Newburyport, Mass., 


June 


fl ! 


1879 


Thatcher, Henry K., Rear-Adm'l 










Winchester, Mass., 


June 


9> 


1875 


Train, Charles R., Hon. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


11, 


1879 


Tucker, W. Howard 


Hartford, Vt., 


June 


11, 


1890 


Tucker, William W., Hon. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


13, 


1883 


Turtle, Charles W. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


10, 


1874 


Wadleigh, Henry W. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


13. 


1877 


Warner, William F., Esq. 


Waverly, N. Y., 


June 


8, 


1881 


Wentworth, John, Hon. 


Chicago, 111., 


June 


11, 


1879 


Whitmore, W. H. 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


12, 


1889 


Witherow, Thomas, Rev.,D.D 


. Londonderry, Ire., 


June 


13, 


1893 


Woodbury, Augustus, Rev. 


Providence, R. I., 


June 


9. 


1875 


Woodbury, Charles Levi, Hon 


Boston, Mass., 


June 


14, 


1876 


Woodward, Royal 


Albany, N. Y., 


June 


9. 


1880 



> I I illillllHHMIIIHH 



tt»wiiwgd*hta<a 



RESIDENT MEMBERS, 

QUALIFIED ACCORDING TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIETY. 
1874 TO 1895. 



[Continued from Vol. 1, Page 14.] 



Abbot, Francis L. 


Concord, 


May 


9» 


1888 


Abbott, Henry, Hon. 


Winchester, 


Jan. 


7, 


1885 


Abbott, Joseph B. 


Keene, 


June 


i3> 


1877 


Achard, Herman Jacoby, M. d 


Manchester, 


Sept. 


12, 


1894 


Aiken, Edward, M. d. 


Amherst, 


June 


9> 


1886 


Allen, W. H. H. 


Claremont, 


Jan. 


i9> 


1888 


Amsden, Charles H. 


Penacook, 


Oct. 


27, 


1887 


Andrews, Frank P. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


I9> 


1888 


Baer, Mrs. Annie W. 


Salmon Falls, 


Sept. 


16, 


1889 


Bailey, Arthur C. 


Newport, 


Nov. 


14. 


1893 


Baker, Henry M., Hon. 


Bow, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Balcom, George L., Hon. 


Claremont, 


June 


9> 


1875 


Ballard, John, Dea. 


Concord, 


Sept. 


16, 


1889 


Barnard, William M. 


Franklin, 


June 


n» 


1884 


Barry, John E., Rev., v. G. 


Concord, 


May 


8, 


1888 


Bartlett, Mrs. Caroline B. 


Concord, 


June 


21, 


1888 


Bartlett, James W. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Batchellor, Albert S. 


Littleton, 


June 


11, 


1884 


Beane, S. C, Rev. 


Concord, 


June 


12, 


1878 


Belknap, Horatio G. 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


1879 


Bell, Mrs. Cora K. (Life) 


Exeter, 


June 


10, 


1885 


Bell, Charles H., Hon. 


Exeter, (Life Mem 


. June 


10, ] 


874) 


Bell, Mrs. Mary E. 


Exeter, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Bingham, Harry, Hon. 


Littleton, 


June 


14, 


1893 


Bixby, A. H., Major 


Francestown, 


June 


14, 


1893 



4 



446 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Blake, Amos J., Hon. 
Bodwell, Albert Edward 
Briggs, William S. 
Brown, Edmund H. 
Brown, Elisha R. 
Burleigh, Alvin 
Burrows, Joseph 
Busiel, Charles A., Gov. 

Carpenter, Alonzo P., Judge 

Carpenter, Mrs. Julia R. 

Carter, Buel C. 

Carter, Nathan Franklin, Rev. 

Carr, Clarence E. 

Cartland, Charles S. 

Chamberlin, Horace E. 

Chandler, Abiel 

Chandler, George B. 

Chase, William M., Judge 

Cheney, Thomas P., Col. 

Cilley, Harry B. 

Clapp, T. Eaton, d. d. 

Clifford, Cornelius E. 

Cochrane, Warren R., Rev., d. d. 

Cogswell, Elliott E., Rev. 

Colby, Ira 

Colby, James F., Prof. 

Cook, Howard M. 

Copeland, William J. 

Corning, Benjamin Henry 

Corning, Charles R., Hon. 

Crane, Cephas B., Rev., d. d. 

Cressey, Mrs. Annette M. R. 

Cross, George N. 

Cruft, George T., Gen. 

Currier, Moody, Gov. 

Daniell, Warren F. 
Davis, J. G., Rev., d. d. 
Dearborn, John J., M. d. 
De Normandie, James, Rev. 
Dodge, Isaac B. (Life, 1893) 



Fitzwilliam, 


June 


9» 


(8 75 


Concord, 


March 


18, 


[890 


Keene, 


Jan. 


7, > 


885 


Penacook, 


June 


13* 


[894 


Dover, 


June 


10, 


[874 


Plymouth, 


June 


8, 


[881 


Plymouth, 


June 


12, 


[878 


Laconia, 


June 


13, 


[894 


Concord, 


Jan. 


I9> 


[888 


Concord, 


Jan. 


J 9> 


[888 


Wolfeborough, 


June 


10, 


[874 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


[890 


Andover, 


June 


12, 


[878 


Lee, 


Oct. 


1, 


[884 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


[879 


Concord, 


June 


10, ] 


[874 


Manchester, 


Jan. 


7, 


[885 


Concord, 


June 


I3» 


[877 


Ashland, 


June 


10, 


[885 


Concord, 


Jan. 


i9> 


[888 


Manchester, 


March 


20, 


[895 


Concord, 


Jan. 


I9» 


[888 


Antrim (Life), 


June 


8, 


[881 


North wood, 


June 


14, 


[876 


Claremont, 


June 


*3> ^ 


888 


Hanover, 


June 


13, 


894 


Concord, 


Oct. 


13, 1 


892 


Great Falls, 


Oct. 


1, 1 


884 


Littleton, 


Sept. 


12, ] 


894 


Concord, 


June 


10, ] 


874 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Concord, 


June 


I3» 1 


888 


Exeter, 


June 


9» 


886 


Bethlehem, 


Sept. 


7. 1 


886 


Manchester, 


June 


14, > 


882 


Franklin, 


Oct. 


27, 1 


887 


Amherst, 


June 


10, 1 


874 


Salisbury, 


June 


9» 1 


880 


Portsmouth, 


June 


9» » 


875 


Amherst, 


Oct. 


27, 1 


S87 



iwuii^irt&iilWBEa 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



447 



Dowst, John, 


Manchester, 


June 


13. 


1894 


Dufant, £. J. 


Lebanon, 


June 


11, 


1879 


Eastman, Albert L. 


Hampstead, 


June 


I3» 


1877 


Eastman, Charles F. 


Littleton, 


June 


14, 


1876 


Eastman, Cyrus, 


Littleton, 


June 


14. 


1876 


Eastman, Edson C. 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Eastman, Mrs. Mary Whittemore 


Concord, 


Oct. 


4. 


1894 


Eaton, Mrs. Harriet Newell 


Concord, 


Oct. 


10, 


1889 


Edgerly, James A. 


Somers worth, 


June 


1 2 


1878 


Elwyn, Alfred L., Rev. 


Portsmouth, 


June 


*3> 


1877 


Elwyn, John, Hon. (Elected June 9, 1869) 








Portsmouth, Qualified June 


9> 


1875 


Emerson, Moses R. 


Concord, 


June 


11. 


1879 


Emery, George E. 


Exeter, 


June 


9> 


1875 


Evans, Mrs. Pauline L. (Bowen) 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 


Farr, Charles A. 


Littleton, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Farr, Evarts W. 


Littleton, 4 


June 


11. 


1879 


Fanvell, John L. 


Claremont, 


June 


9. 


1875 


Faulkner, Francis C. 


Keene, 


Sept. 


30, 


1887 


Fergusson, W. A. 


Lancaster, 


Dec. 


20, 


1888 


Fiske, William P. 


Concord, • 


June 


14. 


1882 


Fitts, James H., Rev. 


South Newmarket, 


June 


14, 


1882 


Fletcher, Arthur 


Concord, 


June 


9> 


1875 


Foote, Charles E. 


Penacook, 


June 


13. 


1894 


Fowler, Trueworthy Ladd 


East Pembroke, 


Sept. 


29. 


1891 


French, John C. 


Manchester, 


Apr. 


24. 


188S 


Frisbie, Franklin Senter 


Boston, Mass., 


Oct. 


13. 


1892 


Frye, John E. 


East Concord, 


Oct. 


10, 


1889 


Gerould, Edward P. 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


1879 


Gilman, J. Bradley, Rev. Concord, (Cor. Mem. 1893) Apr. 


24. 


1888 


Gilman, Edward H., Col. 


Exeter, 


June 


11, 


1884 


Gilmore, George C, Hon. 


Manchester, 


June 


11, 


1879 


Goodenough, John C. 


Littleton, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Gove, Mrs. Maria L. 


Concord, 


Apr. 


24, 


1888 


Graves, Eli E., M. d. 


Boscawen, 


Oct. 


I3» 


1892 


Gray, George Fred 


Dover, 


June 


9* 


1875 


Green, Sullivan D. 


Berlin Falls, 


June 


10, 


1874 



25 



44 8 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Hackett, Frank W. 


Portsmouth, 


June 


10, 1 


874 


Hackett, Wallace 


Portsmouth, 


June 


14, ] 


882 


Hale, Charles S., Rev. 


Claremont, 


June 


14, l 


893 


Hall, Daniel, Col. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


If J 


884 


Hall, Joshua G. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


i* 1 


884 


Hall, Marshall P. 


Manchester, 


June 


12, 


8S9 


Ham, John R., m. d. 


Dover, 


June 


10, i 


874 


Hammond, Isaac W., Esq. 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


[884 


Hammond, Mrs. Martha VV. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 


[S87 


Hammond, Otis G., Esq. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


3» 


1893 


Hardy, Charles C. 


Dover, 


June 


10, 


[874 


Harmon, Charles Libby 


Manchester, 


Sept. 


12, 


[S94 


Harris, Miss Amanda B. 


Warner, 


June 


9> ] 


[880 


Hartshorn, Fred Gilmore 


Manchester, 


Marc! 


1 20, 


1895 


Hatch, John 


Greenland, 


June 


11, 


[884 


Hazelton, John B. 


Suncook, 


June 


8, 


[892 


Herbert, Miss Alma J. 


Concord, 


June 


9- 


[880 


Hill, Edson J. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19, 


[8S8 


Hitchcock, Charles H., Prof. 


Hanover, 


June 


12, 


[878 


Hodgdon, Mrs. Julia A. 


Weare, 


June 


8, 


[881 


Holden, Farwell P. 


Penacook, 


June 


13- 


[S94 


Holden, Paul R. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19, 


tS88 


Holman, Sullivan, Rev. 


Concord, 


June 


II, 


[884 


Hoyt, Miss Jars Elizabeth, M. 


d. Concord, 


Oct. 


4, 


[894 


Hutchins, Stilson 


Laconia, 


Oct. 


6, 


[885 


Jackson, James R. 


Littleton, 


June 


11, ] 


884 


Jenks, George E. 


Concord, 


June 


13. 


1883 


Jordan, Chester B., Hon. 


Lancaster, 


Sept. 


30, 


[887 


Kent, Henry O., Hon. 


Lancaster, 


Sept. 


5. 


[888 


Ketchum, Silas, Rev. 


Bristol, (Cor. Mem 


.) June 


10, 


873 


Kimball, Benjamin A., Hon. 


Concord, 


June 


9. 


(875 


Kimball, Henry A. 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


[890 


Kimball, Mrs. Myra Tilton 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19, 


888 


Kimball, John R., M. d. 


Suncook, 


Jan. 


I9» 


t888 


Kimball, Miss Mary E. 


Lebanon, 


June 


9' 


[880 


Kimball, Samuel S. 


Concord, 


June 


9- 


[875 


Ladd, Alexander H. (Life) 


Portsmouth, 


June 


12, 


[878 


Ladd, Fletcher 


Lancaster, 


June 


I3> 


[894 


Ladd, William S. 


Lancaster, 


June 


11, 


[884 



mmm 



mmmmmmm 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



449 



Lamberton, James Mc, B. A. 


Prof. Concord, 


June 


14, 


1893 


Langdon, Francis E., m. d. 


Portsmouth, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Langdon, Samuel 


Portsmouth, 


June 


13. 


1877 


Lathrop, Moses C. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Linehan, John C, Col. 


Penacook, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Little, George Peabody 


Pembroke, 


Sept. 


5» 


1888 


Long, Mrs. Mary 0. 


Exeter, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Lord, John K., Prof. 


Hanover, 


June 


I3» 


1894 


Luce, Thomas D. 


Nashua, 


June 


8, 


1892 


Lund, Mrs. Lydia F. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 


Mahany, John fit. 


Concord, 


Dec. 


20, 


1888 


Marshall, Anson Southard, ] 


isq. Concord, 


June 


10, 


1885 


Mason, John Edwin, M. D. 


Manchester, 


June 


14. 


1882 


Mathes, Albert O. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


McCIintock, John N., Esq. 










Concord, (C 


or. Mem. June 14, 1893), 


June 


9. 


1880 


McFarland, Henry, Major 


Concord, 


Oct. 


3. 


1893 


Means, Charles T., Hon. 


Manchester, 


June 


ii» 


1890 


Meserve, Arthur L. 


Bartlett, 


June 


14, 


1882 


Miller, Frank W. 


Portsmouth, 


June 


11, 


1873 


Miller, James, Capt., U. S. 


A. Concord, 


Oct. 


4, 


1894 


Mitchell, William H. 


Littleton, 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Morrill, Luther S. 


Concord, 


June 


13. 


1883 


Morrison, Charles R., Hon. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


10, 


1889 


Morrison, Leonard A., Hon 


. Windham, 










(Life, July 10, 1894) 


, June 


14, 


1882 


Morrison, Mortier L. 


Peterborough, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Morrison, William H., Rev. 


Manchester, 


Oct. 


3. 


1893 


Moses, George H. 


Concord, 


Nov. 


14, 


1893 



Nesmith, Miss Annie Franklin, June 9, 1880 
Noyes, Daniel J., Rev., Prof. 

Hanover, (Qualified 1873), June 14,1871 

Nutter, Eliphalet S. Concord, Oct. 6, 1885 



Nutter, John P. 



Concord, 



Jan. 19, 1888 



Odell, Lory, 
Odlin, James E., Rev. 
Odlin, Woodbridge 
Ordway, John C, Esq. 



Portsmouth, June 13, 1877 

Goffstown, Sept. 30, 1887 

Concord (Qualified 1873), J une I2 > l86[ 

Concord. Oct. 6, 1885 



45© 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Palmer, Haven, m. d. 

Parsons, Ebenezer Greenleaf, Rev. 

Parsons, Frank N., Hon. 

Parker, Walter M. 

Patterson. James Willis, Hon. 

Peabody, Leonard W., m. d. 

Pearson, John H. 

Perry, John T. 

Pert, Luther B., Rev. 

Philbrook, Charles F. B. 

Pickering, C. W., Commodore 

Pickering, John J. 

Pinkham, Joseph 

Porter, Mrs. Alice Rosalie 

Porter, Howard L., Gen. 

Porter, Royal H. 

Pratt, Myron J. 

Pray, Thomas J. W., M. D. 

Prescott, Abraham J. 

Proctor, Frank W. 

Quimby, Elihu T., Prof. 
Quinby, Henry B., Esq. 
Quint, Alonzo H., d. d. 

Reding, John R. Portsr 

Richards, Dexter, Hon. 
Robinson, Allan H. 
Robinson, Henry, Hon. 
Rollins, Frank W. 
Rounds, C. C, Prof. 
Ryder, Edward S., m. d. 

Sanders, Charles Henry 
Sargeant, Cyrus, Hon. 
Sargent, Mrs. Louise J. 
Sawyer, Charles H., Gov. 
Schutz, Mrs. Elizabeth P. 
Secomb, Daniel F. 
Shaw, Elijah Morrill, Capt. 
Silsby, Arthur W. 
Silsby, George H. H. 



Plymouth, 


March 


18, 


1890 


Derry, 


April 


24, 


1888 


Littleton, 


June 


14, 


1893 


Manchester, 


June 


13. 


1888 


Hanover, 


Sept. 


5. 


1888 


Henniker, 


June 


10, 


1874 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Exeter, 


June 


13. 


1883 


Londonderry, 


June 


9* 


1875 


Boston, Mass. 


Oct. 


13. 


1892 


Portsmouth, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Portsmouth, 


June 


13, 


1877 


Newmarket, 


June 


11, 


1890 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Keene, 


June 


13. 


1877 


Concord, 


Sept. 


30> 


1887 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 


Andover, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Hanover, 


June 


9> 


1875 


Gilford, 


June 


12, 


1889 


Dover, 


June 


8, 


1881 


nouth, (Qual. 


1875) June 


9> 


1869 


Newport, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


1874 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Concord, 


Apr. 


24, 


1888 


Plymouth, 


June 


14, 


1893 


Portsmouth, 


June 


10, 


1874 


Penacook, 


March 18, 


1890 


Plymouth, 


Sept. 


2 9» 


1891 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 


1887 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Concord, 


Jan. 


7> 


1885 


Concord, 


June 


9. 


1875 


Nashua, 


Oct. 


3» 


1893 


Concord, 


Sept. 


3°> 


1887 


Concord, 


June 


14. 


1876 



■{&,(-mmmtttb*^-- ^>* XM * i ~* a ^- 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



451 



Smith, Mrs. Emma L. 
Smith, John B., Gov. 
Smyth, Frederick, Hon. 
Smyth, Mrs. Marion 
Spalding, George B., Rev. 
Spaulding, Edward H. 
Spofford, Charles Byron 
Stackpole, Paul A., M. D. 
Staniels, Rufus P. 
Stearns, Ezra S., Hon. 
Stevensj Mrs. Ellen Tuck 
Stevens, Mrs. Frances C. 
Stevens, Henry W., Esq. 
Stevens, Lyman D. 
Stevens, William S. 
Stickney, Joseph A. 
Streeter, Frank S., Esq. 
Sulloway, Alvah W. 

Tappan, Mrs. Almira Rice 
Tappan, Charles Langdon, 
Thompson, Andrew J. 
Thorne, John C. 
Todd, George E. 
Tredick, Titus Salter 
Tuck, Amos, Hon. 
Tucker, W. Howard 
Tutherly, William 
Twitchell, A. S. 

Upham, Joseph B., Jr. 

Varney, John R. 

Walker, Charles R., U. d. 
Walker, Mrs. Elizabeth L. 
Walker, Gustavus 
Walker, Isaac, Prof. 
Waterman. Lucius, Rev. 
Watson, Irving A., M. D. 
Welch, John T. 
Wertworth, Mark H. 



Hillsborough, 


Oct. 


3. 1893 


Hillsborough, 


Jan. 


18, 1888 


Manchester, 


June 


21, 1888 


Manchester, 


June 


21, 1888 


Dover, 


June 


10, 1874 


Wilton, 


June 


12, 1878 


Claremont, 


June 


13, 1888 


Dover, 


June 


13. 1883 


Concord, 


June 


11, 1884 


Rindge, 


Sept. 


30, 1887 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 1887 


Concord, 


Sept. 


30, 1887 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 1887 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 1885 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 1884 


Somersworth, 


June 


12, 1878 


Concord, 


June 


n, 1879 


Franklin, 


June 


12, 1889 


(Life) Concord, 


June 


8, 1887 


Rev. (Life) Concord, 


June 


8, 1887 


Laconia, 


June 


11, 1873 


Concord, 


June 


14, 1876 


Concord, 


June 


21, 1888 


Portsmouth, 


June 


13. 1877 


Exeter, 


June 


9. i875 


Lebanon, 


Oct. 


13, 1892 


Concord, 


Sept. 


12, 1894 


Gorham, 


June 


10, 1885 


Portsmouth, 


Jan. 


7, 1885 


Dover, 


Oct. 


16, 1873 


Concord, 


June 


11, 1884 


Concord, 


Oct. 


1, 1884 


Concord, 


June 


12, 1878 


Pembroke, 


June 


11, 1873 


Littleton, 


June 


8, 1892 


Concord, 


June 


11, 1884 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 1884 


Portsmouth, 


June 


8, 1881 



453 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Wheat, Arthur Fitts, m. d. 
White, John A. 
Whitman, Gilbert P. 
Wilkins, Elijah Russell, Rev. 
Wingate, Joseph C. A. 

Yeaton, William 
Young, Aaron H , Col. 



Manchester, 


Sept. 


12, 


1894 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Manchester, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Concord, 


June 


ii, 


1890 


Strathara, 


June 


ii. 


1890 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1892 


Dover, 


June 


8, 


1881 



^■wjay^rfhifrM^^^^ 



ACTIVE RESIDENT MEMBERS, 
June 12, 1895. 



Abbot, Francis L. 


Concord, 


May 


9» 


[888 


Abbott, Henry 


Winchester, 


Jan. 


7. 


[885 


Achard, Herman Jacoby 


Manchester, 


Sept. 


12, 


1894 


Amsden, Charies H. 


Penacook, 


Oct. 


27, 


887 


Andrews, Frank P. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


i9» 


[888 


Averil], Clinton S. 


Milford, 


June 


12, 


[872 


Ayer, Franklin D. 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


[868 


Baker, Henry M. 


Bow, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Balcom, George L. 


Claremont, 


June 


9. 


[875 


Ballard, John, 


Concord* 


Sept. 


16, 


[889 


Baer, Mrs. Annie E. 


Dover, 


Sept. 


16, 1 


889 


Bailey, Arthur C. 


Newport, 


Nov. 


14, 


'893 


Bartlett, Mrs. Caroline B. 


Concord, 


June 


21, ] 


888 


Bartlett, James W. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


[884 


Batchellor, Albert S. 


Littleton, 


June 


* * * 


[884 


Bell, Mrs. Cora K. (Life) 


Exeter, 


June 


10, 


[885 


Bingham, Harry 


Littleton, 


June 


14. 


[893 


Bixby, A. H. 


Francestown, 


June 


14, 


[893 


Blake, Amos J. 


Fitzwilliam, 


June 


9> 


875 


Bodwell, Albert E. 


Concord, 


March 


18, 


[890 


Brown, Edmund H. 


Penacook, 


June 


13, 


[894 


Burleigh, Alvin, 


Plymoutfe, 


June 


8, 


881 


Busiel, Charles A. 


Laconia, 


June 


13, 


[894 


Carpenter, Alonzo P. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19, 


[888 


Carter, Nathan Franklin 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


[890 


Carter, William G. 


Concord, 


June 


12, ] 


872 


Chase, William M. 


Concord, 


June 


13, 


877 


Chamberlin, Horace E. 


Concord, 


June 


13, 1 


879 


Chandler, George B. 


Manchester, 


Jan. 


7, 


885 



454 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Chandler, William E. 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


1863 


Cilley, Bradbury L. 


Exeter, 


June 


u» 


1873 


Cilley, Harry B. 


Manchester, 


Jan. 


i9> 


1888 


Clapp, T. Eaton 


Manchester, 


March 


20, 


1895 


Cochrane, Warren R. (Life) 


Antrim, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Cogswell, Parsons B. 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1864 


Colby, Ira 


Claremont* 


June 


i3» 


1888 


Colby, James F. 


Hanover, 


June 


i3> 


1894 


Cook, Howard M. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


13. 


1892 


Corning, Benjamin H. 


Littleton, 


Sept. 


12, 


1894 


Corning, Charles R. 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


1874 


Cross, David 


Manchester, 


June 


12, 


1872 


Cruft, George T. 


Bethlehem, 


Sept. 


7, 


1886 


Currier, Moody 


Manchester, 


June 


14, 


1882 


Dana, Sylvester 


Concord,. 


June 


10, 


1868 


Daniell, Warren F. 


Franklin, 


Oct. 


27. 


1887 


Dodge, Isaac B. (Life) 


Amherst, 


Oct. 


27. 


1887 


Downing, Lewis, Jr. 


Concord, 


June 


12, 


1867 


Dowst, John 


Manchester,. 


June 


I3» 


1894 


Eastman, Charles F. 


Littleton, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Eastman, Edson C. 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Eastman, Mrs. Mary Whittemore 


Concord, 


Oct. 


4, 


1894 


Eastman, Samuel C. 


Concord, 


June 


11, 


1862 


Edgerly, James A. 


Great Falls, 


June 


12, 


1878 


Elwyn, Alfred L. 


Portsmouth, 


June 


13. 


1877 


Evans, Mrs. Pauline L. (Bo wen) 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 


Farwell, John L. 


Claremont, 


June 


9. 


1875 


Faulkner, Frances C. 


Keene, 


Sept. 


30» 


1887 


Fergusson, W. H. 


Lancaster, 


Dec. 


20, 


1888 


Fiske, William P. 


Concord, 


June 


14, 


1882 


Fitts, James H. 


South Newmarket, 


Jane 


14. 


1882 


Foote, Charles E. 


Penacook, 


June 


13. 


1894 


Fowler, Trueworthy L. 


East Pembroke, 


June 


8, 


1892 


French, John C. 


Manchester, 


April 


24, 


1888 


Frisbie, F. Senter 


Boston, Mass., 


Oct. 


13. 


1892 


Fry, John E. 


East Concord, 


Oct. 


10, 


1889 


*Gage, Isaac K. 


Penacook, 


June 


19. 


1872 



•Died September 10, 1894. 



—■BIT 



jj#^**rt*m*t*^-wk^*mitWimF, r wr«,ii\-4vnrm 



ACTIVE RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



455 



Gerrish, Enoch 
Goodenough, John C. 
Gould, Sylvester C. 
Gove, Mrs. Maria L. 
Graves, Eli E. 

Hackett, Frank W. 

Hackett, Wallace 

Hadley, Amos 

Hale, Charles S. 

Hall, Daniel 

Hall, Marshall P. 

Hammond, Mrs. Martha W. 

Hammond, Otis G. 

Ham, John R. 

Harmon, Charles L. 

Hartshorn, Fred Gilmore 

Hazelton, John B. 

Herbert, Miss Alma J. 

Hill, Edson J. 

Hill, Joseph C. A. (Life) 

Holden, Farwell P. 

Holden, Paul R. 

Hoyt, Miss Jane Elizabeth 

Humphrey, Moses 

Jordan, Chester B. 

Kimball, Benjamin A. 
Kimball, Henry A. 
Kimball, John 
Kimball, Mrs. Myra T. 
Kimball, Samuel S. 

Ladd, Fletcher 
Lamberton, James M. 
Linehan, John C. 
Little, George P. 
Long, Mrs. Mary O. 
Lord, John K. 
Luce, Thomas D. 
Lund, Mrs. Lydia F. 



Concord, 


June 


14, 


1871 


Littleton, 


Oct. 


i, 


1884 


Manchester, 


June 


II, 


1873 


Concord, 


April 


24, 


1888 


Boscawen, 


Oct. 


13, 


1892 


Portsmouth, 


June 


10, 


1874 


Portsmouth, 


June 


14. 


1882 


Concord, 


June 


18, 


1851 


Claremont, 


June 


14, 


1893 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


1884 


Manchester, 


June 


12, 


1889 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 


1887 


Concord, 


Oct. 


3, 


1893 


Dover, 


June 


10, 


1874 


Manchester, 


Sept. 


12, 


1894 


Manchester, 


March 


20, 


1895 


Suncook, 


June 


8, 


1892 


Concord, 


June 


9> 


1880 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


1863 


Penacook, . 


June 


13. 


1894 


West Concord, 


Jan. 


19, 


1888 


Concord, 


Oct. 


4, 


1894 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


1868 


Lancaster, 


Sept. 


30, 


1887 


Concord, g 


June 


9- 


1875 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


1890 


Concord, 


June 


24, 


1869 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 


Concord, 


June 


9* 


1875 


Lancaster, 


June 


13, 


1894 


Concord, 


June 


14. 


1893 


Penacook, 


June 


8, 


1887 


Pembroke, 


Sept. 


5» 


1888 


Exeter, 


June 


8, 


1881 


Hanover, 


June 


13, 


1894 


Nashua, 


June 


8, 


1892 


Concord, 


Jan. 


19. 


1888 



456 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Mahany, John M. 


Concord, 


Dec. 


20, 


1888 


Mathes, A. O. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


I, 


[884 


McFarland, Henry 


Concord, 


Oct. 


3. 


[893 


Means, Charles T. 


Manchester, 


June 


ii, 


[890 


Miller, James. (U. S. A.) 


Concord, 


Oct. 


4, 


1894 


Mitchell, W. H. 


Littleton, 


Oct. 


6, 


[885 


Morrison, Leonard A. (Life) 


Windham, 


June 


14, 


[882 


Morrison, Mortier L. 


Peterborough, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Morrison, William H. 


Manchester, 


Oct. 


3> 


1893 


Moses, George H. 


Concord, 


Nov. 


14, 


1893 


Noyes, John W. 


Chester, 


June 


13, 


[866 


Nutter T John P. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


I9» 


[888 


Odlin, Woodbridge 


Concord, 


June 


12, 


[872 


Olcott, George 


Charlestown, 


June 


12, 


[872 


Ordway, John C. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


1885 


Palmer, Haven 


Plymouth, 


March 


18, 


[890 


Parker, Walter M. 


Manchester, 


June 


i3> 


[888 


Parsons, Ebenezer G. 


Deny, 


April 


24, 


[888 


Parsons, Frank N. 


Franklin, 


June 


14, 


1893 


Peabody, Leonard^W. 


Henniker, 


June 


10, 


[874 


Pearson, John H. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


[885 


Pecker, Jonathan E. 


Concord, 


June 


10, 


[863 


Perry, John T. 


Exeter, 


June 


I3> 


1883 


Philbrook, C. F. B. 


Boston, Mass., 


• Oct. 


i3> 


[892 


Pinkham, Joseph 


Newmarket, 


June 


1 1, 


[890 


Porter, Mrs. Alice Rosalie 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Porter, Howard L. 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Pratt, Myron J. 


Concord, 


Sept. 


3o> 


[887 


*Prescott, Benjamin F. 


Epping, 


June 


11, ] 


1862 


Richards, Dexter 


Newport, 


June 


8, i 


881 


Rollins, Frank W. 


Concord, 


April 


24. 


888 


Rollins, William H. 


Portsmouth, 


June 


8, 


870 


Rounds, C. C. 


Plymouth, 


June 


14, 


8.93 


Sanders, Charles H. 


Penacook, 


March 


18, 


890 


Sargeant, Cyrus 


Plymouth, 


June 


8, ] 


892 


Sargent, Mrs. Louise J. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 1 


887 


* Died February 20, 1895. 









. -., 



rtiMBiMfiwiTfiranimiininffiTfriiii 



immmwiimivmimwmiMm mmtwmtitK mKmmmmKmmmmmammmm 



ACTIVE RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



457 



Sawyer, Charles H. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


i. 


[884 


Schutz, Mrs. Elizabeth P. 


Concord, 


Jan. 


7, 


[885 


*Secomb, Daniel F. 


Concord, 


June 


9* 


1875 


Shaw, Elijah Morrill 


Nashua, 


Oct. 


3. 


(893 


Silsby, Arthur W. 


Concord, 


Sept. 


30 . 


1887 


Smith, Mrs. Emma L. 


Hillsborough, 


Oct. 


3» 


[893 


Smith, Isaac W. 


Manchester, 


June 


io, 


1863 


Smith, Jeremiah 


Cambridge, Mass. 


, June 


13. 


r86o 


Smith, John B. 


Hillsborough, 


Jan. 


I9» 


[888 


Smyth, Frederick 


Manchester, 


June 


21, 


[888 


Smyth, Mrs. Marion 


Manchester, 


June 


21, 


[888 


Spalding, Edward 


Nashua, 


June 


12, 


[872 


Spofford, Charles B. 


Claremont, 


June 


i3» 


[888 


Stackpole, Paul A. 


Dover, 


June 


ii, 


[883 


Stearns, Ezra S. 


Rindge, 


Sept. 


3o. 


[887 


Stevens, Mrs. Ellen Tuck 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 


[887 


Stevens, Mrs. Frances C. 


Concord, 


Sept. 


3°> 


[887 


Stevens, Henry W. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


27, 


[887 


Stevens, Lyman D. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


[885 


Stevens, William S. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


* » 


[884 


Sulloway, Alvah W. 


Franklin, 


June 


12, 


[889 


Tappan, Mrs. Almira Rice (Life) 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Tappan, Charles Langdon (Life) 


Concord, 


June 


8, 


[887 


Thorne, John C. 


Concord, 


June 


14, 


[876 


Towne, William B. (Life) 


Milford, 


June 


8, 


[870 


Tredick, Titus Salter 


Portsmouth, 


June 


13. 


[877 


Tucker, W. Howard 


Lebanon, 


June 


I3» 


1892 


Tutherly, William 


Concord, 


Sept. 


12, 


[894 


Twitchell, A. S. 


Gorhani, 


June 


10, 


885 


Wait, Albert S. 


Newport, 


June 


12, 


[867 


Walker, Charles R. 


Concord, 


June 


ii» 


[884 


Walker, Mrs. Elizabeth L. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


I, 3 


884 


Walker, Isaac 


Pembroke, 


June 


II, 


873 


Walker, Joseph B. 


Concord, 


June 


II, 


845 


Waterman, Lucius 


Laconia, 


June 


8, 


[892 


Welch, John T. 


Dover, 


Oct. 


1, 


884 


Went worth, Mark H. 


Portsmouth, 


Jan. 


8, 


88 [ 


Wheat, Arthur F. 


Manchester, 


Sept. 


12, 


894 


White, John A. 


Concord, 


Oct. 


6, 


[88s 


* Died January 14, 1895. 









45^ NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Whittemore, B. B. 


Nashua, 


June 


12, 1850 


Wilkins, Elijah R. 


Concord, 


June 


8, 1890 


Wingate, Joseph C. A. 


Stratham, 


June 


11, 1890 



Yeaton, William Concord, Feb. 19, 1895 



ACTS AND RESOLVES OF THE LEGISLATURE, 
In Favor of the New Hampshire Historical Society. 



Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Court convened: 

That his excellency the governor be hereby authorized and 
empowered, with the advice and consent of the council, to 
employ some suitable person-and fix his compensation, to be 
paid out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropri- 
ated-to collect, arrange, transcribe, and superintend the pub- 
lication of such portions of the early state and provincial 
records and other state papers of New Hampshire as the gov- 
ernor may deem proper ; and that eight hundred copies of each 
volume of the same be printed by the state printer, and dis- 
tributed as follows : namely, one copy to each city and town in 
the state, one copy to such of the public libraries of the state as 
the governor may designate, fifty copies to the New Hamp- 
shire Historical Society, and the remainder placed in the 
custody of the state librarian, who is hereby authorized to ex- 
change the same for similar publications by other states. 

(Approved August 4, 188 1.) 



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 

in General Court convened ' : 

Section i. The secretary of state is authorized and directed 
to issue an order to the public printer to print and bind eight 
hundred copies of the index to the laws of the state that has 
been prepared in his office, under the act approved September 
11,1883. 



460 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Sec. 2. The volumes of the printed index shall be distributed 
as follows : To the governor ; to each member of the council, 
Senate, and House ; to 

to the New Hampshire Historical Society ; 
one copy each. 

(Approved July 23, 1885.) 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Court convened: 

Section i. The secretary of state is authorized and directed 
to issue an order to the public printer to print and bind eight 
hundred copies of the index to the journals of the Senate and 
House of Representatives that is being made in his office, under 
the act approved September 11, 18S3. 

Sec. 2. The index to the journals shall be labeled and dis- 
tributed in the same way, and to the same persons, officers, and 
libraries, as is provided for the labeling and distributing of the 
index to the laws in chapter 18 of the Session Laws of 1885. 

(Approved August 7, 1889.) 

Resolved by the Se?zate and House of Representatives in 

General Court convened : 

The secretary of state is authorized to purchase copies of the 
history of each regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers which 
served in the War of the Rebellion, to be distributed as follows : 
Five copies for the use of the state library, five for the use of 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, one for the library of 
Dartmouth College, one for the office of the secretary of state, 
one for the office of the adjutant-general, and one for each town 
and city in the state; provided^ that the maximum price to be 
paid per volume for a regiment of three years' service shall in 
no case, except as in special cases hereinafter provided, exceed 
two dollars and fifty cents, which price is authorized for 
volumes containing as much printed matter and as substantially 
bound as the cloth editions of the history of the Fourteenth 
New Hampshire Volunteers, recently published, and in case 
the volume to be purchased under authority of this resolution 



ACTS AND RESOLVES. 46 1 

shall contain less matter than said Fourteenth Regiment 
history, a corresponding reduction from said maximum price 
shall be required, and no such histories shall be purchased 
unless the same shall have been prepared by authority of the 
proper regimental association, shall have been found by 
the governor and council to be, as far as practicable in such 
works, faithfully, impartially, and accurately prepared, histor- 
ically correct, to contain matter not otherwise conveniently ac- 
cessible, and of sufficient reliability and importance to justify 
this patronage ; provided, that in case the history of any reg- 
iment of three years' term or longer, as actually published, can- 
not be obtained at the prices aforesaid on account of historical 
matter necessarily contained therein, the governor and council 
may authorize the secretary of state to purchase the same for 
the purposes aforesaid at such price as they may deem just 
between the parties. 

(Approved October 21, 1887.) 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Court convened : 

Section i. The provisions of the joint resolution in relation 
to the purchase of the histories of military organizations of this 
state in the late war, approved October 21, 1SS7, shall also in- 
clude and be applicable to like works relating to or prepared 
for the First Light Battery, the Sharpshooters, the Naval Con- 
tingent from this state, and the representation from this state in 
the regular army ; provided, that the history of each of these 
•several divisions of the New Hampshire men serving in the 
War of the Rebellion shall not require more than one volume. 

Sec. 2. The secretary of state is authorized to procure, in 
accordance with the provisions of said joint resolution of 1SS7, 
and in addition to the number therein mentioned, fifty copies of 
each of said histories, to be placed in the state libraries of other 
states, and in the libraries of the principal cities of other 
states, or exchanged for similar works, in order that records 
of the part taken in the War of the Rebellion by New Hamp- 
shire organizations may be equally accessible with other 
similar works at the capitals of the country. 
(Approved August 16, 1SS9.) 



462 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in 
General Court convened : 

That the sum of five hundred dollars he hereby appropriated 
and, until otherwise ordered, annually paid to the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, to aid said society in keeping its 
library open to the public ; and the governor is hereby author- 
ized to draw his warrant for the same, to be paid out of any 
money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated. 

(Approved July 30, 1889.) 



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in 

General Court convened : 

SecTiON 1. The commissioners appointed to revise, codify, 
and amend the Public Statutes are authorized and directed to 
prepare for publication the act passed at this session, 
entitled "An act to revise, codify, and amend the Public 
Statutes of the state." 

Sec. 5. The one thousand copies delivered to the secretary 
of state shall be distributed by him as follows: One copy to 
each town in the state, to . . . . . 

to each society, college, and library entitled to receive a copy 
of the laws, ...... 

(Approved April 7, 1891.) 

Public Statutes of New Hampshire, i8gi. Page 36. Sec. 6. 
The secretary shall deposit in the office three copies of the 
printed laws of each session, and shall forthwith send one copy 
to each public library established under 

the laws of the state. 

(Approved February 25, 1S91.) 

Public Statutes of New Hampshire, i8qi^ Page 132. Sec. 16. 
The chairman of the board of selectmen of towns and of 
commissioners of village districts shall transmit to the state 
librarian and to the New Hampshire Historical Society each, 
two copies of all printed reports of the officers of their respec- 



111 m i wimm m m-* - "■ ■"«— — ™ .-m*™— . 



ACTS AND RESOLVES. 463 

tive towns and village districts immediately after the same are 
published. 

(Approved February 25, 1891.) 

Public Laws and Resolves of the State of New Hampshire, 

Passed January Session, 1895. 

Sec. 3. Section iS of Chapter 8 of the Public Statutes is 
hereby amended by inserting after the words U studies" in the 
last line thereof the words, " and all other printed matter of the 
institution." So that said section shall read as follows : ''Sec. 18. 
The principal of each college, academy, seminary, or other 
institution of learning incorporated by the laws of this state, 
shall annually, and before the first day of November of each 
year, forward tq^ the state librarian for the state library two 
copies, and to the New Hampshire Historical Society two 
copies, of each printed catalogue of its officers and students and 
courses of study, and all other printed matter of the institution 
published during the year ending on that date." 

(Approved February 13, 1895.) 
26 



DEED OF BRADLEY MONUMENT LOT. 
Abner Colby to Richard Bradley. 



Know all men by these presents, That 
I, Abner Colby of Concord in the county of Merrimack, and 
state of New Hampshire, Yeoman, for and in consideration of 
the sum of twelve dollars to me in hand, before the delivery 
hereof, well and truly paid by Richard Bradley of Concord 
aforesaid, Esquire, the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowl- 
edge, have given, granted, bargained, and sold, and by these 
presents do give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff, convey 
and confirm unto the said Richard Bradley, his heirs, and as- 
signs, forever a certain piece of land situate in Concord afore- 
said, and bounded and described as follows (to wit) 

Beginning at a stake, standing on the north side of the high- 
way leading from Concord to Hopkmton, at the south east 
corner of Abiel Walker's pasture ; thence easterly by said high- 
way six rods, to a stake ; thence northerly three rods, to a stake ; 
thence westerly six rods to said Abie! Walker's land ; thence 
southerly by said Walker's land three rods to the bound begun 
at: — containing eighteen square rods of land within the fence 
as it now stands ; and lying six rods on said highway, said land 
being sold and conveyed to said Bradley for the erection of a 
monument to perpetuate the memory of persons Massacred by 
the Indians August 12, 1746, O. S. 

To have and to hold the said premises, with all the privileges 
and appurtenances to the same belonging, to him the said 
Bradley and his heirs and assigns, to his and their only proper 
use and benefit forever. And I the said Colby and my heirs, 
executors, and administrators, do hereby covenant, grant, and 
agree, to and with the said Bradley and his heirs and assigns, 



riiiifrYr* """""«""— «-*»"■»■•■ 



DEED OF BRADLEY MONUMENT LOT. 465 

that until the delivery hereof I am the lawful owner of the said 
premises, and am seized and possessed thereof in my own right 
in fee simple, and have full power and lawful authority to 
grant and convey the same in manner aforesaid ; and that the 
said premises are free and clear from all and every encumbrance 
whatsoever ; and that I and my heirs, executors, and adminis- 
trators, shall and will warrant the same to the said Bradley 
and his heirs and assigns, against the lawful claims and de- 
mands of any person or persons whomsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal this seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty six. 

Signed, sealed and delivered Abner Colby. L. S. 

in presence of us, 

Joseph Low, 

George Porter. 



State of New Hampshire. 
Merrimack ss. December 17, 1836. 
Personally appearing, the above named Abner Colby- 
acknowledged the foregoing instrument to be his voluntary act 
and deed-Before me, 

Joseph Low, Justice of the Peace. 
Received and recorded-January 11, 1837, 

Examined, Joseph Robinson, Register. 

Copied from Merrimack County Records, Book 48. Page 340. 



DEED OF BRADLEY MONUMENT AND LOT, 

Richard Bradley to the New Hampshire Historical 

Society. 



Know all men by these presents that I, Richard Bradley of 
Concord in the County of Merrimack and State of New Hamp- 
shire, Esquire, in consideration of one dollar paid to me by the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, and in consideration of a 
desire to perpetuate the memory of an event which constitutes 
•an important item in the History of the State and Country, 

Have given, granted, bargained and sold, and by these 
presents do give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff, convey 
and confirm unto the said Society and their successors forever, 
a certain tract of land situate in Concord aforesaid, on the 
north side of the highway leading to Hopkinton, and bounded 
as follows, viz. : beginning at a stake standing on the north side 
of said highway at the southeast corner of Abiel Walker's land, 
thence easterly by said highway six rods to a stake, thence 
north three rods to a stake, thence westerly six rods to said 
Walker's land, thence southerly by said Walker's land three 
rods to the first mentioned bound, containing eighteen square 
rods of land within the fence as it now stands, together with 
a monument which I have prepared and erected on said land 
to perpetuate the memory of persons massacred by the Indians 
August n, 1746 old style. Being the same land I purchased 
of Abner Colby by his deed dated December 17, 1S36, recorded 
in Merrimack Book 4S Page 340. 

To Have and to Hold the said granted premises with all the 
privileges and appurtenances to the same belonging to them 
the said Historical Society and their successors, to them and 
their only proper use and benefit forever. But case said Society 



if imm'^-fi^^fm^ *™— « 



DEED OF BRADLEY MONUMENT AND LOT. 467 

shall, any time hereafter, become extinct, then said premises to 
revert to my lawful heirs. And I the said Bradley and my heirs, 
executors and administrators, do hereby covenant, grant and 
agree to and with the said Society and their successors, that 
until the delivery hereof I am the lawful owner of the said 
premises, and am seized & possessed thereof in my own right 
in fee simple, and have full power and lawful authority to 
grant and convey the same in manner aforesaid, and that said 
premises are free and clear from all and every incumbrance 
whatsoever ; and that I and my heirs, executors and administra- 
tors shall and will warrant the same to the said Society and 
their successors against the lawful claims and demands of 
any person or persons whomsoever. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this twenty-second day of August in felhe year of our Lord 
eighteen hundred and thirty seven. 

Signed, sealed & delivered Rich'd Bradley. Seal, 
in presence of 

Lewis Hall, 
James Sullivan. 

State of New Hampshire Merrimack ss., August 22, 1837, 
Personally appearing the above named Richard Bradley ac- 
knowledged the foregoing instrument to be his voluntary act 
and deed. 

Before me 

James Sullivan, 

Justice of the peace. 

Merrimack Records. Received March 29, 1S39. Recorded 
Liber 57-page 165. 

Examined, John Townsend, Reg. 

Copied from Deed, in possession of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society. 



WARRANTY DEED. 
Merrimack County Bank to Nathaniel Bouton. 



Know all men by these presents, That the President, 
Directors and Company of the Merrimack County Bank, in 
the State of New Hampshire, for and in consideration of the 
sum of sixteen hundred dollars to them paid by Nathaniel Bou- 
ton of Concord, in the County of Merrimack in the State afore- 
said, Clerk, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have 
given, granted, bargained, and sold, and by these presents do 
give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff, convey and confirm 
unto to the said Bouton, his heirs and assigns, forever, a certain 
tract or parcel of land, with the buildings thereon, situate on 
the east side of Main street in Concord aforesaid, bounded as 
follows, to wit ; beginning on said street at the northwest corner 
of said land, by land of Richard Herbert, thence easterly by 
said Herbert's land about twenty rods to land of the late John 
West ; thence southerly by said West's land about eight rods to 
land of Joseph C. West ; thence westerly by said J. C. West's 
land about thirteen rods to a stake by the northeast corner of 
said J. C. West's barn ; thence northerly two rods and seven- 
teen links to a stake ; thence westerly about five rods to a 
stake within about two feet of the said Bank-house ; thence 
northerly fourteen links to a stake near the northeast corner 
of said Bank-house ; thence westerly by the north end of said 
Bank-house about two rods to said street ; thence by said street 
to the bound begun at ; containing about three fourths of an 
acre, be the same more or less. Excepting and reserving to 
the President, Directors and Company of the Merrimack 
County Bank, their successors and assigns forever, the right of 
way from said Main street, between the house on said prem- 



WARRANTY DEED. 469 

ises and said Bank-house to the land of said Corporation, the 
back side of said Bank-house, two and a half rods easterly of 
the northeast corner of said Bank-house. Also reserving the 
crops now growing on said premises. Said Bouton is to have 
possession of said premises on the first day of October next. 

To have and to hold the said premises, with all the priv- 
ileges and appurtenances to the same belonging, to him the 
said Nathaniel Bouton, his heirs and assigns, to his and their 
only proper use and benefit forever. And the said President, 
Directors and Company of the Merrimack County Bank do 
hereby covenant, grant and agree, to and with the said Nath- 
aniel Bouton and his heirs and assigns, that until the delivery 
hereof, said Corporation are the lawful owners of the said 
premises, seized and possessed thereof in their own right in 
fee simple, and have full power and lawful authority to grant 
and convey the same in manner aforesaid; and that the said 
premises are free and clear of all incumbrances ; and that the 
President, Directors and Company of the Merrimack County 
Bank, shall and will warrant and defend the same to the said 
Bouton and his heirs and assigns, against the lawful claims and 
demands of all persons whomsoever. 

In witness whereof, the President, Directors and Company 
of the Merrimack County Bank, by Isaac Hill, William 
Pickering and Joseph Low, a committee duly appointed at an 
annual meeting of the Stockholders of said Bank, holden at 
the Bank on the fifth day of February 1828, at ten o'clock, 
A. M., " to sell and convey such part of the real estate be- 
longing to the Corporation as they may deem expedient," 
have hereunto set our hands, and the seal of our said Corpor- 
ation, this thirtieth day of June, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty nine. 
Signed, sealed and delivered, Isaac Hill, 

in presence of us, Wm. Pickering, [L. S.] 

J. H. Wilkins, Joseph Low. 

Sterling Sargent. 



470 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

State of New Hampshire, Merrimack ss. June 30, 1829. 
Then personally appeared Isaac Hill, William Pickering and 
Joseph Low, and acknowledged the foregoing to be their 
voluntary act and deed. 

Before, 

Joseph M. Harper, Jus. Peace. 
Received June 30, 1829. 

Examined, Samuel Coffin, Recorder. 
Copied from Merrimack County Records-Book 19. Page 198. 



WARRANTY DEED. 
Merrimack County Bank to Mrs. Emily Chadwick. 



Know all men by these presents, That 
The Merrimack County Bank, by Francis N. Fisk, who was 
duly authorized by vote of the Directors of said Bank, Septem- 
ber 29, 1S51, for and in consideration of the sum of sixty Dol- 
lars, to it in hand, before the delivery hereof, well and truly 
paid by Emily Chadwick of Concord in the County of Mer- 
rimack, wife of Edmund S. Chadwick, the receipt whereof 
is hereby acknowledged, have given, granted, bargained and 
sold and by these presents do give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, 
enfeoff, convey, 'and confirm unto the said Emily Chadwick, 
her heirs and assigns forever, a certain tract of land, situate 
in said Concord, and bounded as follows, to wit: 

Beginning on the easterly side of Main street six inches south- 
erly of the flagging stone of the brick side walk in front of 
said brick building of said Bank, and eighteen inches northerly 
of the northwest corner post of said Chadwick's front yard 
fence; thence easterly on a straight line to land of Nathaniel 
Bouton at a stone post ; thence southerly by said Bouton's land 
about three feet to land of said Chadwick; thence westerly by 
said Chadwick's land to Main street ; thence northerly to place 
of beginning. 

To have and to hold the said granted premises, with all the 
privileges and appurtenances to the same belonging, to 
her, the said Emily Chadwick and her heirs and assigns, 
to her and their only proper use and benefit forever. And 
the said Merrimack County Bank, by F. N. Fisk, and its 
assigns, do hereby covenant, grant, and agree to and with the 
said Emily Chadwick, and her heirs and assigns, that until the 



472 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

delivery hereof, the lawful owner of the said premises, and are 
seized and possessed thereof in its own right in fee simple: 
and have full power and lawful authority to grant, and convey 
the same in manner aforesaid ; that the said premises are free 
and clear from all and every incumbrance whatsoever : and 
that it will warrant and defend the same to said Chadwick and 
her heirs and assigns, against the lawful claims and demands of 
any person or persons whomsoever. 

In witness whereof, the Merrimack County Bank, by F. N. 
Fisk, have hereunto set its hand and seal this twenty sixth day 
of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty four. 

Signed, sealed and delivered, Francis N. Fisk. [L. S.] 
in presence of us, 

Chas. H. Stearns, 

E. S. Towle. 

State of New Hampshire, Merrimack ss. 
Personally appearing the above named Merrimack County 
Bank, by F. N. Fisk, acknowledged the foregoing instrument 
to be its voluntary act and deed-Before me : 
Dated the twenty sixth day of October 1S54. 

E. S. Towle, Justice of the Peace. 
Received May 22, 1857. 

Recorded and examined: Attest 

James Fellows, Register. 
Copied from Merrimack County Records-Book 137. Page 35. 



jwfeatwa ijumiuii— 



WARRANTY DEED. 
Merrimack County Bank to Edward H. Rollins, 



Know all men by these presents, That 



u. s. 

Revenue 

Stamp. 

$3.00. 

Cancelled, 

E. S. Towle. 

Jan. 29, 



The Merrimack County Bank of Concord, in the 
County of Merrimack, State of New Hampshire; a 
corporation duly established by the laws of said 
State, by its President, E. S. Towle, for this pur- 
pose duly authorized by a vote of the Stock- 
holders, passed January 13, 1S6S, for, and in con- 
sideration of the sum of Two Thousand nine hundred and 
Thirty Dollars to it in hand, before the delivery hereof, well 
and truly paid by Edward H. Rollins of the said Concord, 
the receipt whereof it does hereby acknowledge, has given, 
granted, bargained, and sold, and by these Presents does give, 
grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff, convey and confirm unto the 
said Edward H. Rollins, his heirs and assigns forever, A cer- 
tain tract or parcel of land, with the building thereon, situate 
on the east side of Main street, in said Concord, bounded and 
described thus : 

Beginning at a stone post at the southwesterly corner of land 
of Caroline E. Johnson, thence easterly by said Johnson land 
thirty-five feet to the northeast corner of the brick building 
on said premises ; thence southerly by the east side of said 
building nine and one half feet ; thence easterly by said John- 
son land about fifty five and one third feet, to a post at the cor- 
ner of the fence ; thence southerly by said Johnson land about 
forty three feet to the north line of land of Mrs. Edmund S. 



474 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Chadvvick ; thence westerly by said Chadwick's land about one 
hundred and nineteen feet to a stone post standing on the east 
line of said Main street at the northwest corner of said Chad- 
wick land ; thence northerly by said Main street to the bound 
began at. 

Together with a right of way between said brick building 
and the house of said Johnson, over land of said Johnson, ex- 
tending from said Main street to a point two and one half rods 
easterly of the east side of said brick building. 

Reserving the right of occupancy until the first day of 
March 1869, to the " New Hampshire Historical Society," of 
the rooms now occupied by said Society. 

To have and to hold the said granted premises with all the 
privileges and appurtenances to the same belonging, to him 
the said grantee and his heirs and assigns, to his and their only 
proper use and benefit forever. And the said Bank and its 
successors and assigns do hereby covenant, grant and agree to 
and with the said grantee and his heirs and assigns, that until 
the delivery hereof, it is the lawful owner of said premises 
and is seized and possessed thereof in its own right in fee 
simple, and has full power and lawful authority to grant and 
convey the same in manner aforesaid, that the said premises 
are free and clear from all and every incumbrance whatsoever; 
and that it and its successors, shall and will warrant and defend 
the same to said grantee and his heirs and assigns, against the 
lawful claims and demands of any person or persons whom- 
soever. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this twenty ninth day of January, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty nine. 

Signed, sealed and delivered, 

c N 

in presence or us : 

Josiah G. Stiles, E. S. Towle, President. [L. S.] 

Wm. O. Folsom. 



m ^mMti , ^imwmmk<m i m»m : m \ i wnm — ■ — T i wmwm 



WARRANTY DEED. 475 

State of New Hampshire, Merrimack ss. 
Personally appearing the above named E. S. Towle, for said 
* Bank Corporation, acknowledged the foregoing instrument to 
be his voluntary act and deed-before me, 
Dated the 29th day of January 1869. 

Wm. O. Folsom, Justice of the Peace. 

Received February 1, 1S69. 

Recorded and examined : Attest, Wm. O. Folsom, Register. 

Copied from Merrimack County Records-Book 198. Page 282. 



3 3 WARRANTY DEED OF BANK 

E. H. R. BUILDING. 

June 7, 

1869. Edward H. Rollins to New Hampshire 
3 3 Historical Society. 

Know all men by these presents, 
That we, Edward H. Rollins of Concord in the County of 
Merrimack and the state of New Hampshire and Ellen W. 
Rollins wife of the said Edward H. Rollins, for and in consid- 
eration of the sum of three thousand dollars, to us in hand, 
before the delivery hereof, well and truly paid by the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, a corporation duly established 
by law in said state, the receipt whereof we do hereby ac- 
knowledge, have granted, bargained and sold, and by these 
presents do give, grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeoff, con- 
vey and confirm unto the said New Hampshire Historical 
Society, their successors and assigns forever, a certain lot or 
parcel of land, with the brick building standing thereon, situate 
in said Concord on the eastern side of Main street, and bound- 
ed and described as follows, to wit: Beginning at a stone post 
at the South Westerly corner of land of Caroline E. Johnson, 
thence running Easterly by said Johnson land thirty five feet 
to the North Easterly corner of the brick building on said 
premises: thence Southerly by the easterly side of said build- 
ing nine and one half feet : thence Easterly by said Johnson 
land about fifty five* and one third fee:t to a post at the cor- 
ner of the fence : thence Southerly by said Johnson land about 
forty three feet to the Northerly line of land of Mrs. Edmund 
S. Chadwick : thence Westerly by said Chadwick land about 
one hundred nineteen feet to a stone post standing on the East- 
erly line of said Main street at the North Westerly corner of 
said Chadwick land : thence Northerly by said Main street to 

bound begun at. 

♦Should be eighty five. 



■HHHHHHHHHHaHHHHHHHHHHMHHHHHHNf^^ 



WARRANTY DEED. 477 

Together with a right of way between said brick building 
and the house of said Johnson over land of said Johnson, ex- 
tending from said Main street to a point two and one half rods 
Easterly of the Eastern side of said brick building. 

Meaning hereby to convey all the premises and rights to me 
conveyed and granted by the Merrimack County Bank by deed 
dated January 29, 1S69, and recorded in Merrimack Records 
Book 198, Page 282. 

To have and to hold the said granted premises, with all 
the privileges and appurtenances to the same belonging, to 
them the said grantees, and their successors and assigns, to 
their only proper use and benefit forever, And I the said 
Edward H. Rollins for myself and my heirs, executors and 
administrators, do hereby covenant, grant and agree, to and 
with the said grantees, and their successors and assigns, that 
until the delivery hereof I am the lawful owner of the said 
premises, and am seized and possessed thereof in my own 
right in fee-simple ; and have full power and lawful authority 
to grant and convey the same in manner aforesaid ; that the 
said premises are free and clear from all and every incumbrance 
whatsoever ; and that I and my heirs, executors and admin- 
istrators, shall and will warrent and defend the same to the said 
grantees and their successors and assigns, against the lawful 
claims and demands of any person or persons whomsoever. 

And I, Ellen W. Rollins, wife of the said Edward H. Rol- 
lins, in consideration aforesaid, do hereby relinquish my right 
of dower in the before-mentioned premises. 

And we and each of us do hereby release, discharge and 
waive all such rights of exemption from attachment and levy 
or sale on execution, and such other rights whatsoever in said 
premises, and in each and every part thereof, as our Family 
Homestead, as are reserved or secured to us, or either of us, 
by the statute of the State of New Hampshire, passed July 4, 
185 1, entitled "An Act to exempt the Homestead of Families 
from attachment and levy or sale on execution," or by any other 
statute or statutes of said State. 



478 NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and 
seals, this Seventh day of June in the year of our Lord 1S69. 
Signed, sealed and delivered 
in presence of us : 

Henry P. Rolfe. Edward H. Rollins, seal 

Chas. W. Sargent. Ellen W. Rollins. seal 

State of New Hampshire, Merrimack ss. 
Personally appeared the above named Edward H. Rollins & 
Ellen W. Rollins, acknowledged the foregoing instrument to 
be their voluntary act and deed-Before me : 
Dated the Seventh day of June 1869. 

Henry P. Rolfe, Justice of the Peace. 

Merrimack ss. Records. Received June 12, 1869. 

Recorded Lib. 195. Fol. 424. Examioed- 

Thos. M. Lang, Register. 
Copied from Deed, in possession of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society. 



Agreement with Hon. Edward H. Rollins to Purchase 
the Merrimack County Bank Building for the New 
Hampshire Historical Society. 

In case Hon. Edward H. Rollins or his agent shall purchase 
the Merrimack County Bank building and lot in Concord, for the 
sum of twenty eight hundred dollars, we agree that if the same 
shall not within six months after be taken and paid for by or 
in behalf of the N. H. Historical Society, we will indemnify 
him against all loss and expense thereby incurred. 

5 5 

Concord, Dec. 29, 186S. C. H. B. 

Charles H. Bell, Dec. 29, 
N. Bouton, 1868. 

Benj. P. Stone, 5 5 

Edson C. Eastman, 
E. H. Rollins, 
P. B. Cogswell. 



miif ^«iimrTanrnnrTnrnrrr"inmTii ~r r*i~r 



SUBSCRIPTIONS. 



479 



Subscriptions for the Purchase of Bank Building : 

We severally promise to pay to the New Hampshire Histor- 
ical Society the sums set against our respective names, for the 
purpose of purchasing the late Merrimack County Bank lot, 
and building in Concord, to be the absolute property of said 
Society, provided, the sum of three thousand dollars shall be 
raised, or secured to the Society to make said purchase before 
the first day of July, 1869. 

February 6, 1S69. 



Onslow Stearns, 
Richard Bradley, 

E. S. Towle, 
J. B. Walker, 

F. N. Fis^, 
Franklin Pierce, 
E. H. Rollins, 
Isaac Spaulding, 
John Proctor, 

N. Bouton & son, 

John B. Bouton, 
Geo. W. Nesmith, 
Natt Head, 
Edward A. Abbot, 
L. Downing, Jr. 
Edward L. Knowlton, 
N. G. Upham, 
Moses Humphrey, 
Heirs of J. Low, 
Geo. G. Fogg, 
John H. George, 
Barron, Dodge & Co., 
Almon Harris, 
Geo. Clough, 
Geo. A. Pillsbury, 
Austin F. Pike, 
J. Minot, 
27 



Concord, 
Concord, 
Concord, 
Concord, 
Concord, 



$200 
200 
200 
200 
200 $1000 



Concord, 


100 


Concord, 


100 


Nashua, 


100 


Andover, 


100 400 


Concord, 


50 


Franklin, 


5o 


Hooksett, 


50 


Concord, 


50 


Concord, 


50 


Concord, 


5o 


Concord, 


SO 


Concord, 


SO 


Concord, 


5° 


Concord, 


50 


Concord, 


50 


Concord, 


50 


Boscawen, 


5° 


Concord, 


50 


Concord, 


50 


Franklin, 


50 


Concord, 


50 850 



wmmmm 



480 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Benj. P. Stone, 


Concord, 


$25 


Samuel C. Eastman, 


Concord, 


2 5 


Geo. P. Cleaves, 


Concord, 


25 


J. P. Bancroft, 


Concord, 


25 


Anson S. Marshall, 


Concord, 


25 


B. F. Prescott, 


Epping, 


25 


Amos Hadley, 


Concord, 


25 


Ch. W. Sargent, 


Concord, 


25 


J. S. Brown, 


Concord, 


25 


John Kimball, 


Concord, 


25 


Abel Hutchins, 


Concord, 


25 


Wm. E. Chandler, 


Concord, 


25 


Mellen Chamberlain, 


Concord, 


25 


John M. Shirley, 


Andover, 


25 


L. D. Stevens, 


Concord, 


25 


George W. Ela, 


* Allenstown, 


25 


M. T. Willard, 


Concord, 


, 25 


T. H. Ford, 


Concord, 


25 


C. Minot, 


Concord, 


25 


W. P. Ford, 


Concord, 


25 


Mrs. Woolson & 






Miss Herbert, 


Concord, 


25 


S. S. Kimball, 


Concord, 


25 $55° 


Simeon Abbot, 


Concord, 


20 


W. Odlin, 


Concord, 


*5 35 


N. W.Gove, 


Concord, 


10 


Wm. H. Allison, 


Concord, 


10 


John A. West, 


Concord, 


10 


S. Seavey, 


Concord, 


10 


E. G. Parsons, 




10 


J. W. Noyes, 


Chester, 


10 


Calvin Thorn, 


Concord, 


10 


J. B. Rand, 


Concord, 


10 


Wm. B. Durgin, 


Concord, 


10 


J. A. Harris, 


Concord, 


10 


Lewis Baiter, 


Concord, 


10 


J. W. Woodman, 


Hanover, 


10 


J. D. Lyman. 


Exeter, 


10 130 



^pjhj^^Wiiri.'g^y-^^-^. ■«»-^™«™ l I.—— .■~» m .h,».,. j 



LETTER OF HON. C. H. BELL. 48 1 

P. B. Cogswell, Concord, $5 

Peter Dudley, Concord, 5 

Gustavus Walker, Concord, 5 $15 

COLLECTED BY C. H. BELL : 

Jeremiah Smith, Dover, $50 



J. Hamilton Shapley 


Concord, 


10 


Francis Cogswell, 


Andover, 


25 


John J. Bell, 


Exeter, 


25 


John Nesmith, 


Lowell, Mass. 


50 


Joseph W. Merrill, 


Exeter, 


25 


Wm. G. Means, 


Andover, 


25 


Lucius Alden, 


New Castle, 


10 


Charles H. Bell, 


Exeter, 


45 


Raised for 


purchasing Bank Building- 


-$3^45 



$265 



Letter of Hon. C. H. Bell, Commending Dr. Bouton. 

Exeter, N. H. 29 June, 1S71. 

The Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Bouton, of Concord, has corsented, 
in compliance with the request of the New Hampshire Histor- 
ical Society, to wait upon a few gentlemen of Boston and other 
places in New England, and lay before them the designs and 
wishes of the Society, in respect to the preservation of the 
books and documents in its possession, with a view of soliciting 
aid, for the purpose. 

Dr. Bouton is by appointment of the Executive of this State 
the compiler of the very valuable series of N. H. Provincial 
Papers, now in course of publication, and is and for many 
years has been an officer of the Historical Society. Of course 
his knowledge, as well as his statements, of the needs and pur- 
poses of the Society, may be relied on implicitly. I beg to 
commend him, and the object of his visit, most cordially to 
every one to whom this shall be presented. 

Charles H. Bell, 

Pres't N. H. Hist. Society. 



482 



NEW HAMPSHIRE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Subscriptions for Making the Library Building 
Fire Proof. 
We, the undersigned, do hereby agree to contribute the sums 
set against our respective names, to the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society, for the purpose of refitting the Society's build- 
ing, in Concord, N. H., and making it as far as possible fire- 
proof. 

1871-1S72. 
John A. Parker, 
Levi P. Morton, 
Geo. H. Bissell. 
Cyrus P. Smith, 
B. P. Cheney, 
Wm. B. Towne, 
John E. Lyon, 
Chas. A. Grillis, 
R. M. Mason, 
J. Henry Elliott, 
F. E. Parker, 
J. P. Healy, 
S. W. Hale, 
Edmund R. Peaslee, 
Ch. L. Woodbury, 
F. A. Faulkner, 
Wm. O. White, 
S. J. Griffin, 
S. D. Osborne, 
M. F. Crosby, 
P. Dodge, 
W. D. Gookin, 
J. P. Huggins, 
W. W. Bailey, 
Virgil C. Gilman, 
Sam'l T. Worcester, 
B. B. Whittemore, 
F. McDuffee, 
Sam. M. Wheeler, 
David Cross, 
Geo. B. Tvvitchell, 

Raised for refitting Library Building-$n8o. 



New York, 


$200 


New York, 


100 


New York, 


100 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 


100 


Boston, Mass. 


100 


Milford, 


100 


Boston, Mass. 


100 


Nashua, 


50 


Boston, Mass. 


5° 


Keene, 


25 


Boston, Mass. 


25 


Boston, Mass. 


' 25 


Keene, 


20 


New York, 


20 


Boston, Mass. 


10 


Keene, 


10 


Keene, 


10 


Keene, 


10 


Keene, 


10 


Milford, 


10 


Amherst, 


10 


New York, 


10 


New York, 


10 


Nashua, 


10 


Nashua, 


10 


Nashua, 


10 


Nashua, 


10 


Rochester, 


10 


Dover, 


10 


Manchester, 


10 


Keene, 


5 



j-T rt iitilMi^fWIrti^ 



SUBSCRIPTIONS. 483 







Expenses 


of Dr. Bouton: 




June 


26, 


1S71. 


To 


Boston- 


$2.07 


Aug. 


5^ 


44 


44 


Nash ua- 


.85 


(< 


2 3< 


44 


11 


Great Falls- 


.90 


44 


2 4> 


41 


.1 


Dover- 


.80 


14 


29, 


4. 


14 


Manchester- 


1. 00 


Sept. 


7> 


41 


" 


Keene, Fare- 


3-75 


n 


8, 


44 


4. 


Board Bill— 


2.00 


it 


9> 


44 




Keene to Concord- 


3-75 


14 


44 


44 




Nashua to Amherst- 


•35 


It 


44 


(4 




Milford, for Meal- 


•50 


(4 


14 


44 




Amherst- 


i-55 


14 


t( 


U 




Nashua, for Meal- 


•75 


44 


20 


44 




Expenses to Boston- 


4.50 


Mar. 


J 9> 


lS72. 




Fa re- 


2.80 


a 


»( 


14 




Meal s- 


1.45 



Total Expenses- $27.03 
Settled in full, June 4, 1S72. 

N. Bouton. 



Subscriptions for the Purchase of the Portrait of 
Dudley Leavitt. 

The subscribers agree to pay the sums set against their re- 
spective names for the purchase of a portrait of Dudley Lea- 
vitt, for the N. H. Historical Society. 

March 19, 1S75. 



C. H. Bell, 


Exeter, 


$5 


W. H. Y. Hackett, 


Portsmouth, 


5 


T. C. Amory, 




3 


J. B. Walker, 


Concord, 


3 


S. C. Eastman, 


Concord, 


5 


N. White, 


Concord, 


5 


G. G. Fogg, 


Concord, 


2 


Wm. B. Tovvne, 


Milford, 


2 


Edson C. Eastman, 


Concord, 


3 



Amount raised for portrait- $33 



AGREEMENT OF LORENZO SABINE'S HEIRS TO 
CARRY INTO EFFECT THE CODICIL TO HIS 
LAST WILL. 



Whereas, The Honorable Lorenzo Sabine, late of Boston, 
Massachusetts, deceased, did by his last will dated 14 February 
1876, and duly proved and allowed, give and bequeath to his 
wife Elizabeth M. D. Sabine, to hold and enjoy for the term of 
her natural life, his collection of Books, Pamphlets, Manu- 
scripts, Pictures and other articles hereinafter particularly men- 
tioned, and from and after her decease, did give and bequeath the 
same to his daughters Matilda Green McLaren of Eastport, 
Maine, and Abby Deering Sabine of said Boston, in equal shares 
forever : And whereas the said Testator did afterwards draw up 
a codicil to his said last will, wherein he gave and bequeathed 
the said books and other articles to the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society upon certain conditions which are in substance 
included in this instrument, which said codicil the Testator 
failed to execute : 

Now be it known that we the said Matilda Green McLaren 
and the said Abby Deering Sabine, knowing that the said 
Testator intended to execute the said codicil, and desirous, so 
far as it lies in our power to carry his wishes into effect, in con- 
sideration thereof and of the sum of one dollar to us paid by 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, a corporation existing 
under the laws of New Hampshire, and located in Concord in 
said State, do by these presents give, grant, sell, convey and 
confirm to the said Society all the right, title and interest 
which we and each of us have, in and to the entire Collection 
of Books, being nearly four thousand in number, which be- 
longed to the said Testator, including the eight bound volumes 
of his own writings, lettered "Sabine's Writings," including 
also all his Pamphlets and unbound Books of every description, 
together with his framed Picture of Members of the Mass- 



.,■_ ■ ,,,.w.,,,,,.,^ M »«^, Mn ^ M ^.^^ 



AGREEMENT OF THE SABINE HEIRS. 485 

achusetts Historical Society at a meeting thereof at the house 
of the President thereof at Brookline, and the Picture of the 
Testator in a circular frame, and a copy of each of his un- 
framed Pictures of himself, and finally including all his Man- 
uscript, all his Notes of historical reading, all his historical and 
biographical " Cuttings " from newspapers, meaning in fact to 
include all the Books and (save those of a family nature,) all 
the Papers, of which the said Testator died possessed. 

To have and to hold the same to the said New Hampshire 
Historical Society and its successors, from and after the decease 
of said Elizabeth M. D. Sabine, to their own use, forever. 

Upon the unalterable conditions following, namely : That 
the said New Hampshire Historical Society shall within three 
months after the decease of said Elizabeth M. D. Sabine take 
delivery of, and convey to their Rooms, all and singular the 
articles hereinbefore mentioned ; shall by its By-Laws or Library 
Regulations, prohibit, by what, it shall deem reasonable penalty, 
the taking away for use or otherwise, of any of the Books from 
its own proper or Library Rooms, and the word " Books " to 
be governed by the definition of Webster in the unabridged 
edition of 1S75 marked preceding such definition with the 
numeral "I"; shall within one year after the decease of said 
Elizabeth M. D. Sabine, appoint a Committee of its members 
to examine and arrange the other articles hereinbefore mentioned 
not thus defined by Webster, deemed worthy of preservation in 
book form, and cause them to be cheaply but strongly bound, 
according to their best judgment : and upon the further unalter- 
able condition that within one year after the decease of said 
Elizabeth M. D. Sabine, all the said Books, Pamphlets, Manu- 
scripts, Pictures and other articles hereinbefore mentioned shall 
be arranged in a single room, or in rooms adjacent, there ever 
after to remain, save the short separations consequent on 
removals or fires ; and that the said Collection shall always be 
known as " the Sabine Library" 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals 
this day of, 12 October, A. D. 1S7S. 

In presence of 

Abby Deering Sabine. (Seal). 

Matilda G. S. McLaren. (Seal). 



..,:^^.v*i>*^,^^^^^ 



^..^^nHuimMihruu^.M 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Acts and resolves of the legislature in 
favor of the N. H. Historical Society, 
459-463 : An act giving 5 copies of 
history of N. H. regiments, 460 ; I 
copy of index to state laws, 460; 1 
copy of Journals of Senate and 
House, 460 ; 1 copy of revised Public 
Statutes, 462 ; 50 copies of State 
Papers, 459 ; 2 copies of all printed 
town reports in the state, 462 ; 2 
copies of catalogues of all educa- 
tional institutions incorporated by 
the state, 463; appropriating S500 per 
annum to keep open library, 462; 
1 copy of the printed laws of each 
session, 462. 

Addresses and papers : Aldrich. Judge 
Edgar, "Our Northern Boundary: 
Provisional Government of the In- 
dian Stream Territory, etc.," 366; 
Ditto, Appendix, 397; Bartlett, Rev. 
Samuel C, D. D., LL. D., " Dr. John 
Wheelock," 408 ; Bell, Hon. John J., 
"Municipal Institutions," 1S2, "The 
Study of History," 321; Corning, Hon. 
Charles R., " Hannah Dustan," 122 ; 
Cross, Rev. Allen E., " Ratification of 
U. S. Constitution"— Poem, 37; East- 
man, Hon. Samuel C, "Tendencies 
Towards Socialism," 223 ; Had ley, 
Hon. Amos, " History of Hillsbor- 
ough," 333, " History of Franklin," 
402 ; Hammond, Mr. Isaac W\, " New- 
Hampshire under the Federal Con- 
stitution, " 107; Hazen, Rev. Henry 
A., D. D., " New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont : A Historical Study," 265; Jor- 
dan, Chester B., "Col. Joseph Whip- 
ple," 289 ; Patterson, Hon. James VV., 
LL. D., "The Ratification of the 
U. S. Constitution," 13 ; Sargent, 
Harry G., " The Bradley Massacre," 
152 ; Slafter, Rev. Edmund F., D. D., 
"The Discovery of America," 65; 
Stearns, Hon. Ezra S. ( "The Offering 
of Lunenburg, Mass., to Cheshire 
County," 92; Waite, Maj. Otis F. R., 



" The Early History of Claremont," 
234. 

Agreement of Lorenzo Sabine's heirs 
to carry into effect the codicil to his 
last will, 484. 

Agreement with Edward H. Rollins to 
purchase Merrimack County Bank 
building for Historical Society, 478. 

Ancestry of Charles H. Bell, 209. 

Assessment of annual tax, 11, 90, 180, 
220, 264, 288, 361. 

Bradley Massacre, 152-174 : Monument, 
152 ; seven 3'ears' war in Europe, 153 ; 
suspension of hostilities, 153 : origin 
of the war, 154 ; N. H. expedition to 
Lonisburg, 155; Capt. Eastman's 
company, 156 ; Canada expedition, 
156 ; Indian ravages, 157 ; attack at 
Rochester, 158 ; Rumford exempt, 
158; first settlers of Penacook, 159; 
location of first meeting-house, 159 ; 
Walker's garrison built, 159 ; Rum- 
ford alarmed and seeks aid, 160 ; two 
companies raised. 161 ; how garrisons 
were built, 161 ; garrisons appointed 
by committee, 162 ; location, 162-165 ; 
propriety of durable monuments, 165 ; 
settlement of 1C0 houses, 165; Indian 
preparations to attack Runiford, 166 ; 
light near site of monument, 167: 
journal of Abner Clough, 167-168; 
Reuben Abbott's account, 169-170 ; the 
Eastmans and Brad leys, 171: William 
Stickney's captivity, and Alexander 
Robert's escape, l?2 ; legislative res- 
olution to reward, 173 ; erection of 
monument, 173 ; changes since, 174. 

Centennial of U. S. constitution : ban- 
quet, 39 ; letter of George Washing- 
ton, 47 ; letters of regret, Blair, 
Henry W., 49 ; Coxe, Brinton. 59 ; 
Darling, C. W., 50; Dean, John W., 
58; Field, Walbridge A., 57; Jones, 
J. Wyman, 52 ; Kasson, John A., 52 ; 
King, John A., 59 ; Pickard, Joseph 
L. , 53 ; Pingree, Samuel E., 56 ; Pres- 
ton, Will. A., 57; Reeve, C. H., 55; 



4 38 



GENERAL INDEX. 



responses to toasts, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46 ; 
toasts, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46. 

Communications : Baker, Henry M., 
photo-lithograph copy of order of 
Gen. John A. Dix, 263 ; topograph- 
ical maps, 358 ; Eastman, Samuel C, 
Plumer's Memoirs, 364. 

Constitution of U. S., Ratification of, 
12-37 : N. H. ninth state to ratify, 13 ; 
a crime for colonists to manufacture, 
sell, or buy, save in British markets, 
15 ; their laws annulled, 15 ; asserted 
the right not to be taxed without 
their consent, 15 ; congress recom- 
mends commercial non-intercourse, 
16 ; each colony given one vote, IT : 
Gen. Washington elected command- 
er-in-chief of colonial forces, 17 ; a 
plan of civil government prepared 
and sent out to the states for accept- 
ance, 19 ; articles of confederation 
ratified, 19 ; confronting difficulties, 
21 ; movement to revise articles of 
confederation, 22; Washington 
elected president, 23 ; two drafts of 
federal government presented, 24 ; 
amendments introduced, 25: N. H. 
elects delegates to constitutional 
convention, 27 ; generosity of Lang- 
don, 28; the constitution finally 
drafted, 29 ; a compromise of antago- 
nistic views, 30 ; states ratifying, 31 ; 
Madison's letter to Washington, 32 ; 
N. H. consummates the ratification, 
34 ; when known great rejoicing, 35. 

Claremont, Early History of, 234-255 : 
First settlement in 1762, 234 ; condi- 
tions of grant, 234 ; first meeting of 
grantees, 235 ; first mills built, 236 ; 
first couple married, 236 ; first settled 
minister, 237 ; second, 238 ; first 
mass, 239 ; Congregationalist society 
formed, 239 ; Baptist, Methodist, and 
Universalist, 240 : Tousa, 241 ; Clare- 
mont in Battle of Bennington, 242 ; 
no favor shown Tories, 242 ; Tory 
Hole, 243; suspected parties, 244; 
selectmen's canvass, 245; declara- 
tion of sentiments, 246 : surrendering 
fire-arms, 247 ; Claremont in the Re- 
bellion, 24S ; governor's reservation, 
249 ; distinguished men, 250-251 ; 
Claremont's present equipment, 254. 

Deeds of Bradley Monument lot: Ab- 
ner Colby to Richard Bradley, 464 ; 
Richard Bradley to N. H. Hist. So- 
ciety, 466 ; Merrimack Co. Bank to 



Nathaniel Bouton, 468 ; Mrs. Emily 
Chadwiek, 471 ; Edward H. Rollins, 
473; Edward H. Rollins to N. H. 
Historical Society, 476. 

Discovery of America, 65-83; Green- 
land discovered, 66 ; other discov- 
eries, 67, 68; death of Thorvard, 69; 
another exploring expedition, 70 ; 
ancient writings of the discovery of 
America, 71 ; Icelandic parchments, 
72; written before Columbus' time, 73; 
Newfoundland first discovered, 75; 
description, 76, 77 ; changes since, 77 ; 
no monuments found, 79 ; skeleton in 
armor, 80 ; Northmen's residence in 
America temporary, 82. 

Dustan, Hannah, 122-151 : Louis XIV 
at Versailles, 123 ; fitting out expedi- 
tions to Canada, 125 ; plan of cam- 
paign, 128 ; the Five Nations, 127 ; 
essentially democratic, 129; greedy 
of land, 130 ; alliance of Iroquois with 
the EngUsh, 130 ; change of battle- 
ground, 131 ; treaty of the Abenakis 
and English, 132; the French alarmed, 
132 ; Bigot and Thury, 133 ; breaches 
of English faith, 134 ; Indian charac- 
teristics, 135 ; condition of N. H. peo- 
ple, 136 ; garrisons, 137 ; houses 
about Haverhill, Mass., constructed 
for shelter and defence, 138 ; methods 
of Indian attack, 140 ; captures at 
Haverhill, 141 ; among them Hannah 
Dustan and nurse, 141 ; killing cap- 
tors, 143 ; story worthy of credence, 
146 : canoe theory of escape unten- 
able, 147; deposition of Hannah 
Bradley, 149 ; reward voted, 151 ; 
Mrs. Dustan's subsequent history 
vague, 151. 

Expenses of Dr. Bouton in soliciting 
subscriptions for library building, 
483. 

Field-day, ISS9, 121 ; 1890, 198 ; 1891, 233 ; 
1892, 278 ; 1893, 332 ; 1894, 400. 

Franklin, History of, 402-104 : Fortu- 
nate in situation, 402 ; formed from 
four townships, 402-403 ; first settle- 
ment in Salisbury, 403 : Indian attack, 
403 ; sharer of her mother's honors, 
404. 

Hillsborough, History of, 333-347 : Mas- 
sachusetts guarding her interests, 
334 ; vexed boundary question de- 
cided, 335; first settler in Hillsbor- 
ough, ;>35; Indian invasion and cap- 
ture, 336 ; additional settlers, 337 ; 



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GENERAL INDEX. 



489 



first town meeting, 338 ; first pastor, 
339 ; pastor's death, 340 ; successors, 
341 ; first physician and schoolmaster, 
341 ; Capt. Baldwin and company 
march to Bunker Hill, 343 ; Hillsbor- 
ough in the Rebellion, 343 ; eminent 
sons, 344-345 ; release of prisoners. 
345; source of Hillsborough's pros- 
perity, 347. 

History, Study of, 321-330: A means of 
larger experience, 322 ; examples, 
323 : the early history of N. H. un- 
written, 324 ; controversies not yet 
settled, 325; controversy with New 
York, 327 ; Indian Stream territory, 
327 ; Wheelwight deed, 328 ; N. H. 
constitution, 329 ; continuance in the 
study of N. H. history desired, 330. 

Indian Stream Territory, 366-397: 
Things to make a nation great, 366; 
Carthage and Rome, 367; boundary 
between Great Bri